Annotated BibliographySummary and Critique #1
Anna C. Baldry from the Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Italy, conducted a study to examine the disruptive behaviors in preadolescents who are directly and indirectly abused at home. The purpose of the study was to determine the independent impact of direct and indirect forms of violence at home. The independent variables are domestic violence and child abuse. The dependent variable is externalizing symptoms. The study was conducted with 532 students (49.7% boys, 50.3% girls) recruited from five different middle schools in Rome, Italy and its surrounding areas. Their ages ranged from 9 to 15 years of age. In this study indirect exposure is defined as exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrated by either the mother or the father toward the parent. Direct exposure is defined as direct abuse towards the child from the mother or father, and it could be physical, psychological, or sexual in nature.
Results from this study revealed that exposure to domestic violence and direct parental abuse is a widespread experience. Externalizing behavior was measured with a 33-item subscale of the Italian version of the Original Behavioral Check List, Youth Self-Report Scale. Preadolescents’ exposure to parental violence was measured with a modified version of the Conflict Tactic Scale adapted for Italian youngsters by Baldry. To measure mother and father abuse against the child, participants had to answer four different questions for each parent. Externalizing problems were found to be significantly associated with parental abuse, indicating that children who are abused are likely to become aggressive or even involved in other defiant activities.
The strength of the study is the separation of the mother-to-father violence. One weakness related to this study is that it is a correlation study; therefore, it was not possible to draw any conclusions about casual relationships between risk factors and...