Culture Care Diversity and Universality
Biography of Madeleine Leininger
Madeleine Leininger’s theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality was developed in the 1960’s. The idea for this self-developed theory was constructed after Leininger recognized that nursing’s metaparadigm was missing two major components: care and culture (Leininger & McFarland, 2006). While working on a med-surg unit in the 1940’s, Leininger recognized many patients often reported that nursing care practices helped them get well, stay well, or adjust to another state of well-being ( Leininger & McFarland, 2006). In the 1950’s while working as a child psychiatric mental health nurse, Leininger realized the importance of culture in the care of children of different backgrounds (Leininger, 2001). From these experiences, Leininger reported thoughts of helplessness and culture shock due to her lack of knowledge of cultural factors that influenced nursing care. This led her to pursue doctorial studies in anthropology in the 1960’s. During this time, the theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality was developed.
Brief Examination of Theory
The general premise of this theory suggests that people of different cultures can define ways they experience and perceive nursing care and can also relate their experiences to their general health beliefs and practices (George, 2007). Leininger believed that people of different cultures can inform and direct professionals in such a manner to receive the kind of care they desire from others (Tomey & Alligood, 2006). The purpose of the theory was to discover human care diversities and universalities in relation to worldview, social structure, and other dimensions cited, and then to discover ways to provide culturally congruent care to people of different or similar cultures in order to maintain or regain their well being, health, or face...