Q(a): Explain in your own words what is meant by a 'model of abnormality'?
A: Models of abnormality each offers a different explanation for the origins of mental disorders. They are basically the conceptual models, each research and treatment adopted according to it.
(b): Describe models of abnormality. 
A: There are four type of models: Medical model (or Biological method), Psychodynamic model, Behavioral model and the Cognitive model.
Medical model (or Biological model) is a view of abnormality that sees mental disorders as being caused by abnormal physiological processes such as genetics, brain damage and chemical imbalance. Abnormality according to this model is seen as an illness or disease. They treat mental disorders with the help of chemotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy and psycho surgery.
According to Psychodynamic model, abnormal behavior is caused by underlying psychological forces of which the individuals is probably unaware. It focuses on unconscious mind primarily and according to Sigmund Freud, if a child does not successfully complete any of the psychosexual stages, it will cause abnormality. It is treated by talk therapies and test like the rorshack and free-word association.
The Behavioral model has a view that abnormal behavior are maladaptive, learned responses in the environment which can be replaced by more adapted behaviors. These disorders emerge due to classical conditioning, operant conditioning or social learning. It can be treated with positive and negative reinforcement such as token economy.
Lastly, the cognitive model has a view that stresses the role of cognitive problems such as illogical or irrational thought processes in abnormal functioning. According to Beck, talk therapies that restruct thoughts and according to Ellis, the Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy is a solution to abnormal behavior....