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Work & Stress
Vol. 22, No. 3, JulyÁSeptember 2008, 224Á241

The Job Demands-Resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout,
depression, commitment, and work engagement
Jari J. Hakanena*, Wilmar B. Schaufelib and Kirsi Aholaa
a

Centre of Expertise for Work Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland;
Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, and Research Institute of Psychology & Health,
University of Utrecht, The Netherlands

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b

By using a full panel design in a representative sample of Finnish dentists (N 02555), the present study
aimed to test longitudinally the motivational and health impairment processes as proposed in the Job
Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. The second aim was to investigate whether home resources and
home demands have an additional influence on both processes over time. The hypotheses were tested
with cross-lagged analyses based on two waves over a 3-year period. The results supported both the
motivational process and the health impairment process. Job resources influenced future work
engagement, which, in turn, predicted organizational commitment, whereas job demands predicted
burnout over time, which, in turn, predicted future depression. In addition, job resources had a weak
negative impact on burnout. Home demands and home resources did not influence the motivational or
health impairment process over time. The results support the central role of work characteristics for
health and well-being. By integrating both human thriving and ill-health in the same model, the JD-R
model may help to bridge the gap between ‘‘negative’’ and ‘‘positive’’ psychology.
Keywords: Job Demands-Resources model; work engagement; burnout; well-being; depression;
organizational commitment; cross-lagged panel analysis; positive psychology; dentists

Introduction
The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model is a...

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