Hrm TrainingMSc Human Resource Management
Modules : Training and Development
“ Informal Learning becomes Formal in Workplace ”
Learning in human life
Essentially, human life is all about learning. Learning is a natural process and people continue learning throughout life, whether encouraged or not, whether formally taught or not, whether the outcomes are valued or not (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007). Learning is a process within the organisms which results in the ability to show changed performance that can be associated to experience rather than maturation (Ribeaux and Poppleton,1978 cited in Beardwell & Claydon, 2007). According to Wortman, Loftus, & Weaver (1999) learning refers to a relatively permanent change in observable behaviour potential that result from experience with the environment. Learning does not occur naturally, it involves active ‘mastery’ which is a process of internalisation, an operation which is initially represented an external activity begins to occur internally (Millar, 1995 cited in Rainbird, 2000).
Formal and Informal Learning
Learning processes can be achieved through a variety of ways, including formal and informal learning. Nowadays, the debates about formal and informal learning are still developed. Then, what formal learning and informal learning are? Formal learning is defined as learning that in general institutionally sponsored, classroom-based, and highly structured (Marsick & Watkins, 2001). Eraut (2000) points out the characteristics of formal learning, as follow: prescribed learning framework, presence of a designated teacher or trainer, organized learning event or package, the award of a qualification or credit, and the external specification of outcomes.
On the other hand, informal learning is kind of activity without the existence of curricular criteria in order to attain understanding, knowledge or skill (Livingstone, 2001). Informal learning happens without...