Individual Attitudes and Behavior

Individual Attitudes and Behavior

PERCEPTION
 Perception – is the process through which people receive, organize, and interpret information from the environment.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS
 Psychological Contract – is the set of individual expectations about the employment relationship.
PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTION
 Attribution - is the process of explaining events.
 Attribution Error – occurs when observers blame another person’s performance failures more on internal factors relating to the individual than on external factors relating to the environment.
 Self-serving bias – explains personal success by internal causes and personal failures b y external causes.
                                                                  Offers Contributions


Offers Inducements
Figure 15.1 Components in the psychological contract.

PERCEPTUAL TENDENCIES AND DISTORTIONS
 Stereotype – is when attributes commonly associated with a group are assigned to an individual.
 Halo effects – occurs when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation.
 Selective Perception – is the tendency to define problems from one’s own point of view.
 Projection – is the assignment of personal attributes to other individuals.
 Impression Management – is the systematic attempt to influence how others perceive us.

PERSONALITY
 Personality – is the profile of characteristics making a person unique from others.
BIG FIVE MODEL
 Extraversion – is being outgoing, sociable, and assertive.
 Agreeableness – is being good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.
 Conscientiousness – is being responsible, dependable, and careful.
 Emotional Stability – is being relaxed, secure, and unworried.
 Openness to experience – is being curious, receptive to new ideas, and imaginative.

ADDITIONAL PERSONALITY FACTORS
 Locus of control – is the extent to which one believes that what happens is within one’s control.
 Authoritarianism – is the degree to which a person tends to...

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