One of the first schools of management, the classical management theory, developed during the Industrial Revolution when new problems related to the factory system began to appear. Managers were unsure of how to train employees. A large amount of the non-English speaking immigrants or dealing with increased labor dissatisfaction caused managers to test solutions. According to Plunkett, Attner & Allen (2008) “The classical management focused on finding the “one best way” to perform and manage tasks” (p.38). This school of thought is made up of two branches: classical scientific and classical administrative.
The scientific branch arose because of the need to increase efficiency and productivity. The emphasis was on trying to find the best way to get the most work done by examining how the work process was actually accomplished and by paying close attention to the skills of the workforce. The classical scientific school got its roots to several contributors, including Frederick Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.
Whereas scientific management focused on the productivity of the certain individuals, the classical administrative approach emphasizes on the total organization. The emphasis is on the development of managerial principles rather than work methods. Contributors to this school of thought include: Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester I. Barnard.
During World War II, mathematicians, physicists, and others joined together to solve military problems. The quantitative school of management is a result of the research conducted during World War II. The quantitative approach to management uses quantitative techniques, such as statistics, information models, and computer simulations, to improve decision making. This schooling consists of several branches: The management science school emerged to treat the problems associated...