Pricing to Market
Pricing to MarketIntroduction
At present, with the increasing process of globalization, the world is integrated as a huge market. International trade is becoming increasingly important between countries. Therefore, exchange rate are now of great concern, people care about its ups and downs, and its implications, especially, to what extent will the exchange rate change influence the price of imported or exported goods. It is important to introduce the idea of PTM to understand this question. The article will first introduce the concept of pricing to market, and then introduce the implications of pricing to market for purchasing power parity. Finally, I will give the conclusion.
Review of PTM
PTM is considered to be a phenomenon, and this happens in international trade between countries. When the market is in division and there is no “hot money”, exporters could set different prices according to the places importing from them; they could choose either producer currency pricing or local currency pricing. When producer currency is used, devaluation reduces export price of local commodities, change in exchange rate has conducting effect to price, therefore guarantees the effectiveness of one price law and purchasing power parity; however when local currency pricing is chosen, devaluations of producer currency does not affect export price of commodities since they are priced in local currency. International trade cost is essential in pricing to market.
Atkeson and A.Burstein(2008) stated that without international trade costs, even in the presence of variable markups that lead to incomplete pass-through, we have no pricing-to-market. Hence, imperfect competition with variable markups is necessary, but not sufficient, for pricing-to-market.
It is widely believed that PTM does not apply to all categories of goods, that it , the extent of Pricing to market varies in different goods trade. Krugman.P(1987) stated that:” PTM is not universal, pricing to market seems to be...