# Stat

### Stat

a) Set: A Set is any well defined collection of distinct objects.E.g C = {4, 2, 1, 3} and D = {blue, white, red}are sets of natural numbers and set of colors respectively.

b) Element of Set: A number, letter, item or any other object contained in a Set is called Element of a Set. In a) above, elements of Set C are 1,2,3 and 4.

c) Order of a Set: are special binary relations. Suppose that P is a set and that ≤ is a relation on P, Then ≤ is a partial order if it is reflexive, antisymmetric and transitive.

d) Null Set: is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero. Common notations for the empty set include "{}", " ", and " ".

e) Finite Set: a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements. For example,

is a finite set with five elements. The number of elements of a finite set is a natural number (non-negative integer),and is called the cardinality of the set. A set that is not finite is called infinite. For example, the set of all positive integers is infinite:

f) Proper Subset: A proper subset is a grouping of numbers in which all the numbers for two quantities have the same numbers, but are not equal.

g) Data: are values of qualitative or quantitative variables belonging to a set of items.

h) Statistics: Statistics is a branch of mathematics that deals with the collection, organization and interpretation of data.

i) Probability: is a measure or estimation of how likely it is that something will happen or that a statement is true. Probabilities are given a value between 0 (0% chance or will not happen) and 1 (100% chance or will happen). The higher the degree of probability, the more likely the event is to happen, or, in a longer series of samples, the greater the number of times such event is expected to happen.

j) Event: is a set of outcomes to which a probability is assigned.

k) Mutually Exclusive Events: Two events are 'mutually exclusive' if they cannot...