Premium Essay

1-2. Identify and Describe the Five Environmental Differences Between Governments and for-Profit Business Enterprises as Identified in the Governmental Accounting Standards Board’s Why Governmental Accounting and

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sara1214tigers
Words 1140
Pages 5
ACC 430 Governmental Accounting (Online)
Chapter 1 Questions

1-2. Identify and describe the five environmental differences between governments and for-profit business enterprises as identified in the Governmental Accounting Standards Board’s Why Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting Is-and Should be-Different.

1. Organizational Purposes-A governments organizational purpose is to provide public services for the well-being of citizens regardless of profit. Whereas a for-profit business’s organizational purpose is to generate a profit for the owner while providing services to the public.

2. Sources of Revenues-A for-profit business’s source of revenue is its net income (total revenues (sales)-total expenses). A government’s source of revenue is mainly from taxes.

3. Potential for Longevity-State and local governments rarely go out of business, because they are given the ability to tax. For this reason, governments view accounting operations on a long-term basis instead of short-term. Governments focus on maintaining services and how to meet future demands. 4. Relationship with Stakeholders-Since a Governments main source of revenue is taxes, which are paid by citizens; they are required to account for these public funds. Whereas a business can use its resources as it chooses.

5. Role of Budget-Business’s prepare a budget for planning and control purposes and are normally not provided to creditors or investors. Governments on the other hand, prepare a budget which is expressed as a public policy, which prevents spending outside their budgetary authority.

1-3. Identify and briefly describe the three organizations that set standards for state and local governments, the federal government, and nongovernmental not-for-profit organizations.

1. FASAB-(Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board) Provides accounting and...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Homework Week 1 Accounting

...1-2. Identify and describe the five environmental differences between governments and for-profit business enterprises as identified in the Governmental Accounting Standards Board's Why Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting Is—and Should Be—Different. The five environmental differences include mission/purpose, source of revenue, potential longevity, relationship with stakeholders, and role of budget. The mission/purpose is defined by the goals of the organization. The purpose of a commercial business is to make money. A non-profit organization’s purpose is to provide a service, without compensation from the people being served. The source of revenue comes from net income, which comes from a sale of goods or services in the private sector or in the public sector comes from tax dollars or donations. The longevity potential for a private business depends on the ability to generate a profit. In contrast a non-profit relies upon tax dollars or donations. The stakeholders of a private corporation are the owners/stockholder/investors. The stakeholders of a public organization are the taxpayers and general public being served. The budget in the private sector is flexible, depending on revenues and directors. The budget within a public organization is typically not flexible and has to be followed exactly. 1-3. Identify and briefly describe the three organizations that set standards for state and local governments, the federal government, and......

Words: 984 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Chapter 1 Homework

...1–2 Identify and describe the five environmental differences between govern- ments and for-profit business enterprises as identified in the Governmental Accounting Standards Board’s Why Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting Is—and Should Be—Different. 1–3 Identify and briefly describe the three organizations that set standards for state and local governments, the federal government, and nongovernmental not- for-profit organizations. 1–4 What is the definition of a government as agreed upon by the FASB and GASB? 1–5 Describe the “hierarchy of GAAP” for state and local governments, the federal government, and nongovernmental not-for-profit organizations. 1–6 Accounting and financial reporting for state and local governments use, in different places, either the economic resources measurement focus and the accrual basis of accounting or the current financial resources measurement focus and the modified accrual basis of accounting. Discuss the differences in measurement focus and basis of accounting related to ( a ) the conceptual differences, ( b ) differences in revenue recognition, ( c ) differences in expense/ expenditure recognition, ( d ) differences in recognition of fixed assets, and ( e ) differences in the recording of long-term debt. 1–7 Distinguish between private and public sector organization. 1–8 GASB considers budgetary accounting and reporting to be important. List the principles outlined by GASB related......

Words: 424 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Accounting 501

...CHAPTER 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE Topics 1. 2. 3. Subject matter of accounting. Environment of accounting. Role of principles, objectives, standards, and accounting theory. Historical development of accounting standards. Authoritative pronouncements and standards-setting bodies. Questions 1 2, 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 8 Cases 1 3, 4 2, 4 4. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 5, 17 5. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 28 29 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16 6. 7. 8. Role of pressure groups. International accounting. Ethical issues. 9, 18, 19 15 14 1-1 ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE Item C1-1 C1-2 C1-3 C1-4 C1-5 C1-6 C1-7 C1-8 C1-9 C1-10 C1-11 C1-12 C1-13 C1-14 C1-15 C1-16 C1-17 C1-18 C1-19 Description Financial accounting. Objectives of financial reporting. Accounting numbers and the environment. Need for accounting standards. AICPA’s role in standards setting. FASB role in standards setting. Government role in standards setting. Meaning of generally accepted accounting principles. Politicalization of standards setting. Models for setting accounting standards. Standards-setting terminology. Accounting organizations and documents issued. Accounting pronouncements. Issues involving standards setting. Securities and Exchange Commission. Standards-setting process. History of standards-setting organizations. Economic Consequences. Standards-setting process, economic consequences. Level of......

Words: 11425 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Taxation

...Journal of Business Cases and Applications The state of accounting in Egypt: a case Khaled Dahawy The American University in Cairo Nermeen F. Shehata Cairo University Tad Ransopher Georgia State University Abstract Egypt, one of the largest Middle East economies, is beginning its transition to a market economy. As a developing nation, Egypt has witnessed several changes in its accounting system during last two decades. This case provides an analysis of the Egyptian accounting system with emphasis on the development of the Egyptian Accounting Standards. In addition, this case makes recommendations for the reformation of the Egyptian accounting system. Keywords: Egypt, International accounting standards, Egyptian accounting standards, Egyptian accounting system, Privatization, Culture The state of accounting, Page 1 Journal of Business Cases and Applications 1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this case is twofold. The first goal is to present an analysis of the development of the Egyptian accounting system. The second goal is to provide several recommendations to facilitate the Egyptian accounting reformation. Once accounting reformation occurs, Egyptian companies can prepare financial reports that will be of greater benefit than those at present. To Egyptian companies the result will be an increase in foreign investment and funds raised from external sources. With these goals as the objective, Egyptians need to comprehend successful accounting......

Words: 5622 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Cima

...Qualification structure and syllabus CIMA Chartered Management Accounting Qualification 2010 December 2008 Contents CIMA now designs its qualifications in what we believe to be a unique way. Based on rigorous international primary research with all of our key stakeholders and involving the participation of over 6,000 individuals and organisations – members, students, employers (both existing and potential), CIMA tuition partners, universities and our examiner and marker team – we have designed a professional finance training and development solution that is second to none. I commend this revised CIMA Professional Qualification to you. It will be examined for the first time in 2010, so there is plenty of time to absorb the exciting changes contained in the pages that follow. A qualification focused on the future – fit for purpose, relevant and unique I am honoured to introduce the new 2010 Chartered Management Accounting Qualification to all of our stakeholders. With seismic shifts occurring in the world’s economy, coupled with accelerating concerns about the sustainability of our planet, never before has there been a greater need for organisations to train and develop their people to manage the impact of these changes. With this revised qualification CIMA remains true to its long and proud history of providing finance professionals with a difference – Chartered Management Accountants – who combine management and finance skills in a unique way and who fully......

Words: 22006 - Pages: 89

Premium Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility

...Responsibility An Implementation Guide for Business Paul Hohnen, Author Jason Potts, Editor Corporate Social Responsibility An Implementation Guide for Business Paul Hohnen, Author Jason Potts, Editor ii Corporate Social Responsibility: An Implementation Guide for Business © 2007, International Institute for Sustainable Development The International Institute for Sustainable Development contributes to sustainable development by advancing policy recommendations on international trade and investment, economic policy, climate change and energy, measurement and assessment, and sustainable natural resources management. Through the Internet, we report on international negotiations and share knowledge gained through collaborative projects with global partners, resulting in more rigorous research, capacity building in developing countries and better dialogue between North and South. IISD’s vision is better living for all—sustainably; its mission is to champion innovation, enabling societies to live sustainably. IISD is registered as a charitable organization in Canada and has 501(c)(3) status in the United States. IISD receives core operating support from the Government of Canada, provided through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and Environment Canada; and from the Province of Manitoba. The Institute receives project funding from numerous governments inside and outside Canada, United Nations......

Words: 41123 - Pages: 165

Premium Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility

...Responsibility An Implementation Guide for Business Paul Hohnen, Author Jason Potts, Editor Corporate Social Responsibility An Implementation Guide for Business Paul Hohnen, Author Jason Potts, Editor ii Corporate Social Responsibility: An Implementation Guide for Business © 2007, International Institute for Sustainable Development The International Institute for Sustainable Development contributes to sustainable development by advancing policy recommendations on international trade and investment, economic policy, climate change and energy, measurement and assessment, and sustainable natural resources management. Through the Internet, we report on international negotiations and share knowledge gained through collaborative projects with global partners, resulting in more rigorous research, capacity building in developing countries and better dialogue between North and South. IISD’s vision is better living for all—sustainably; its mission is to champion innovation, enabling societies to live sustainably. IISD is registered as a charitable organization in Canada and has 501(c)(3) status in the United States. IISD receives core operating support from the Government of Canada, provided through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and Environment Canada; and from the Province of Manitoba. The Institute receives project funding from numerous governments inside and outside Canada, United Nations......

Words: 41123 - Pages: 165

Premium Essay

Corporate Governance Practice of British American Tobacco, Bangladesh Ltd

...07- 2012 Date Submitted by Name Nahid Rijwan Roll 3-09-17-033 CONTENTS Topic CHAPTER – 1 About British American Tobacco Bangladesh Business Principles of BAT, Bangladesh Standards of Business Conduct of BAT, Bangladesh: CHAPTER – 2 Corporate Governance Statement Board of Directors of BAT Bangladesh and Their Roles Relationship with Shareholders Accountability and Audit Compliance with Legal Requirements Employees Standards of Business Conduct CHAPTER -3 Corporate Social Responsibility Statement Probaho Socially Responsible Tobacco Production (SRTP) Deepto Afforestation CHAPTER - 4 Auditor’s Report to The Shareholders 16 12 12 13 14 15 6 7 9 10 10 10 11 1 2 3 Page CHAPTER - 5 Comparative Analysis of Bat Bangladesh’s Corporate Governance Compliance Status of compliance with the Provisions Denoted in the Code of Corporate Governance for Bangladesh, March 2004 Status of compliance with the Conditions Imposed by the Securities & Exchange Commission's Notification 21 19 18 REFERENCES 23 ANNEXURE - I 24 CHAPTER – 1 About British American Tobacco Bangladesh: British American Tobacco Bangladesh is one of the largest multinational companies in the country and has been operating for over 100 years. There are over 1,000 employees and take pride in being one of the preferred employers in Bangladesh. Responsibility to the shareholders, employees, business partners, customers and any other...

Words: 13287 - Pages: 54

Premium Essay

Marketing

...Qklhokn 1 Accounting Theory Paper-8 M. Com. (Final) Directorate of Distance Education Maharshi Dayanand University ROHTAK – 124 001 2 jktuhfr foKku Copyright © 2004, Maharshi Dayanand University, ROHTAK All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means; electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright holder. Maharshi Dayanand University ROHTAK – 124 001 Developed & Produced by EXCEL BOOKS PVT. LTD., A-45 Naraina, Phase 1, New Delhi-110028 Qklhokn 3 Contents Chapter 1 Accounting-An Intoduction Chapter 2 The History and Evolution of Accounting Thoughts 23 Chapter 3 Approaches to Accounting Theory 56 Chapter 4 Accounting Postulates, Concepts and Principles 88 Chapter 5 Income Concepts 107 Chapter 6 Revenues, Expenses, Gains and Losses 139 Chapter 7 Valuation of Assets 158 Chapter 8 Liabilities and Equity 177 Chapter 9 Depreciation Accounting and Policy 192 Chapter 10 Inventories and their Valuation 238 Chapter 11 Financial Reporting 277 Chapter 12 Specific Issues in Corporate Reporting 302 Chapter 13 Harmonization of Financial Reporting 323 Chapter 14 Accounting for Price Level Changes 339 Chapter 15 Human Resource Accounting 397 Chapter 16 Financial......

Words: 237072 - Pages: 949

Premium Essay

Mba- Iibm

...IIBM Institute of Business Management Corporate Governance www.iibmindia.in Chapter 1 Corporate Governance Corporate governance refers to the system by which corporations are directed and controlled. The governance structure specifies the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, crors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders) and specifies the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Governance provides the structure through which corporations set and pursue their objectives, while reflecting the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. Governance is a mechanism for monitoring the actions, policies and decisions of corporations. Governance involves the alignment of interests among the stakeholders. There has been renewed interest in the corporate governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, since the high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations during 2001–2002, most of which involved accounting fraud. Corporate scandals of various forms have maintained public and political interest in the regulation of corporate governance. In the U.S., these include Enron Corporation and MCI Inc. (formerly WorldCom). Their demise is associated with the U.S. federal government passing the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, intending to restore public confidence in......

Words: 33828 - Pages: 136

Premium Essay

Management Accounting

...Handbook of Management Accounting Research Volume 3 Edited by CHRISTOPHER S. CHAPMAN Imperial College London, UK ANTHONY G. HOPWOOD University of Oxford, UK MICHAEL D. SHIELDS Michigan State University, USA AMSTERDAM – BOSTON – HEIDELBERG – LONDON – NEW YORK – OXFORD PARIS – SAN DIEGO – SAN FRANCISCO – SINGAPORE – SYDNEY – TOKYO Elsevier The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK First edition 2009 Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone ( 44) (0) 1865 843830; fax ( 44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively visit the Science and Technology Books website at www.elsevierdirect.com/rights for further information Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record......

Words: 187223 - Pages: 749

Premium Essay

Accounting

...Accounting for non-accounting students eighth edition John R. Dyson ACCOUNTING FOR NON-ACCOUNTING STUDENTS Visit the Accounting for Non-Accounting Students, eighth edition Companion Website at www.pearsoned.co.uk/dyson to find valuable student learning material including: G G G G Multiple choice questions to help test your learning Extra question material Links to relevant sites on the web Glossary explaining key terms mentioned in the book We work with leading authors to develop the strongest educational materials in Accounting, bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning practice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, including Financial Times Prentice Hall, we craft high quality print and electronic publications which help readers to understand and apply their content, whether studying or at work. To find out more about the complete range of our publishing please visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk ACCOUNTING FOR NON-ACCOUNTING STUDENTS Eighth Edition John R. Dyson Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk First edition published in Great Britain under the Pitman Publishing imprint in 1987 Second edition 1991 Third edition 1994 Fourth edition published under the Financial Times Pitman Publishing imprint in 1997 Fifth edition 2001 Sixth edition 2004 Seventh edition 2007......

Words: 200572 - Pages: 803

Premium Essay

Corporate Governance

...Efficacy of Corporate Governance Contents 1. Definition of Corporate Governance 2. History of Corporate Governance – Pre and Post Liberalization 3. Objectives of Corporate Governance 4. Need of Corporate Governance 5. Framework of Corporate Governance 6. Principles of Corporate Governance in India and in the World 7. Merits and Demerits of Corporate Governance 8. Impact of Violation of Corporate Governance Laws 9. Case Study – a) Satyam b) Pfizer c) 3rd Company 10. Conclusion 11. Bibliography Definition "Corporate Governance is concerned with holding the balance between economic and social goals and between individual and communal goals. The corporate governance framework is there to encourage the efficient use of resources and equally to require accountability for the stewardship of those resources. The aim is to align as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, corporations and society"-(Sir Adrian Cadbury in 'Global Corporate Governance Forum', World Bank, 2000) Corporate governance is the relationship between corporate managers, directors and the providers of equity, people and institutions who save and invest their capital to earn a return. It ensures that the board of directors is accountable for the pursuit of corporate objectives and that the corporation itself conforms to the law and regulations. - International Chamber of Commerce Corporate Governance deals with laws, procedures, practices and implicit rules......

Words: 25453 - Pages: 102

Premium Essay

Accounting

...THE ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT Accounting is the most employable, sought-after major for 2009, according to entrylevel job site CollegeGrad.com. One reason for this interest is found in the statement by former Secretary of the Treasury and Economic Advisor to the President, Lawrence Summers. He noted that the single-most important innovation shaping our capital markets was the idea of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). We agree with Mr. Summers. Relevant and reliable financial information is a necessity for viable capital markets. Without it, our markets would be chaotic, and our standard of living would decrease. This textbook is the market leader in providing the tools needed to understand what GAAP is and how it is applied in practice. Mastery of this material will be invaluable to you in whatever field you select. Through many editions, this textbook has continued to reflect the constant changes taking place in the GAAP environment. This edition continues this tradition, which has become even more significant as the financial reporting environment is exploding with major change. Here are three areas of major importance that are now incorporated extensively into this edition of the text. A New Way of Looking at Generally Accepted Principles (GAAP) Learning GAAP used to be a daunting task, as it is comprised of many standards that vary in form, completeness, and structure. Fortunately, the profession has recently developed the Financial Accounting Standards......

Words: 115901 - Pages: 464

Free Essay

Core Concepts of Ais

...CORE CONCEPTS OF Accounting Information Systems Twelfth Edition Mark G. Simkin, Ph.D. Professor Department of Accounting and Information Systems University of Nevada Jacob M. Rose, Ph.D. Professor Department of Accounting and Finance University of New Hampshire Carolyn Strand Norman, Ph.D., CPA Professor Department of Accounting Virginia Commonwealth University JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. VICE PRESIDENT & PUBLISHER SENIOR ACQUISITIONS EDITOR PROJECT EDITOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR SENIOR EDITORIAL ASSISTANT PRODUCTION MANAGER PRODUCTION EDITOR MARKETING MANAGER CREATIVE DIRECTOR SENIOR DESIGNER PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES SENIOR ILLUSTRATION EDITOR PHOTO EDITOR MEDIA EDITOR COVER PHOTO George Hoffman Michael McDonald Brian Kamins Sarah Vernon Jacqueline Kepping Dorothy Sinclair Erin Bascom Karolina Zarychta Harry Nolan Wendy Lai Laserwords Maine Anna Melhorn Elle Wagner Greg Chaput Maciej Frolow/Brand X/Getty Images, Inc. This book was set in 10/12pt Garamond by Laserwords Private Limited, and printed and bound by RR Donnelley/Jefferson City. The cover was printed by RR Donnelley/Jefferson City. This book is printed on acid free paper. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Our company is built on a foundation of principles that include responsibility to......

Words: 241803 - Pages: 968