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13 Religions

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Core Assessment Project

Corinna Sullwold

|Religion Name |Cult of Pharaoh - Ancient |Mayan/Aztec - Ancient |
|Origins of the religion: |Between 10000 and 7000 BCE a group of ancient Egyptians settled in the Nile Valley. |Mayan religion was founded c.250AD which is the rise of the Mayan civilization |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |7000 – 3000 BCD the people became organized into separate villages. After 3000 BCE |(http://www.religionfacts.com/mayan-religion) |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |hieroglyphics were developed after the independent villages become united under one |Aztec formed between the 12th and 15th centuries AD. |
|Myths |kingdom. They were then ruled by one imperial Pharaoh. |(http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-timeline.html) |
| | |Religion for both cultures was a central part of their daily lives. They prayed and |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … | |made sacrifice to please their deities. |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
|Basic Beliefs: |This religion believes that the pharaoh is the embodiment of the sun god. He has no |They worshipped many deities. These gods could be in the form of animals, birds, fish|
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |need to consult with the god on any decisions as he is considered a god himself |and insects. The Mayans worshipped time and believed it to be divine. Time periods |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |(pharaoh-god). When pharaoh died, the Egyptians would mummify him. This would |were considered gods and priest astronomers viewed the cycles of time as having no |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |preserve him for his journey to the afterlife where he would appear before Osiris and|beginning or end. The jaguar is an important symbol for the Aztecs. It symbolizes |
| |42 divine jurors so that he could confess any sins or transgressions he committed in |fertility and personifies a force that is capable of good and evil. |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |life. The pharaoh would be buried with The Book of the Dead which is a collection of | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |hymns and prayers. If the pharaoh did not commit any misdeeds he pled by reciting a | |
| |confessional list. The ancient Egyptians believed the judgment was measured by an | |
| |ostrich feather (their symbol of truth) on one side and the individual’s heart on the| |
| |other. If if the heart was too heavy there was a hellish consequence; if balanced the| |
| |person will be allowed into the “world of the blessed”. | |
|Practices: |At the temples, the daily ritual would consist of priests cleansing themselves – |Witchcraft and sorcery were a large part of the Aztecs beliefs. Sorcerers were |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |purification. Upon this purification, they could perform daily ceremonies of worship|believed to have the power to transform into animals. They also participated in |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |to the deity. Upon opening the sealed door and allowing the god exit, the priests |human sacrifice. The priests would perform the extravagant ceremonies at the temple.|
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |began their rituals. Offerings of music and food to the god were a large part. |It wasn’t unusual for prisoners of war, children and slaves to be killed by beheading|
|devotional practices. |Different villages had their own respective festivals. Parades taking a statue of |or splitting the chest open to take out the heart for burning. This was the same with|
| |the god through the city or town. People reenacted portions of the god’s life. |the Mayans. In the Mayan sacrifices, the majority of the victims were males. |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |There were festivals for good harvest and fertility. The Egyptians also used | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |elements of magic in their religion. Anyone that would violate a tomb or break a | |
| |royal decree would be cursed. | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Temples were the central point for Egyptian culture, economics & religion. These |Worship and ceremonies were held at temples in both the Aztec and Mayan religions. |
|special places & temples, typical worship |were places of worship with statues of the deities in them. All of the necessary |These temples contained idols and statues of the deities. Both the Aztec and Mayan |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |people involved in the religious ceremonies were housed in the temple. These were |believers built giant idol like status at which they would perform religious rites |
|pictures in the chapter! |priest and assistants, scribes, readers. The pyramids were spaces where burial rites|and worship. |
| |were held. | |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … | | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |

|Religion Name |Mesopotamian - Ancient |Buddhism - Major |
|Origins of the religion: |Mesopotamians worshipped a variety of gods, goddesses, and deities. There were over |Siddhartha Gautama (c.563 - 483BCE), common name Buddha. A prediction by priests |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |two thousand deities in the Mesopotamian religion. Every village or town worshipped |from interpretation of a dream his mother had, Siddhartha would become a leader or |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |a supreme god and his or her lower level gods that they worshipped. Whenever a |universal teacher, a Buddha. This result was also confirmed with the fact that at |
|Myths |warring group took over the city, the new groups’ gods/deities would be in place of |the time of his birth, a Hindu Sage (Asita) noticed propitious markings on his body. |
| |the former villagers’ deities. |She then also came to the conclusion that he would be a universal teacher. At age |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … | |29, Siddhartha became very aware of the suffering of the people around him. This |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |started him off on his quest for enlightenment and truth. The catalyst to this quest|
| | |and beginning of his “religious crisis” known as the “four sights) (Nigosian, p. |
| | |175) |
|Basic Beliefs: |Mesopotamians believed that the natural forces of the universe (river flow, farms, |The Buddhist do not believe in a single God who created all. They also do not |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |births, etc.) were laws put down by the gods and goddesses they felt needed to be |believe that people have their own individual souls. |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |worshipped. The ruler of the city was the spokesperson for the deity. It is through|There are many volumes of Buddhist scriptures. The basic writings called the |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |this person that decrees were issued. They also believed in immortality as told in |“Tripitaka”. (Nigosian, p. 186) Tripitaka as translated means the “Three Baskets”. |
| |the story of Gilgamesh. “Gilgamesh, whither runnest thou? The life which though |(Nigosian, p. 186) These are referred to as baskets as they are the collections of |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |sleekest thou wilt not find. (For) when the gods created mankind, they allotted death|the disciplines. The disciplines are the Vinayana Pitaka – the rules for the order; |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |to mankind; (but) life they retained in their keeping.” (Nigosian, p.47) |the Sutta Pitaka the dialog between student and teacher on Buddhist teachings and the|
| | |Abhidhamma Pitaka –theoretical and philosophical instruction. |
|Practices: |Mesopotamians beliefs centered the occult. As the gods/deities protected the humans |During the rainy seasons, annually Buddha’s followers would gather for a retreat. |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |and provided materials for living; functions of the occult were created for humans to|These retreats turned into monastic settlements. As time went on, these |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |protect the gods from demons. Religious officials would be categorized by the type of|settlements turned into large cleric orders or monasteries. The faithful Buddhist |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |functional sorcery they performed. Functions such as magic, sorcery and divination. |missionaries left the monasteries to spread the faith in places like China, Japan and|
|devotional practices. |Sacrificial animal livers were used for the divination. Astronomy was also used. It|Tibet. In some orders, the Buddhist monks practiced celibacy and poverty. They |
| |was believed that the alignment of the stars could predict impending omens. |would sometimes beg – not to receive anything but to teach humility. There are three|
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |Observatories were constructed on temple tops. Oracles practiced divination. |main festivals in Buddhism. They are Hanamatsuri/Vesak (festival of the flower) |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |Oracles are priests/priestesses that the gods speak through. |which celebrates the birth of Buddha on April 8th; Bodhi Day – which commemorates the|
| |There were two main festivals in this religion: Fixed feasts of the New Year and the|enlightenment of Buddha at the foot of the Bodhi Tree on December 8th; and Nirvana |
| |new moon and the movable feasts dedicated to particular deities and special |Day which is the commemoration of Buddha’s death on February 15. |
| |occasions. | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Religious activity surrounds the city temples and sacred courtyards. These temples, |The sacred temples such as the temple of the Sacred Tooth. (Nigosian, p. 193) Temples|
|special places & temples, typical worship |ziggurats were where the religious ceremonies, alters, images of the deities and |are the places where the priests would hold ceremonies and people would go to |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |places of worship to the gods. They also housed the priests, store rooms and a |worship. Another temple, the Wat Benchamabopit Temple (aka the Marble Temple) is |
|pictures in the chapter! |variety of other multi-purpose rooms. These temples were built to honor the deities |located in Bangkok, Thailand. In this temple, worshippers pay respect to a golden |
| |and so that prosperity would follow. The ziggurat was an integral part of the |image of Buddha. In the beginning of each time of worship, there is a recital of a |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … |Mesopotamian religion. |prayer which is a recital of homage to Buddha. Following this, there is a reading of|
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |the “Three Refugees” (Nigosian, p. 196) This prayer is spoken many times during the |
| | |day if the person is a devout Buddhist. |

|Religion Name |Islam – Major |Hinduism - Major |
|Origins of the religion: |The Islam religion really came about due to the strict monotheistic instruction and |Hinduism has a lot of teachers of the faith, but no identifiable founder. There is |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |teaching by the Prophet Mohammed. The timing of the founding of Islam is dependent |evidence that this has been practiced since 3000 BCE. (Nigosian, p. 133) The people |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |upon the perspective that is taken. It is said that Islam was founded in the sixth |of the Hindu faith believe that the religious leader is a “divine manifestation.” |
|Myths |century CE. From the Orthodox Muslim perspective, Islam begins at the same time that |(Nigosian, p. 133). |
| |God (Allah) created the world and the first man. This can be likened to the beliefs | |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … |in Judaism. | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |
|Basic Beliefs: |The sacred text for the Islamic religion is the Qur’an (meaning recitation) |The general attitude of this religion is that “truth or ultimate reality are one.” |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |(Nigosian, p. 439). The Qur’an is a written compilation of the prophecies Muhammad |(Nigosian, p.135) This is to say that truth is eternal. The Hindus also believe |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |received from God. There are four other texts that are considered holy books. These|that the individual soul is immortal. The concept of “Brahman” is everything in the |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |books are not a part of the Qur’an at all. These texts are The Scrolls; The Torah; |universe from animals to fish to gods and goddesses. (Nigosian, p. 134) Brahman is |
| |The Psalms; and The Gospels. (Nigosian, p.443) |at the highest level of the Hindu caste. There are two classes of text that the |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … | |Hindus identify with. The shruti and smriti. Shruti is the text of the eternal |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |sacred knowlwedge. Smriti is more like the traditions that are passed down from |
| | |generation to generation. |
|Practices: |Muslims are tasked to take on duties known as the Five Pillars. These Pillars are |There are many sacred occasions/holy days designated for festive observances in |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |declaration of faith, prayer (five times per day), almsgiving (visible declaration of|Hinduism. Although many are seasonal, there are many that are held to observe and |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |faith), fasting (during the month of Ramadan) and pilgrimage (to the holy shrine of |commemorate special occasions such has the birth of a child and even the victory of a|
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |Ka’ba). There was a sixth pillar added later on which is holy war or jihad. This |god or other recognized Hindu hero. One of the more popular Hindu festivals which is|
|devotional practices. |Jihad is to be taken on by true believers of Islam to “eradicate or neutralize |celebrated in either October or November, to commemorate New Year is Divali, also |
| |infidels, disbelievers, and idolaters….” (Nigosian, p. 455) Muslims are bound by |known as Dipavali which means “Cluster of Lights”. In northern India, this |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |their religious duties. Rites of passage include four of the most significant events|celebration lasts four days, while in other parts of the country, Divali can last |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |which are birth, circumcision, marriage and death. Muharram which occurs the first |five. Along with Divali/Dipavali and Holi/Hutashimi, festivals associated with |
| |month of the Islamic year begins with a ten-day observance of mourning among the |deities and religious leaders are just as important to the Hindu people. |
| |Shi’a sect. (Nigosian, p.459) | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Mecca is the holy city for Islam. The Dome of the Rock mosque is located there. |Temples are the main spaces for ceremonies and religious rites. The temple is |
|special places & temples, typical worship |Mosques are generally the places that Muslims perform their prayers. Rite and |representative of the god’s home on earth. It is also very common for the Hindus to |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |ceremonies are also performed in mosques. On Fridays at noon, Muslims join together |worship at home. The Hindus build small size shrines where they perform their |
|pictures in the chapter! |in their mosques for prayer. |prayers.. |
| | | |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … | | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |

|Religion Name |Judaism - Major |Dinka Religion - Minor |
|Origins of the religion: |Judaism originated sometime during the second millennium BCE. (Nigosian, p.318) The |There were 3 religions that had impact in Africa prior to 1400s. Christianity |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |Jewish people believe themselves to be direct descendants of Abraham. Like Hinduism, |(Egypt, Ethiopia), Judaism (scattered communities across Africa) & Islam (predominant|
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |Judaism does not have a person that can be identified as the found of the religion. |in North Africa. The result of Islam on the Africans caused many kingdoms to evolve.|
|Myths | |8th to 11th centuries, Ghana. The successor to the Ghana, the Mali – had control of |
| | |trade up until the 1500’s. The Mali were overthrown by the Songhay. One of the |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … | |creation myths says that Nhialic was the creator for the first humans but then put |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |them in a world of darkness. Aruu (Dawn) who was one of the ancestors asked Nhialic |
| | |to “open the world so the people could see” (Nigosian, p.99) but Nhialic refused. |
| | |Aruu then split the world in two with an ax “dividing the sky and the earth to allow|
| | |light…”) (Nigosian, p.99) |
|Basic Beliefs: |The Jews believe that Abraham is their ancestral father who was given the “divine |In the Dinka religion, they believe in “superhuman forces in the world”. (Nigosian, |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |command” as well believing that Moses was the recipient of the command from God and |p.98) called Jok or Nhialic. These forces are believed to impact human lives either |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |passed it down to Abraham. (Nigosian, p. 318) The Torah which means “Instruction or |for good or for bad. The Dinka believe that their very first ancestor was one of |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |Guidance” (Nigosian, p. 319) was the message that was divined to Moses and passed on |these deities. They also believe that every individual has their own ghost, spirit |
| |to Abraham to deliver to the Jewish people. “The Covenant” was the pact that was |or shadow called a “tiep”. |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |made between God and the Jewish people. (Nigosian, p. 322) The story goes that Moses| |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |left the people at the bottom of Mount Sinai to talk with God. When he returned, he | |
| |brought with him the Ten Commandments. | |
|Practices: |The Covenant as part of the teachings in the Jewish religion focus on the history of |The tiep (shadow; ghost; spirit) of an individual at burial hovers or lingers close |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |creation and the Torah. This covenant binds the Jews to God in that they will |to the body at the place of burial. Attendants of the burial of a loved one or |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |“experience God’s nearness” (Nigosian, p. 339) as they are God’s “chosen people.” |family member offer sacrifices to the tiep. This is done as a protection to the |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |(Nigosian, p. 339) In the scripture of Judaism, it states: “Now therefore, if you |surviving members against any unfriendliness by the lingering tiep. Animal |
|devotional practices. |will obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my own possession among all |sacrifices play a major role in the Dinka ceremonies. These sacrifices are offered |
| |peoples. (From Exodus 19:5) (Nigosian, p. 340) Jewish observances include rites of |both to the deities, but to the dead as well. |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |passage. One of the most widely known is the rite of circumcision of male children, | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |eight days after they are born. There is also the Bar Mitzva – which is a | |
| |celebration of the thirteenth birthday of male children. The most important day of | |
| |observance for the Jewish people is the Sabbath. The Sabbath begins on Friday | |
| |evening and continues until dusk on Saturday. Women of the homes will light candles | |
| |while the men say prayers and benedictions. There are also the religious festivals | |
| |such as Sukkot – the feast of the tabernacles. This occurs five days after Yom | |
| |Kippur. | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |The Wailing Wall in Jerusalem is a sacred place where celebrations such as the Bar |Small shrines are built for the tieps of important people to reside in. These are |
|special places & temples, typical worship |Mitzvah are held. Also, when the Orthodox Jewish people are praying at the Wailing |fashioned from clay and look like large mounds. There are other spaces or |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |Wall, the sexes must be separated. Canaan, which is across the river Jordan, is |sanctuaries that are built to shelter the divine powers. These are built like “small|
|pictures in the chapter! |considered the Jewish promised land. Temples are also places where religious |cattle barns” (Nigosian, p. 99) These small barns also are a storage space for sacred|
| |ceremonies and rites are held. |spears and other items used in the rituals. The spears are held by spear masters, on|
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … | |which the “vitality and well-being” of the tribe depends. This religion also |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |considers there to be sacred areas around their camps that possess the presence of |
| | |the spirits. So nature in special areas is sacred whether it be among tree groves, |
| | |lakes or rocky mounds (Nigosian, p. 109, 119) . Also consider Powwows for the |
| | |Indians (Nigosian, p. 128). |

|Religion Name |American Indian Religion - Minor |Shinto - Minor |
|Origins of the religion: |The American Indians have two common themes in the myths of creation. One is that |Following the prehistoric period, between the 3rd and 4th centuries Japan entered The|
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |everything was created from chaos. The other being that creation was a result of a |historic period. (Nigosian, p.272) There were many groups that settled in Japan. |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |battle between good and evil. There is not written, detailed account of the American|There were 3 specific races that settled. One group of settlers were native to the |
|Myths |Indian religion. The traditions and beliefs are passed down via oral communication, |land. The other two groups were from the Chinese mainland as well as the islands of |
| |generation to generation. |SE Asia. Over time, these three groups became integrated into one self-aware sect |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … | |having a mutual language and culture. This “religious fusion of the different |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |strands resulted in what is generally referred to today as early Shinto.” (Nigosian, |
| | |p.272) |
|Basic Beliefs: |The American Indians believe in natural and supernatural forces. There is always one|The origin of the word Shinto means “way of the kami”. Kami equates to gods in |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |primary god. The basic goal is to be one in harmony with those natural and |Shinto. All of their beliefs are focused on existence and supremacy of the kami that|
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |supernatural forces. The gods will communicate through the Shamans. The shamans |exist in the cosmos and in nature. The Shinto do not believe in one creator. There|
|unique beliefs or points of view. |deliver the message to the people. Some Indian nations associate the supreme power |are a multitude of gods or kami that are worshipped. There is no official text for |
| |with the sky, sun, animal, bird or a creator spirit. |the Shinto religion or a “fixed system of doctrine or ethics.” (Nigosian, p. 275) |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … | |Instead, there is a collection of lore and history: the Kojiki (records of ancient |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |masters) and the Nihongi (chronicles of japan). (Nigosian, p. 275) |
| | | |
|Practices: |The highest place of honor is reserved for the ceremonial sacred pipe. It is used |In Shintoism, there are elements of folklore, magic, pilgrimage, ritual, worship, and|
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |for numerous reasons such as ratification of contracts, treaties, and reception of |nationalism when religious and cultural practices or observed. (Nigosian, p.287). |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |important guests. Masked costumes are important symbols. They are part of the |Many of the Shinto practices developed from the rigorous Japanese history, both |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |larger performance, with great attention to the details of color of the costumer as |social and religious. As these practices evolved, many interesting elements such as |
|devotional practices. |well as what the performer says and how that performer moves. Ceremonies and rites |fertility and ancestor rituals and rites of passage. They also performed rites that |
| |are performed in association with the stages or cycles of the human life. From birth|were strictly in worship of nature. For example, when a baby is born, it is |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |to puberty to marriage then old age and finally death. They also believe that the |customary for the parents to register the child at the Shinto shrine where the |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |“medicine man” communicates with the gods as well as performs religious ceremonies. |parents worship. Some of the festivals that are celebrated are New Year’s, The Girls|
| |Dancing, drums and chanting are a large part of these ceremonies. |Festival (aka Dolls’ Festival) and the Boys’ Festival. |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Totem poles, which have the likenesses of the sprits or gods are used as the center |Shinto shrines are where all religious ceremonies and rites are performed. People go |
|special places & temples, typical worship |of some ceremonies or rituals. It seems that most of the ceremonies or rituals occur|to these shrines for private devotion or to receive “charms or talismans.” (Nigosian,|
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |in the middle of a circle of people from a tribe. There is usually a fire in the |p. 289) There are also mini versions of these devotional shrines in homes and places|
|pictures in the chapter! |middle of this circle as well. This religion considers there to be sacred areas |of business. These smaller shrines will have a sacred mirror and strips of paper |
| |around their camps that possess the presence of the spirits. So nature in special |that are religious texts. There are also memorial plaques made of wood or paper with |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … |areas is sacred whether it be among tree groves, lakes or rocky mounds (Nigosian, p. |the name of their ancestor or kami benefactor inscribed on them. |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |109, 119) . Also consider Powwows for the Indians (Nigosian, p. 128). | |
| | | |

|Religion Name |Zoroastrianism - Minor |Jainism - Minor |
|Origins of the religion: |Traditionalists believe that Zoroaster was born somewhere between 1400 BCE and 500 |Jainism originated in India, 6th century BCE by Mahavira – which means great hero |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |BCE. As a young adult he was trained as a priest. He received his first vision at a|(Nigosian, p.207). This was the title taken by Nataputta Vardhamana. The word jain |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |spring festival as he was retrieving water for a ritual. On his way back, he had a |in Jainism originates from the word jina which means conqueror. Jainism came about |
|Myths |vision of Vohu Mana (Good Intention) who led Zoroaster to Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord). |at a time in India when there was a lot of religious discontentment. Jains were |
| |He was also brought to the attendance of five immortals who taught him the cardinal |opposite of Hindus in some of their attitudes. For example, the Jains were more |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … |principles of the “true religion.” (Nigosian, p. 299) |pacifists whereas the Hindus were socially and politically involved. |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |
|Basic Beliefs: |Zoroaster’s message was that of monotheism – the belief in one supreme God (Ahura |Jainism is a religion of ethics. This means that every action a person of this faith |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |Mazda). He also saw humanity as being separated into two opposite groups. The |takes, leads them to live a moral life. There is a belief system in this religion, |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |asha-vants – followers of truth. These people were true, just and god-fearing. |but it takes on a more philosophical approach to life than a theological approach. |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |(Nigosian, p.301). The other group is the dreg-vants – followers of evil. These |For the Jains, there is not belief in one god as in Christianity; no one great being |
| |people were classed as evil-doers, thinkers, rulers, and speakers. (Nigosian, p. 302)|nor one creator. (Nigosian, p. 212) They believe that the universe spins of its own |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |The texts of Zoroasterianism are a collection of religious texts called “Avesta”. |accord with its own principles. “Its constituent elements are soul, matter, time, |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |(Nigosian, p.302) The Avesta is comprised of four main writings: Yasna, Visparat, |space and the principles of motion and rest.” (Nigosian, p.212) There is constant |
| |Videvdat and Khorda Vesta. |change of these elements but still, they are eternal and enduring. |
|Practices: |Their religious rituals are strictly associated with the monumental events in life. |Jains participate in the Hindu practices of “birth, marriage, and death.” (Nigosian, |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |These are the rites of passage. These rites are pre-birth; birth, initiation, |p.216) They have also taken on the practice of worship and offerings to the gods as |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |marriage and death. “On the occasion of the completion of the fifth and seventh |Hindus do. In Jainism, there is an observance of the principles; there are three of |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |months of pregnancy, most Zoroastrian households light a lamp of clarified butter |them. These principles are faith, knowledge and right. The observance of these |
|devotional practices. |(ghee).” (Nigosian, p.309) |three principles prevents the further buildup of negative karma. |
| |Fire or Atash is a very symbolic in this religion. For those that are devout in | |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |their beliefs, “fire is raised and is thought worthy of sacrifice and prayer. | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |(Nigosian, p. 309) | |
| | | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |A lot of believers have small alters in their home where they can worship and pray. |The temples of the Tirthankaras which are the gods and goddesses in Jainism, is where|
|special places & temples, typical worship |There are the main temples where rites and ceremonies are held. However, wedding |ceremonial rites and worship are held. Made of marble, the temple on top of Mount |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |ceremonies are generally held at the home of the bride. The parents of both bride |Abu, Rajasthan, India is one that has a Tirthankara sitting as if meditating. Even |
|pictures in the chapter! |and groom are present as well as priests to perform the ceremony. |though the Jains have taken on the Hindu gods and goddesses, these take a lower |
| | |position in the faith then the Tirthankaras. |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … | | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |

|Religion Name |Latter-day Saints |Extra for possible documentation |
|Origins of the religion: |The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints commonly known as Mormon Church was | |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |founded in America by an American named Joseph Smith (1805-1844). He was born in | |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |Vermont to Christian parents. (Nigosian, p. 484). The first actual church was | |
|Myths |organized in Fayette, New York. (Nigosian, p. 484) Because of Smith’s pluralistic | |
| |views on marriage he was killed in 1844. In 1847 Brigham Young established the new | |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … |central location for Mormonism in Salt Lake City, UT. | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |
|Basic Beliefs: |This religion is based on five fundamental teachings. The Book of Mormon, which is | |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |the first fundamental teaching. Smith believed that the early settlers in America | |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |were ancient Israelites who came here after Babel. Supposedly Christ appeared to | |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |those ancestors and divined to them the gospel and revealed the location of a New | |
| |Jerusalem in America. | |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |The second fundamental is his teaching about pluralistic marriage and the ritual of | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |baptism for the ancestors that have passed. The third is the pluralistic nature of | |
| |the gods. Fourth teaching is the belief in activities of various angels, especially | |
| |the guiding spirit of Moroni. The founder of the Mormon church claimed that he was | |
| |guided by an angel named Moroni when he experienced a series of visions and divine | |
| |instruction about the second coming of Christ; and was taken to the location of the | |
| |golden plate containing the message of the prophet Mormon. (Nigosian, p. 484). The | |
| |last fundamental teaching of Mormonism is the life after death which is attainable at| |
| |different level depending on the degree of spiritual development. (Nigosian, p. 485) | |
|Practices: |The Mormon religion practices plurality in marriage and baptism of the dead. | |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |(Nigosian, p. 484) They follow a lot of the Christian principles and doctrines. | |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |However, they created supplements to the original gospel of Christianity but also | |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |added their own original amendments. These amendments are called the Book of Mormon.| |
|devotional practices. |They also refer to it as “the restored gospel of Jesus Christ.” (Nigosian, p. 485) | |
| | | |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … | | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Salt Lake City, Utah is the geographical center of the Church of the Latter-Day | |
|special places & temples, typical worship |Saints. Temple Square in Salt Lake is where the main religious building sits. This | |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |is also the home to the famous Tabernacle Choir. Brigham Young University is also a| |
|pictures in the chapter! |prominent Mormon educational institution. The church services that are attended by | |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … |Mormons is referred to as a sacrament meeting. Their partaking of the “sacrament” can| |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |be likened to the communion taken by Christians. | |
| | | |

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