Free Essay

13 Religions

In: Other Topics

Submitted By crenas
Words 5398
Pages 22
Core Assessment Project

Corinna Sullwold

|Religion Name |Cult of Pharaoh - Ancient |Mayan/Aztec - Ancient |
|Origins of the religion: |Between 10000 and 7000 BCE a group of ancient Egyptians settled in the Nile Valley. |Mayan religion was founded c.250AD which is the rise of the Mayan civilization |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |7000 – 3000 BCD the people became organized into separate villages. After 3000 BCE |( |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |hieroglyphics were developed after the independent villages become united under one |Aztec formed between the 12th and 15th centuries AD. |
|Myths |kingdom. They were then ruled by one imperial Pharaoh. |( |
| | |Religion for both cultures was a central part of their daily lives. They prayed and |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … | |made sacrifice to please their deities. |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
|Basic Beliefs: |This religion believes that the pharaoh is the embodiment of the sun god. He has no |They worshipped many deities. These gods could be in the form of animals, birds, fish|
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |need to consult with the god on any decisions as he is considered a god himself |and insects. The Mayans worshipped time and believed it to be divine. Time periods |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |(pharaoh-god). When pharaoh died, the Egyptians would mummify him. This would |were considered gods and priest astronomers viewed the cycles of time as having no |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |preserve him for his journey to the afterlife where he would appear before Osiris and|beginning or end. The jaguar is an important symbol for the Aztecs. It symbolizes |
| |42 divine jurors so that he could confess any sins or transgressions he committed in |fertility and personifies a force that is capable of good and evil. |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |life. The pharaoh would be buried with The Book of the Dead which is a collection of | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |hymns and prayers. If the pharaoh did not commit any misdeeds he pled by reciting a | |
| |confessional list. The ancient Egyptians believed the judgment was measured by an | |
| |ostrich feather (their symbol of truth) on one side and the individual’s heart on the| |
| |other. If if the heart was too heavy there was a hellish consequence; if balanced the| |
| |person will be allowed into the “world of the blessed”. | |
|Practices: |At the temples, the daily ritual would consist of priests cleansing themselves – |Witchcraft and sorcery were a large part of the Aztecs beliefs. Sorcerers were |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |purification. Upon this purification, they could perform daily ceremonies of worship|believed to have the power to transform into animals. They also participated in |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |to the deity. Upon opening the sealed door and allowing the god exit, the priests |human sacrifice. The priests would perform the extravagant ceremonies at the temple.|
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |began their rituals. Offerings of music and food to the god were a large part. |It wasn’t unusual for prisoners of war, children and slaves to be killed by beheading|
|devotional practices. |Different villages had their own respective festivals. Parades taking a statue of |or splitting the chest open to take out the heart for burning. This was the same with|
| |the god through the city or town. People reenacted portions of the god’s life. |the Mayans. In the Mayan sacrifices, the majority of the victims were males. |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |There were festivals for good harvest and fertility. The Egyptians also used | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |elements of magic in their religion. Anyone that would violate a tomb or break a | |
| |royal decree would be cursed. | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Temples were the central point for Egyptian culture, economics & religion. These |Worship and ceremonies were held at temples in both the Aztec and Mayan religions. |
|special places & temples, typical worship |were places of worship with statues of the deities in them. All of the necessary |These temples contained idols and statues of the deities. Both the Aztec and Mayan |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |people involved in the religious ceremonies were housed in the temple. These were |believers built giant idol like status at which they would perform religious rites |
|pictures in the chapter! |priest and assistants, scribes, readers. The pyramids were spaces where burial rites|and worship. |
| |were held. | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |

|Religion Name |Mesopotamian - Ancient |Buddhism - Major |
|Origins of the religion: |Mesopotamians worshipped a variety of gods, goddesses, and deities. There were over |Siddhartha Gautama (c.563 - 483BCE), common name Buddha. A prediction by priests |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |two thousand deities in the Mesopotamian religion. Every village or town worshipped |from interpretation of a dream his mother had, Siddhartha would become a leader or |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |a supreme god and his or her lower level gods that they worshipped. Whenever a |universal teacher, a Buddha. This result was also confirmed with the fact that at |
|Myths |warring group took over the city, the new groups’ gods/deities would be in place of |the time of his birth, a Hindu Sage (Asita) noticed propitious markings on his body. |
| |the former villagers’ deities. |She then also came to the conclusion that he would be a universal teacher. At age |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … | |29, Siddhartha became very aware of the suffering of the people around him. This |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |started him off on his quest for enlightenment and truth. The catalyst to this quest|
| | |and beginning of his “religious crisis” known as the “four sights) (Nigosian, p. |
| | |175) |
|Basic Beliefs: |Mesopotamians believed that the natural forces of the universe (river flow, farms, |The Buddhist do not believe in a single God who created all. They also do not |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |births, etc.) were laws put down by the gods and goddesses they felt needed to be |believe that people have their own individual souls. |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |worshipped. The ruler of the city was the spokesperson for the deity. It is through|There are many volumes of Buddhist scriptures. The basic writings called the |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |this person that decrees were issued. They also believed in immortality as told in |“Tripitaka”. (Nigosian, p. 186) Tripitaka as translated means the “Three Baskets”. |
| |the story of Gilgamesh. “Gilgamesh, whither runnest thou? The life which though |(Nigosian, p. 186) These are referred to as baskets as they are the collections of |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |sleekest thou wilt not find. (For) when the gods created mankind, they allotted death|the disciplines. The disciplines are the Vinayana Pitaka – the rules for the order; |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |to mankind; (but) life they retained in their keeping.” (Nigosian, p.47) |the Sutta Pitaka the dialog between student and teacher on Buddhist teachings and the|
| | |Abhidhamma Pitaka –theoretical and philosophical instruction. |
|Practices: |Mesopotamians beliefs centered the occult. As the gods/deities protected the humans |During the rainy seasons, annually Buddha’s followers would gather for a retreat. |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |and provided materials for living; functions of the occult were created for humans to|These retreats turned into monastic settlements. As time went on, these |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |protect the gods from demons. Religious officials would be categorized by the type of|settlements turned into large cleric orders or monasteries. The faithful Buddhist |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |functional sorcery they performed. Functions such as magic, sorcery and divination. |missionaries left the monasteries to spread the faith in places like China, Japan and|
|devotional practices. |Sacrificial animal livers were used for the divination. Astronomy was also used. It|Tibet. In some orders, the Buddhist monks practiced celibacy and poverty. They |
| |was believed that the alignment of the stars could predict impending omens. |would sometimes beg – not to receive anything but to teach humility. There are three|
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |Observatories were constructed on temple tops. Oracles practiced divination. |main festivals in Buddhism. They are Hanamatsuri/Vesak (festival of the flower) |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |Oracles are priests/priestesses that the gods speak through. |which celebrates the birth of Buddha on April 8th; Bodhi Day – which commemorates the|
| |There were two main festivals in this religion: Fixed feasts of the New Year and the|enlightenment of Buddha at the foot of the Bodhi Tree on December 8th; and Nirvana |
| |new moon and the movable feasts dedicated to particular deities and special |Day which is the commemoration of Buddha’s death on February 15. |
| |occasions. | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Religious activity surrounds the city temples and sacred courtyards. These temples, |The sacred temples such as the temple of the Sacred Tooth. (Nigosian, p. 193) Temples|
|special places & temples, typical worship |ziggurats were where the religious ceremonies, alters, images of the deities and |are the places where the priests would hold ceremonies and people would go to |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |places of worship to the gods. They also housed the priests, store rooms and a |worship. Another temple, the Wat Benchamabopit Temple (aka the Marble Temple) is |
|pictures in the chapter! |variety of other multi-purpose rooms. These temples were built to honor the deities |located in Bangkok, Thailand. In this temple, worshippers pay respect to a golden |
| |and so that prosperity would follow. The ziggurat was an integral part of the |image of Buddha. In the beginning of each time of worship, there is a recital of a |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … |Mesopotamian religion. |prayer which is a recital of homage to Buddha. Following this, there is a reading of|
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |the “Three Refugees” (Nigosian, p. 196) This prayer is spoken many times during the |
| | |day if the person is a devout Buddhist. |

|Religion Name |Islam – Major |Hinduism - Major |
|Origins of the religion: |The Islam religion really came about due to the strict monotheistic instruction and |Hinduism has a lot of teachers of the faith, but no identifiable founder. There is |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |teaching by the Prophet Mohammed. The timing of the founding of Islam is dependent |evidence that this has been practiced since 3000 BCE. (Nigosian, p. 133) The people |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |upon the perspective that is taken. It is said that Islam was founded in the sixth |of the Hindu faith believe that the religious leader is a “divine manifestation.” |
|Myths |century CE. From the Orthodox Muslim perspective, Islam begins at the same time that |(Nigosian, p. 133). |
| |God (Allah) created the world and the first man. This can be likened to the beliefs | |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … |in Judaism. | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |
|Basic Beliefs: |The sacred text for the Islamic religion is the Qur’an (meaning recitation) |The general attitude of this religion is that “truth or ultimate reality are one.” |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |(Nigosian, p. 439). The Qur’an is a written compilation of the prophecies Muhammad |(Nigosian, p.135) This is to say that truth is eternal. The Hindus also believe |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |received from God. There are four other texts that are considered holy books. These|that the individual soul is immortal. The concept of “Brahman” is everything in the |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |books are not a part of the Qur’an at all. These texts are The Scrolls; The Torah; |universe from animals to fish to gods and goddesses. (Nigosian, p. 134) Brahman is |
| |The Psalms; and The Gospels. (Nigosian, p.443) |at the highest level of the Hindu caste. There are two classes of text that the |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … | |Hindus identify with. The shruti and smriti. Shruti is the text of the eternal |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |sacred knowlwedge. Smriti is more like the traditions that are passed down from |
| | |generation to generation. |
|Practices: |Muslims are tasked to take on duties known as the Five Pillars. These Pillars are |There are many sacred occasions/holy days designated for festive observances in |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |declaration of faith, prayer (five times per day), almsgiving (visible declaration of|Hinduism. Although many are seasonal, there are many that are held to observe and |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |faith), fasting (during the month of Ramadan) and pilgrimage (to the holy shrine of |commemorate special occasions such has the birth of a child and even the victory of a|
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |Ka’ba). There was a sixth pillar added later on which is holy war or jihad. This |god or other recognized Hindu hero. One of the more popular Hindu festivals which is|
|devotional practices. |Jihad is to be taken on by true believers of Islam to “eradicate or neutralize |celebrated in either October or November, to commemorate New Year is Divali, also |
| |infidels, disbelievers, and idolaters….” (Nigosian, p. 455) Muslims are bound by |known as Dipavali which means “Cluster of Lights”. In northern India, this |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |their religious duties. Rites of passage include four of the most significant events|celebration lasts four days, while in other parts of the country, Divali can last |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |which are birth, circumcision, marriage and death. Muharram which occurs the first |five. Along with Divali/Dipavali and Holi/Hutashimi, festivals associated with |
| |month of the Islamic year begins with a ten-day observance of mourning among the |deities and religious leaders are just as important to the Hindu people. |
| |Shi’a sect. (Nigosian, p.459) | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Mecca is the holy city for Islam. The Dome of the Rock mosque is located there. |Temples are the main spaces for ceremonies and religious rites. The temple is |
|special places & temples, typical worship |Mosques are generally the places that Muslims perform their prayers. Rite and |representative of the god’s home on earth. It is also very common for the Hindus to |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |ceremonies are also performed in mosques. On Fridays at noon, Muslims join together |worship at home. The Hindus build small size shrines where they perform their |
|pictures in the chapter! |in their mosques for prayer. |prayers.. |
| | | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |

|Religion Name |Judaism - Major |Dinka Religion - Minor |
|Origins of the religion: |Judaism originated sometime during the second millennium BCE. (Nigosian, p.318) The |There were 3 religions that had impact in Africa prior to 1400s. Christianity |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |Jewish people believe themselves to be direct descendants of Abraham. Like Hinduism, |(Egypt, Ethiopia), Judaism (scattered communities across Africa) & Islam (predominant|
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |Judaism does not have a person that can be identified as the found of the religion. |in North Africa. The result of Islam on the Africans caused many kingdoms to evolve.|
|Myths | |8th to 11th centuries, Ghana. The successor to the Ghana, the Mali – had control of |
| | |trade up until the 1500’s. The Mali were overthrown by the Songhay. One of the |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … | |creation myths says that Nhialic was the creator for the first humans but then put |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |them in a world of darkness. Aruu (Dawn) who was one of the ancestors asked Nhialic |
| | |to “open the world so the people could see” (Nigosian, p.99) but Nhialic refused. |
| | |Aruu then split the world in two with an ax “dividing the sky and the earth to allow|
| | |light…”) (Nigosian, p.99) |
|Basic Beliefs: |The Jews believe that Abraham is their ancestral father who was given the “divine |In the Dinka religion, they believe in “superhuman forces in the world”. (Nigosian, |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |command” as well believing that Moses was the recipient of the command from God and |p.98) called Jok or Nhialic. These forces are believed to impact human lives either |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |passed it down to Abraham. (Nigosian, p. 318) The Torah which means “Instruction or |for good or for bad. The Dinka believe that their very first ancestor was one of |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |Guidance” (Nigosian, p. 319) was the message that was divined to Moses and passed on |these deities. They also believe that every individual has their own ghost, spirit |
| |to Abraham to deliver to the Jewish people. “The Covenant” was the pact that was |or shadow called a “tiep”. |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |made between God and the Jewish people. (Nigosian, p. 322) The story goes that Moses| |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |left the people at the bottom of Mount Sinai to talk with God. When he returned, he | |
| |brought with him the Ten Commandments. | |
|Practices: |The Covenant as part of the teachings in the Jewish religion focus on the history of |The tiep (shadow; ghost; spirit) of an individual at burial hovers or lingers close |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |creation and the Torah. This covenant binds the Jews to God in that they will |to the body at the place of burial. Attendants of the burial of a loved one or |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |“experience God’s nearness” (Nigosian, p. 339) as they are God’s “chosen people.” |family member offer sacrifices to the tiep. This is done as a protection to the |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |(Nigosian, p. 339) In the scripture of Judaism, it states: “Now therefore, if you |surviving members against any unfriendliness by the lingering tiep. Animal |
|devotional practices. |will obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my own possession among all |sacrifices play a major role in the Dinka ceremonies. These sacrifices are offered |
| |peoples. (From Exodus 19:5) (Nigosian, p. 340) Jewish observances include rites of |both to the deities, but to the dead as well. |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |passage. One of the most widely known is the rite of circumcision of male children, | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |eight days after they are born. There is also the Bar Mitzva – which is a | |
| |celebration of the thirteenth birthday of male children. The most important day of | |
| |observance for the Jewish people is the Sabbath. The Sabbath begins on Friday | |
| |evening and continues until dusk on Saturday. Women of the homes will light candles | |
| |while the men say prayers and benedictions. There are also the religious festivals | |
| |such as Sukkot – the feast of the tabernacles. This occurs five days after Yom | |
| |Kippur. | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |The Wailing Wall in Jerusalem is a sacred place where celebrations such as the Bar |Small shrines are built for the tieps of important people to reside in. These are |
|special places & temples, typical worship |Mitzvah are held. Also, when the Orthodox Jewish people are praying at the Wailing |fashioned from clay and look like large mounds. There are other spaces or |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |Wall, the sexes must be separated. Canaan, which is across the river Jordan, is |sanctuaries that are built to shelter the divine powers. These are built like “small|
|pictures in the chapter! |considered the Jewish promised land. Temples are also places where religious |cattle barns” (Nigosian, p. 99) These small barns also are a storage space for sacred|
| |ceremonies and rites are held. |spears and other items used in the rituals. The spears are held by spear masters, on|
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … | |which the “vitality and well-being” of the tribe depends. This religion also |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |considers there to be sacred areas around their camps that possess the presence of |
| | |the spirits. So nature in special areas is sacred whether it be among tree groves, |
| | |lakes or rocky mounds (Nigosian, p. 109, 119) . Also consider Powwows for the |
| | |Indians (Nigosian, p. 128). |

|Religion Name |American Indian Religion - Minor |Shinto - Minor |
|Origins of the religion: |The American Indians have two common themes in the myths of creation. One is that |Following the prehistoric period, between the 3rd and 4th centuries Japan entered The|
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |everything was created from chaos. The other being that creation was a result of a |historic period. (Nigosian, p.272) There were many groups that settled in Japan. |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |battle between good and evil. There is not written, detailed account of the American|There were 3 specific races that settled. One group of settlers were native to the |
|Myths |Indian religion. The traditions and beliefs are passed down via oral communication, |land. The other two groups were from the Chinese mainland as well as the islands of |
| |generation to generation. |SE Asia. Over time, these three groups became integrated into one self-aware sect |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … | |having a mutual language and culture. This “religious fusion of the different |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |strands resulted in what is generally referred to today as early Shinto.” (Nigosian, |
| | |p.272) |
|Basic Beliefs: |The American Indians believe in natural and supernatural forces. There is always one|The origin of the word Shinto means “way of the kami”. Kami equates to gods in |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |primary god. The basic goal is to be one in harmony with those natural and |Shinto. All of their beliefs are focused on existence and supremacy of the kami that|
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |supernatural forces. The gods will communicate through the Shamans. The shamans |exist in the cosmos and in nature. The Shinto do not believe in one creator. There|
|unique beliefs or points of view. |deliver the message to the people. Some Indian nations associate the supreme power |are a multitude of gods or kami that are worshipped. There is no official text for |
| |with the sky, sun, animal, bird or a creator spirit. |the Shinto religion or a “fixed system of doctrine or ethics.” (Nigosian, p. 275) |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … | |Instead, there is a collection of lore and history: the Kojiki (records of ancient |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | |masters) and the Nihongi (chronicles of japan). (Nigosian, p. 275) |
| | | |
|Practices: |The highest place of honor is reserved for the ceremonial sacred pipe. It is used |In Shintoism, there are elements of folklore, magic, pilgrimage, ritual, worship, and|
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |for numerous reasons such as ratification of contracts, treaties, and reception of |nationalism when religious and cultural practices or observed. (Nigosian, p.287). |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |important guests. Masked costumes are important symbols. They are part of the |Many of the Shinto practices developed from the rigorous Japanese history, both |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |larger performance, with great attention to the details of color of the costumer as |social and religious. As these practices evolved, many interesting elements such as |
|devotional practices. |well as what the performer says and how that performer moves. Ceremonies and rites |fertility and ancestor rituals and rites of passage. They also performed rites that |
| |are performed in association with the stages or cycles of the human life. From birth|were strictly in worship of nature. For example, when a baby is born, it is |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |to puberty to marriage then old age and finally death. They also believe that the |customary for the parents to register the child at the Shinto shrine where the |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |“medicine man” communicates with the gods as well as performs religious ceremonies. |parents worship. Some of the festivals that are celebrated are New Year’s, The Girls|
| |Dancing, drums and chanting are a large part of these ceremonies. |Festival (aka Dolls’ Festival) and the Boys’ Festival. |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Totem poles, which have the likenesses of the sprits or gods are used as the center |Shinto shrines are where all religious ceremonies and rites are performed. People go |
|special places & temples, typical worship |of some ceremonies or rituals. It seems that most of the ceremonies or rituals occur|to these shrines for private devotion or to receive “charms or talismans.” (Nigosian,|
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |in the middle of a circle of people from a tribe. There is usually a fire in the |p. 289) There are also mini versions of these devotional shrines in homes and places|
|pictures in the chapter! |middle of this circle as well. This religion considers there to be sacred areas |of business. These smaller shrines will have a sacred mirror and strips of paper |
| |around their camps that possess the presence of the spirits. So nature in special |that are religious texts. There are also memorial plaques made of wood or paper with |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … |areas is sacred whether it be among tree groves, lakes or rocky mounds (Nigosian, p. |the name of their ancestor or kami benefactor inscribed on them. |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |109, 119) . Also consider Powwows for the Indians (Nigosian, p. 128). | |
| | | |

|Religion Name |Zoroastrianism - Minor |Jainism - Minor |
|Origins of the religion: |Traditionalists believe that Zoroaster was born somewhere between 1400 BCE and 500 |Jainism originated in India, 6th century BCE by Mahavira – which means great hero |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |BCE. As a young adult he was trained as a priest. He received his first vision at a|(Nigosian, p.207). This was the title taken by Nataputta Vardhamana. The word jain |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |spring festival as he was retrieving water for a ritual. On his way back, he had a |in Jainism originates from the word jina which means conqueror. Jainism came about |
|Myths |vision of Vohu Mana (Good Intention) who led Zoroaster to Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord). |at a time in India when there was a lot of religious discontentment. Jains were |
| |He was also brought to the attendance of five immortals who taught him the cardinal |opposite of Hindus in some of their attitudes. For example, the Jains were more |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … |principles of the “true religion.” (Nigosian, p. 299) |pacifists whereas the Hindus were socially and politically involved. |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |
|Basic Beliefs: |Zoroaster’s message was that of monotheism – the belief in one supreme God (Ahura |Jainism is a religion of ethics. This means that every action a person of this faith |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |Mazda). He also saw humanity as being separated into two opposite groups. The |takes, leads them to live a moral life. There is a belief system in this religion, |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |asha-vants – followers of truth. These people were true, just and god-fearing. |but it takes on a more philosophical approach to life than a theological approach. |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |(Nigosian, p.301). The other group is the dreg-vants – followers of evil. These |For the Jains, there is not belief in one god as in Christianity; no one great being |
| |people were classed as evil-doers, thinkers, rulers, and speakers. (Nigosian, p. 302)|nor one creator. (Nigosian, p. 212) They believe that the universe spins of its own |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |The texts of Zoroasterianism are a collection of religious texts called “Avesta”. |accord with its own principles. “Its constituent elements are soul, matter, time, |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |(Nigosian, p.302) The Avesta is comprised of four main writings: Yasna, Visparat, |space and the principles of motion and rest.” (Nigosian, p.212) There is constant |
| |Videvdat and Khorda Vesta. |change of these elements but still, they are eternal and enduring. |
|Practices: |Their religious rituals are strictly associated with the monumental events in life. |Jains participate in the Hindu practices of “birth, marriage, and death.” (Nigosian, |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |These are the rites of passage. These rites are pre-birth; birth, initiation, |p.216) They have also taken on the practice of worship and offerings to the gods as |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |marriage and death. “On the occasion of the completion of the fifth and seventh |Hindus do. In Jainism, there is an observance of the principles; there are three of |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |months of pregnancy, most Zoroastrian households light a lamp of clarified butter |them. These principles are faith, knowledge and right. The observance of these |
|devotional practices. |(ghee).” (Nigosian, p.309) |three principles prevents the further buildup of negative karma. |
| |Fire or Atash is a very symbolic in this religion. For those that are devout in | |
|WHAT THE RELIGION DOES … |their beliefs, “fire is raised and is thought worthy of sacrifice and prayer. | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |(Nigosian, p. 309) | |
| | | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |A lot of believers have small alters in their home where they can worship and pray. |The temples of the Tirthankaras which are the gods and goddesses in Jainism, is where|
|special places & temples, typical worship |There are the main temples where rites and ceremonies are held. However, wedding |ceremonial rites and worship are held. Made of marble, the temple on top of Mount |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |ceremonies are generally held at the home of the bride. The parents of both bride |Abu, Rajasthan, India is one that has a Tirthankara sitting as if meditating. Even |
|pictures in the chapter! |and groom are present as well as priests to perform the ceremony. |though the Jains have taken on the Hindu gods and goddesses, these take a lower |
| | |position in the faith then the Tirthankaras. |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |

|Religion Name |Latter-day Saints |Extra for possible documentation |
|Origins of the religion: |The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints commonly known as Mormon Church was | |
|It's Founder, dates, Key Figures, Historical |founded in America by an American named Joseph Smith (1805-1844). He was born in | |
|Development, Cosmogony (creation stories), |Vermont to Christian parents. (Nigosian, p. 484). The first actual church was | |
|Myths |organized in Fayette, New York. (Nigosian, p. 484) Because of Smith’s pluralistic | |
| |views on marriage he was killed in 1844. In 1847 Brigham Young established the new | |
|HOW THE RELIGION STARTED … |central location for Mormonism in Salt Lake City, UT. | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |
|Basic Beliefs: |This religion is based on five fundamental teachings. The Book of Mormon, which is | |
|God, Afterlife, Humanity, Evil, |the first fundamental teaching. Smith believed that the early settlers in America | |
|scripture/sacred writings, authority, other |were ancient Israelites who came here after Babel. Supposedly Christ appeared to | |
|unique beliefs or points of view. |those ancestors and divined to them the gospel and revealed the location of a New | |
| |Jerusalem in America. | |
|WHAT THE RELIGION BELIEVES … |The second fundamental is his teaching about pluralistic marriage and the ritual of | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |baptism for the ancestors that have passed. The third is the pluralistic nature of | |
| |the gods. Fourth teaching is the belief in activities of various angels, especially | |
| |the guiding spirit of Moroni. The founder of the Mormon church claimed that he was | |
| |guided by an angel named Moroni when he experienced a series of visions and divine | |
| |instruction about the second coming of Christ; and was taken to the location of the | |
| |golden plate containing the message of the prophet Mormon. (Nigosian, p. 484). The | |
| |last fundamental teaching of Mormonism is the life after death which is attainable at| |
| |different level depending on the degree of spiritual development. (Nigosian, p. 485) | |
|Practices: |The Mormon religion practices plurality in marriage and baptism of the dead. | |
|Annual festivals, regular meetings, Rites of |(Nigosian, p. 484) They follow a lot of the Christian principles and doctrines. | |
|Passage, ethical & moral practices, |However, they created supplements to the original gospel of Christianity but also | |
|expectations of individual piety, worship & |added their own original amendments. These amendments are called the Book of Mormon.| |
|devotional practices. |They also refer to it as “the restored gospel of Jesus Christ.” (Nigosian, p. 485) | |
| | | |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! | | |
| | | |
|Sacred Spaces: Geographical locations, |Salt Lake City, Utah is the geographical center of the Church of the Latter-Day | |
|special places & temples, typical worship |Saints. Temple Square in Salt Lake is where the main religious building sits. This | |
|location, worship objects. Hint: see |is also the home to the famous Tabernacle Choir. Brigham Young University is also a| |
|pictures in the chapter! |prominent Mormon educational institution. The church services that are attended by | |
|WHERE THEY WORSHIP … |Mormons is referred to as a sacrament meeting. Their partaking of the “sacrament” can| |
|* Write at least 4 sentences! |be likened to the communion taken by Christians. | |
| | | |

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Buddhism Temple Visit

...Jennifer Villalobos Professor Miles REL 2011- Analysis and Interpretation of Religion October 17, 2011 Buddhism A Whole New World History and Origin When we speak of Buddhism we visualize a monk in an orange robe but there is so much more than that. Buddhism in my opinion is a way of life and not just a religion. The founder of Buddhism was a man named Siddhartha Gautama. Siddhartha said that there were four noble truths and that the only way to save ourselves from suffering was to follow the eightfold path. Siddhartha’s teaching was to help us reach the ultimate goal “enlightment (nirvana), freedom from the cycle of conditioned existence”. It all started with the birth of a child named Siddhartha Gautama who later on is known as the Buddha. Siddhartha was born around present day Lumbini, Nepal around 563 BCE he was born into a wealthy family and was a prince of the Sakya Clan. Siddhartha was raised by his aunt who was his father’s second wife because his mother died when he was seven days old. It is believed that when Siddhartha was a baby a holy man said that he would be either a great politician and unite India or he would be a great religious leader. Siddhartha lived a life of luxury and his father was very careful as to block all negative things from Siddhartha’s sight. His father did not want him to see old age, sickness, death, and a monk. The holy man had warned him that if Siddhartha say all these signs he would become a religious leader. When Siddhartha......

Words: 2038 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

One Nation Under God

...England came to the new world and planted the seeds of what would grow into a world superpower. The Native Americans, whose ancestors had been the first men to live there, became nothing but second class citizens. They were forced into slavery whilst dying by the thousands from disease brought by the white man. The pilgrims’ quest for religious freedom had brought ruin to an entire culture. Though it was the greatest, this genocide was not the last injustice done by religious organization in the new world. The framers of the United States constitution granted the right to freedom of religion among others. But all rights are limited; they cannot be exercised if they infringe upon another’s rights. Furthermore, despite claims of separation of church and state Christianity continues to take precedent over the rights and liberties of many citizens. Today one of the chief injustices regarding religion in America is tax exemptions for religious organizations. Proponents of tax exemption for religious organizations claim that there is no breach of separation of church and state. This claim is made on the grounds that by not taxing religious organizations they are not affiliating with them; therefore separation of church and state is attained. This logic is flawed to an unbelievable extent. The government electing not to tax religious organizations is not separation, but clear cut favoritism. Regular nonprofit organizations receiving tax exemptions are subject to IRS scrutiny and......

Words: 2395 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Religious Beliefs and Practices

...Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Chapter 1: Religious Beliefs and Practices T his chapter examines the diverse religious beliefs and practices of American adults. It looks first at the various degrees of importance Americans assign to religion in their lives and explores their views of God, Scripture, miracles and other religious beliefs. It then moves into a discussion of worship and other congregational activities, followed by a look at devotional practices, spiritual experiences and other practices. The chapter concludes by examining beliefs about religion, including how exclusive people are in their claims to salvation, as well as by examining the ways in which members of different religious traditions think about morality. Along the way, four key measures of religious commitment – importance of religion in people’s lives, belief in God, frequency of prayer and frequency of worship service attendance – are singled out for in-depth demographic analysis. These four measures will be used in the next chapter as lenses through which to examine social and political attitudes within the religious traditions. These measures were chosen because they each touch on an important element of religious experience – overall attachment to religion, religious belief, frequency of private devotional activities and engagement in communal religious activities. Just as the first report of the Landscape Survey detailed the remarkable diversity......

Words: 13678 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay


...culture of India refers to the religions, beliefs, customs, traditions, languages, ceremonies, arts, values and the way of life in India and its people. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from place to place within the country. Its culture often labeled as an amalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old.[1] Regarded by many historians as the "oldest living civilization of Earth", the Indian tradition dates back to 8000 BC[2] and has a continuous recorded history since the time of the Vedas, believed variously to be 3,000 to over 5,500 years ago.[3] Several elements of India's diverse culture — such as Indian religions, yoga and Indian cuisine — have had a profound impact across the world India is the birth place of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions.[5] Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic ones. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether,[6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2.5 or 2.6 billion followers.[6][9] India is also the birthplace for the Lingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion still plays a central and......

Words: 679 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Past Papers

...Philosophy of Religion 2001 1. (a) What are the key features of the design argument for the existence of God? (10 marks) (b) Identify the strengths of this argument. To what extent are these strengths more convincing than its weaknesses? (10 marks) 2. (a) Describe the main strengths and weaknesses of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. (14 marks) (b) To what extent do the weaknesses of this argument limit its effectiveness? (6 marks) 3. (a) Examine the characteristics of BOTH a religious and a scientific interpretation of the origins of the universe. (14 marks) (b) Comment on the view that the differences between these interpretations rule out any major disagreement between them. (6 marks) 4. (a) What do religious believers mean by the ‘problem of suffering’? (5 marks) (b) Select any TWO theodicies and consider how far they offer solutions to this problem. (15 marks) 5. (a) Examine TWO philosophical reasons for belief in miracles. (6 marks) (b) Outline at least TWO problems with belief in miracles. (8 marks) (c) Consider the claim that there are no acceptable solutions to these problems. (6 marks) 2002 1. (a) Outline the design argument for the existence of God. (7 marks) (b) ‘The design argument fails because of its weaknesses.’ Examine and comment on this claim. (13......

Words: 3353 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...* Question 1 | |   | A _______ approach to the study of religion focuses on myths and doctrines.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   theoretical | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 2 5 out of 5 points | |   | Interpretations which are hostile to the place/role of women are ________.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   misogynist | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 3 5 out of 5 points | |   | _______ is referred to by such terms as God, Nirvana, Brahman, and so forth.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   Unconditioned Reality | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 4 5 out of 5 points | |   | Interpretations which overly emphasize the role of men in religion are ________.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   androcentric | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 5 5 out of 5 points | |   | A __________ approach to the study of religion focuses on acts of worship.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   practical | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 6 5 out of 5 points | |   | ______ are sometimes viewed as attempting to invoke a sacred past by the performance of various specific acts.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   Rituals | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 7 5 out of 5 points | |   | _______ is not easily defined and is......

Words: 6389 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Why Are 6,000 Indians Converting to Buddhism in the New Year?

...Why are 6,000 Indians converting to Buddhism in the New Year? In Maharashtra, India many Indians known as OBC (Backward Class), are converting to Buddhism as their religion due to the caste system in the Hinduism religion. The OBC are dealing with a lot of discriminations due to the caste system. They are unable to get good jobs and better education to better their lives. Therefore they have decided to convert back to their religious roots of Buddhism. They were able to trace their religious roots back to Nagvanshis, a group of Buddhist which were descendants of emperor Ashoka, a very notable Buddhist. By doing this it gives them a better course in life that they are unable to pursue in the Hinduism religion. Though the Maharashtra government has not stopped any of them from converting, they fear there will be a backlash due to their previous status in the caste system. Therefore they are keeping an eye on how they are treated by the government and those of different ranks in the society. The Hinduism caste system has been a burden on Hindu society for a very long time. The caste system has done great damage and continues to do so to this day. The caste system is like slavery that existed here in United States many years ago. The caste system divides its people up by their social class, bloodline, and occupation. There are four main caste that are recognized by the Hindu occupations they are, Brahmins (priest), Kshatriyas (warrior class), Vaisyas (merchants), Shudras......

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Does Jesus Belong in Parliament

...BELONG IN PARLIAMENT? AN EXAMINATION OF FREEDOM OF RELIGION PROVISIONS IN PUBLIC BODIES IN NEW ZEALAND, CANADA, AND THE UNITED STATES by ELIZABETH G. FOX 28 August 2009 1 I INTRODUCTION New Zealand does not have a state religion in the way that other countries do.1 The Church of England, for example, has its doctrine and prayer book ratified by Parliament and has the Queen as supreme authority over both ecclesiastical and civil matters.2 However, the central legislators of this country listen to the Speaker of the House open each Parliamentary session with the following prayer.3 Almighty God, humbly acknowledging our need for Thy guidance in all things, and laying aside all private and personal interests, we beseech Thee to grant that we may conduct the affairs of this House and of our country to the glory of Thy holy name, the maintenance of true religion and justice, the honour of the Queen, and the public welfare, peace, and tranquillity of New Zealand, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. Is this appropriate in a country that professes no state church and the tolerance of all religions equally?4 Religious content has historically infiltrated governing and administrative bodies. However, with the cultural disestablishment of Christianity and the emergence of toleration for all faiths, there continues to be the presence and preference of a small set of religions by the State. The degree to which religion interacts with the State varies with different......

Words: 12700 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay


...92 Singapore Academy of Law Journal (2012) 24 SAcLJ UNILATERAL CONVERSION OF A CHILD’S RELIGION AND PARENTAL RIGHTS IN MALAYSIA The issue of unilateral conversion of a child to Islam by one parent who has embraced Islam and the subsequent tussle over the custody of the child between the disputing parents in the civil court and the Syariah Court has of late ignited controversy in Malaysia. This article seeks to examine the extent of the non-Muslim parent’s right to determine the child’s religion, the impact of the unilateral conversion of the child to Islam on the parents’ custodial right in a family dispute and how the existing legal and judicial systems in Malaysia can be strategically used to achieve one’s aim. KUEK Chee Ying LLB (Hons) (University of Malaya), LLM (University of Malaya); Lecturer, Faculty of Business and Law, Multimedia University. TAY Eng Siang LLB (Hons) (University of Malaya), LLM (Distinction) (University of Malaya); Lecturer, Faculty of Business and Law, Multimedia University. I. Introduction 1 1 Malaysia is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious country. The Federal Constitution of Malaysia guarantees freedom of religion where every person is granted the right to profess and practise, and, subject to 2 3 certain restrictions, to propagate his or her religion. Though not 1 2 According to the Population and Housing Census 2010, the total population of Malaysia was 28.3 million, of which about 91.8% were...

Words: 10694 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Personal and Societal Values

...HCS350 As nurses we strongly believed that culture and religion have a significant effect on ethical decision-making. Health and medical care are strongly rooted in cultural and religious beliefs. Patients from other cultures and religion may find it difficult to accept the ethical decisions made in our culture. Leininger’s (1991) Culture Care Diversity and Universality theory of nursing emphasizes the importance of communication between nurses and patients to ensure that there is not a lack of humanity involved in nursing care (Ludwig & Silva, 2000). The theory also notes that when nurses care for international and culturally diverse patients, there is more likely to be communications disconnect (Ludwig & Silva, 2000). It is very important for nurses to be aware of our own cultural and religious values as well as biocultural differences in how the patient perceives the exam, responses to drugs, and healthcare practices (Ludwig & Silva, 2000). Ethical problems can arise over differences in how people of other religious view such things as withholding or withdrawing life support, restricting the resources given to elderly patients, and others (Hattar-Pollara, n.d.). We have to respect everybody beliefs and different ways they worship in their religions. Many times their religion and beliefs are completely different from what we are used to see. We need to understand how the patient’s culture and religion would view any nursing practice or ethical dilemma......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Peer Mentor Log Date | Time | | 12-1 | Work with Chen on his English worked 9/30/13 | 1-3 | Worked with Sam on his Democracy in America Work 9/30/13 | 3-4 | Worked with group of jose and travis on accounting homework 9/30/13 | Date | Time | | | Worked with Jasmine Dixon on her studying skills in the library 2/4/13 | 1:20-2:00 | Worked with Stephanie Posey on her Religion class in the library 2/5/13 | 3:30- 4:30 | Worked with Alaa on his English paper, peer edit his paper in the library 2/6/13 | 12:30-2:00 Worked with Jose on his English grammar skills in the library 2/7/13 Date | 3:30-4:20 | Worked with jasmine Dixon on her time management skill in the library 2/11/13 | 12:20-2:00 | Helped Stephanie study for her test on philosophy outside st. Edwards hall 2/12/13 | 1:30-2:20 | Worked with Alaa on his English vocabulary in the library 2/13/13 | 3:30-4:20 | Met with jose to work on his English class and edit his paper 2/14/13 | Date | 3:30-4:20 | Helped Hussam Babge on his English course and edited his paper in the library 2/15/13 | 1:30-2:20 | Worked with Jasmine Dixon on her preparation skills in the library 2/18/13 | 12:30- 2:00 | Helped Stephaine study for her religion test in the library 2/19/13 | 3:20-4:30 | Worked with Hussam babge on his English skills in the library 2/20/13 | | | | | Date | | | | | | | | | Date | | | | | | | | | Date | |...

Words: 285 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...reflection uses Christian, Islamic, and Jewish religions as examples of study in the Medieval era. Welding Sacer and Profanus Religion is sacred, the cradle of the sacer, the faith that we intertwine within our reality, our profanus. It’s within our churches, our cathedrals, our temples, our synagogues, or our mosques that we connect the sacer and the profanus, the home of our prayers. Among the diversity of religions and beliefs there brings a multitude of holy sectors, each with their own composition of devoted art and architecture, their own contrivance to communicate and praise the godly. The construction of these sectors are genuine, their tiles and grooves not just contributing to an aesthetic but pious, they are symbolic of their faith. Synagogue is a word derivative of the Hebrew meaning for a house of gathering, it’s a shelter for gathered prayer and discussion (Soltes, 10, 5:25). Judaism practices the five books of Moses, the Torah, the Jewish Bible (Soltes, 10, 1:35). They pray facing Jerusalem, synagogue structure oriented to this, for they consider it the ultimate connection between profanus and sacer (Soltes, 10, 6:50). In particular synagogues, such as the Synagogue of Capernaum (4th century B.C.) we can see three doorways. These three entrances can refer to previous liturgical divisions, or are in remembrance of the three courtyards of the destroyed temple of Jerusalem (Soltes, 10, 4:25). Within the Judaism religion, god is non-figurative, yet this can be a......

Words: 1631 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Early Civilazations

...Battuguldur Bilguun Travis Schill World History October 12, 2013 Early Civilizations From 10200 B.C to 400 AD was a timeline of Early Civilizations. Early Civilizations are divided into 3 main groups; The Neolithic Era, Bronze Age and Iron Age. They all had great accomplishments in agriculture, government, religion, and education. Every civilization had their own unique way of living. Many of our agriculture, inventions, and religion were practiced by them. We merely adopted their way of life. So we can say that Early Civilizations became fundamentals for our modern invention, agriculture and religion. Ancient people discovered the development of agriculture accidentally. Before finding agriculture, ancient people had a hunter-gatherer system where males go hunting and females and kids stay home and gather fruits or any other edible plants. Farming started from the Neolithic Era which involved the domestication of animals and plants. Increasing population was the number one reason people started to farm. Because they couldn’t feed all the hungry mouths just by hunting animals. They had to have a large population at that time because ancient people lived under constant dangers caused by other tribes. The people who first cultivated cereal grains have observed them in the wild while they were hunting or gathering and noticed the seeds fall. After sometime, they return to the same place to find a...

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Henry Ford

...list provided. You will also have to complete three basic world religions charts, answer questions about the Neolithic Revolution and complete a geography assignment. You may find links to the documents required for these assignments on my teacher Website Please feel free to email me over the summer if you have questions. Sincerely, Ms. Dunnavant Assignment One – WORLD RELIGIONS The influence of major religions and semi-religious philosophies on societies will provide a reoccurring theme throughout the course. It is important for you to be familiar with each religion as we proceed. Please follow the directions below: 1. Visit the following sources: • BBC Religion & Ethics Website • 2. Complete each of the following charts (use the link in the handouts section of my teacher web to print the charts): • Western Eurasian Religions Chart • Eastern Eurasian Religions Chart • Classical Eastern Semi-Religious Philosophies Chart An example of the detail expected of you can be found on the Classical Eastern Semi- Religious Philosophies Chart under Taoism. To help you complete each section of the chart, be sure to keep the following in mind: 1. Symbol—Draw in and name the appropriate symbol for each religion 2. Founder/Patriarch—Name the historical founder (if......

Words: 1449 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Basilica of the Holy Blood Economic Value

...Viet Thao: 331287 c. Elena Loredana Sandu: 294594 | 1/14/2015 1/14/2015 Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction 3 Introduction 3 Problem statement 3 Overview of the report 3 Chapter 2: Literature review 5 Cultural heritage 5 Basilica of the Holly Blood visitor 6 Needs and demands 6 Cultural values (Intrinsic values) 6 Cultural values subsist the economic value 6 Economic value 7 Direct consumption 7 Indirect consumption 7 Beneficial externality 8 Economic value’s measurements 8 Contingent valuation method 8 Travel cost method 8 Choice modelling 9 Chapter 3: Research design/Methodology 10 Conceptual model 10 Research questions 12 Research method 12 Population and sampling 13 Limitations of the research 13 Chapter 4: Results and analysis 14 Research question 1 14 Research question 2 14 Research question 3 16 Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations 19 Appendices 20 Questionnaires matrix 20 SPSS 20 Reference list 26 Chapter 1: Introduction Introduction The Basilica of the Holy Blood is a Roman Catholic basilica in Bruges, Belgium and was originally built in the 12th century as the chapel of the residence of the Count. The uniqueness of the Basilica of Holy Blood lies in its architecture and its myth and mystery. There are 2 chapels inside the Basilica. The lower chapel has the Romanesque structure that is dedicated to St.Basil the Great. This chapel is virtually unchanged. The upper chapel contents......

Words: 8186 - Pages: 33