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ELEC2117
GPS Project Report
William Baxter

z3463372

05/06/2014

Contents
1

OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................... 2

2

DETAILED DESIGN CRITERIA .................................................................................. 2
2.1

Keypad .............................................................................................................. 3

2.2

LCD ................................................................................................................. 3

2.3

GPS .................................................................................................................. 4

2.4

Waypoint System .................................................................................................. 5

2.5

Power Usage ....................................................................................................... 5

3

SOFTWARE DESIGN ............................................................................................... 7
3.1

Interface............................................................................................................. 8

3.2

Keypad .............................................................................................................. 9

3.3

LCD ................................................................................................................ 10

3.4

GPS ................................................................................................................. 11

3.5

Memory management ........................................................................................... 12

3.5.1

GPS coordinates ........................................................................................... 13

3.5.2

Waypoints .................................................................................................. 13

4

TESTING AND RESULTS ......................................................................................... 14

5

DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS ................................................................................... 14
5.1

Keypad redesign .................................................................................................. 15

5.2

Positional accuracies ............................................................................................. 15

5.3

Power consumption.............................................................................................. 16

5.4

Possible system improvements ................................................................................. 16

6

CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................... 16

7

APPENDIX ........................................................................................................... 17

1

1

OVERVIEW

The purpose of this report is to detail the necessary steps which were undertaken to produce a fully-functioning global positioning system and to become familiar with the assembly language program that was used in its design.
In coordination with the provided PIC16F886 microcontroller, this project involved the assimilation of several different modules and their interfacing through a variety of hardware and software means.
The final design involves implementing a system that is capable of displaying the user’s current global position using latitude and longitude in degrees decimal minutes in response to a button press. If the system is unable to obtain a lock on the satellite, an appropriate message must be displayed. The user must also have the ability to input up to three waypoints, each of which corresponding to a specific time and location, with the system signalling the user if they are not present at these specified locations at those particular times.
In retrospect, the project was commenced and accomplished as a series of small problems, with each stemming from the criterions provided in the Detailed Design Criteria section. Through their eventual clarification, the objectives of how to produce a successful GPS with the provided parts and the steps needed to be taken were realised, with the remainder of this report detailing the creative and constructive processes involved.

2

DETAILED DESIGN CRITERIA

The entire GPS system is designed to be a combination of individual components that will work in tandem with one another to produce a viable working system for the user. The key physical components comprising the system were the LCD, keypad and GPS module. As the entire system was designed to be portable, this implied the use of a mobile power source that would allow the user to properly interface with the system.
As the LCD and the keypad were the only forms of interfacing between the user and the system itself, much thought was placed into the user interface and the menus that were to be designed. It was apparent that a robust user interface combined with favourable coding practice could produce a very intuitive system for the user. The
LCD will print messages and characters according to what menu the user is in and in response to any userprovided input. Five LEDs are also used alongside the LCD as a visual indication regarding the user’s whereabouts in relation to their inputted waypoints. In conjunction with the keypad, the software used to implement the final design of the system provides an intuitive and user-friendly experience, with all components being powered off a Duracell Coppertop (6LR61) 9V battery.
The final design criteria for successfully producing this particular system are listed below:
-

Display current position (latitude and longitude) in response to a button press.
Display 'No GPS lock' if there is no GPS lock.
Allow the user to input 3 waypoints.
The system must signal the user if they are not at the specific locations at the specified times.
Must have a simple and intuitive menu system that the user can quickly grasp.
All data being displayed on the LCD must be contained within a 16 character limit to prevent any added viewing complexities.
The final design must be entirely portable and capable of enduring sustained use.

2

2.1 Keypad
The keyboard provided is of a generic hexadecimal format and allows for numeric or alphanumeric information to be entered. Internally, the keypad consists of touch-activated switches arranged in a matrix fashion of rows and columns as shown in Figure 2.1.1. As an input device, this requires the first four pins (columns) to be outputs and the last four pins (rows) to be inputs. The columns of the keypad were pulled up to 5V (active low) using
10kΩ resistors. This was done so as to produce a unique output pattern whenever a key was pressed; with the row of that particular key being connected to its corresponding column. Such a pattern was able to be detected by sending a "walking-zero" pattern over the output lines (rows) and then by reading the input lines (columns); searching for a '0'. The method of determining exactly which key was pressed will be explained under header 3.2 of section 3: Software Design. The circuit diagram in Figure 2 depicts the pin layout and connections that was used to interface the keypad with the PIC microcontroller.

Figure 2.1.1: Touch activated switches arranged in a row and column matrix for the keypad 2.2 LCD
The LCD provided was a PC1601-A LCD display driven by the Samsung KS0066U, with the 64.5 x 13.8mm viewing module providing either a single line or dual line display with up to sixteen characters at a time. Its presaved driver module includes ASCII character patterns which are able to be accessed using the relevant ASM commands and supports sixteen custom-generated characters.
Although sufficient for our uses, this provided very limited interfacing possibilities for the user, with much thought being invested into how this component would interface with the user and any possible restrictions that it might impose. Rectangular in shape, the entire module itself measures 80.0 x 36.0mm, with a dot size of 0.55 x
0.75mm and dot pitch of 0.63 x 0.83mm. Positioned centrally downwards on the board, wire management was imperative towards constructing a nice, clean interface, with wires being tightly routed back to the PIC.
This particular LCD module provided backlighting capabilities, and was able to illuminate the entire viewing module, enhancing its use when in darker environments. The ability to tweak the viewing contrast was also present, providing the user with a multitude of viewing experiences at the cost of power consumption, as will be
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discussed in section 5.2: Power Consumption. Testing resulted in the conclusion that without any backlighting, the display could be rather dim if not outdoors or using a peripheral light source. As such, it was decided to implement the system with backlighting and with a small tweak also being made to the contrast; both considerations aiming to improve the viewing experience.
In terms of pin functions and connections, Table 2.2.1 below describes the function for each pin, with the appropriate connections made to the PIC shown by the circuit diagram in Figure 2.

Pin number

Symbol

Function

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Vss
Vdd
Vo
RS
R/W
E
DB0
DB1
DB2
DB3
DB4
DB5
DB6
DB7
A
K

Power supply (-)
Power supply (+)
Contrast adjust
Register select signal
Data read/write
Enable signal
Data bus line
Data bus line
Data bus line
Data bus line
Data bus line
Data bus line
Data bus line
Data bus line
Power supply for LED B/L (+)
Power supply for LED B/L (-)

Table 2.2.1: Pin functions for the PC1601-A
LCD display

2.3 GPS
The Adafruit Ultimate GPS Breakout v3 module provided is built around the MTK3339 chipset and is able to track up to 22 satellites on 66 channels. Powering off a CR1220 coin cell, the 'Fix' LED blinks at approximately
1Hz while searching for satellites and will blink once every 15 seconds when a fix is found to conserve power. As the PIC16F886 microcontroller supports EUSART (Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter), the GPS module is able to be connected to the appropriate port of the PIC (PORTC) provided that all relevant bits have been set, as shown in section 3: Software Design.
For the purposes of this project, it is not necessary to transmit to the GPS. For this particular system, we are only to read from the GPS and to output the relevant data in a cohesive manner for the user to interpret. Upon performing the necessary software requirements as will be described in the proceeding section, we were able to connect the TX pin of the GPS module to the RX pin of PORTC,7 on the PIC. The only other ports to be connected were the ‘VIN’ (voltage in) and ‘GND’ (ground) pins, as seen in Figure 2.

4

2.4 Waypoint System
Provided that the user has added the necessary data for their desired waypoints, it is necessary to implement a procedure that will automatically verify if the user is present at their desired locations at the specified times.
In order for the system to signal whether the user has arrived at or is absent from a particular waypoint, three blue LEDs are used in coordination with one white ‘scanning’ LED and a red ‘no fix’ LED. If the user is present at a waypoint during the specified time, the LED for that specific waypoint will be off; if not, then the LED will turn on.
The ‘scanning’ LED will flash once every 8 seconds to signify that the current time and user’s position has been updated and cross referenced with the newly retrieved GPS coordinates. With every pulse of the white LED, the user’s current GPS coordinates are being stored inside the allocated general purpose registers (GPRs) and an algorithm used to differentiate whether the current time matches that of the specified time for the desired waypoint. If so, it will continue to resolve whether the user is at that particular waypoint. With each pulse, the system will scan through all three waypoints and signal the user accordingly as to their positional status with respect to all locations.
The red ‘no fix’ LED displays the fix status of the GPS, turning a solid red when a ‘void’ valid bit has been read, and turned off when a fix has been established. When the ‘no fix’ LED burns a solid red, this indicates that the system is not able to perform any waypoint checking procedures, and must wait for the GPS to obtain a lock before comparing the user’s current coordinates to those stored in the waypoint registers.
Figure 2 depicts how the five LEDs are connected within the system, with the three blue LEDS being connected to ports 0, 1 and 2 of PORTC and the white and red LED connected to ports 5 and 4 of PORTC respectively.

2.5 Power Usage
With the system being designed as a mobile GPS unit that the user can carry all times, it was necessary to implement a power source that was small and unobtrusive and was able to provide adequate power to the system for prolonged use.
As most, if not all, components of the system are capable of natively operating at 5V, the L7800 series voltage regulator was used to step down the voltage provided by the Duracell Coppertop Alkaline 9V source to the voltage levels required for suitable operation. As shown section 5.2: Power Consumption, implementing the system in such a manner resulted in the system being capable of providing approximately 4 hours of continuous use to the user on a single battery.
To complement the portability requirements of the final design, all components were mounted on the EMTEK
E-112A prototyping board, with all components positioned towards the centre row of the prototyping board to ensure sturdy, reliable connections were made with the soldered electrical contacts underneath the plastic gridtop.

5

Figure 2: Circuit schematic of the final design

6

3

SOFTWARE DESIGN

As this system was heavily dependent on the software that would combine each of its components as a viable, working product, it was important that the system contain an interface that was as intuitive and user-friendly as possible. This was accomplished through the use of efficient coding technique so as to reduce the number of operations necessary for the PIC to perform throughout its operation. System efficiency was paramount towards obtaining an efficient final design, with 1806 lines of program memory being used by the PIC to implement the final design of the system.
This was done by ensuring that all memory was being managed as efficiently as possible through the use of a variety of memory management techniques, as will be discussed further in this section. Such memory management was vital towards producing an efficiently functioning system, with program memory, general purpose registers and electronically erasable memory
(EEPROM) all being considered as viable methods of satisfying the design criteria towards producing a functionally efficient system. The block diagram in Figure 3.2 below depicts the data and information transfer occurring between each main component in the final design.

Figure 3.1: Total program memory usage of the final design

Interrupts were not used in the final design so as to obtain greater control over the system, determining which functions and routines were to be executed and when. A system of counters and self-implemented flags were used instead to manipulate the flow of subroutines from one operation to another; with this kind of implementation proving difficult to use in regards to interrupts, as it would not be possible for the program to directly access the call stack.

Figure 3.2:
Block diagram depicting data and information flow between each of the main components 7

The form of implementation seen in Figure 3.2 used very little program memory, and proved far more efficient in comparison to earlier iterations of the design. For the remainder of this section, the following headers will describe the processes taking place in the flowchart provided in Figure 7.3 of the Appendix and will detail the relevant levels of abstraction needed to implement each of the functions necessary in ensuring the system’s reliable operation.

3.1 Interface
The final design for this system contained two primary menus: the main home menu shown on system start-up and the waypoint menu with which the user would input their desired coordinates. Being comprised of these two high-level menus, the interface itself seamlessly allows the user to travel back and forth between the two; the two main menus being linked through the use of on-screen instructions and smaller intermediate menus. This was done so as to allow the user to intuitively operate the system without needing to enquire as to the specific functions behind each key.
The home menu displays the ASCII values of the seven keys which each perform different functions, as seen in
Table 3.1.1.

Table 3.1.1: Home screen menu key functions In conjunction with the keypad and the characters ‘|A-O-B-C||F-E-D|’ being displayed like so, the main menu will prompt the user as to which key to press in order to perform additional functions. Each key pressed in the home menu refreshed the display and provided the user with a smaller intermediate menu, displaying the relevant keys with which to perform certain actions. Upon their choosing, the user would be able to press the ‘F’ key within each of these sub-menus to return to the main home screen. This is a significant improvement over previous iterations of the menu, which had no on-screen prompts and a very limited interface; as a first-time user would have had no knowledge of what functions each of the keys performed.
When pressing either of the ‘F’, ‘E’ or ‘D’ keys, the user would enter the waypoint menu, and would be prompted with the display: “Add WP1? Y/N->1/2”, with the waypoint number corresponding to the relevant key being pressed. When confirming the addition of a waypoint, the LCD would print the layout of how the waypoint would be entered, with a blinking cursor signifying the user’s current on-screen position. The time field would display the characters: “Time: HH: MM:SS”, the latitude field displaying “LAT: ----,----.-” and the longitude field displaying: “LON: -----,----.-”. Each of the ‘-’ characters would be overwritten by the user’s input
8

as the relevant ASCII character of the key being pressed was written to the LCD screen, and the cursor automatically being incremented.
Implementing the waypoint menu in such a fashion provided the user with a logical process of entering their desired waypoint data without the use of any additional prompts. The ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ keys also allowed the user to input the global bearings North, South, East and West; allowing the system to function across all quadrants of the globe. Upon completing the fields, or by pressing the ‘F’ key mid-operation, the user would be returned to the main menu screen, with the “Saved” message being displayed if all required fields were correctly entered. 3.2 Keypad
The keypad itself is a vital component of the system, as this is one of the only forms of interfacing that exists between the user and the system. Although very arbitrary in format, it was important to have a robust keypad function that would interpret the user's input according to what menu they were in.
As shown in Figure 7.4 of the Appendix, the 'store' and 'count' variables are used to perform the matrix scanning for the keypad. Upon execution of the key scanning function, all port pins of PORTA must be set to high excluding the first pin, and the carry flag set to high. This particular ‘row’ pattern is stored inside the ‘store’ register, with the ‘count’ register indicating the number of iterations with which to cycle between the rows. As each iteration of the scanning loop is executed, the row pattern is re-energised and rotated throughout the function using the ‘rrf’ ASM command. Upon determining which row contained the key that had been pressed, the column in which the key resided had to be found, and as a pair, could locate the key’s position within the matrix. This was done by performing the XOR (exclusive OR) operation. As the column pins were active low, by performing the XOR operation on the output of the keypad with the data in the ‘store’ register, any changes in bit pattern could be determined, resulting in the relevant key’s position being found.
As the scanning function for the keypad operates at a much faster rate than our human reaction times, a debouncing function must be implemented so as to allow the user to comfortably interface with the system. The release function seen in Figure 7.4 of the Appendix provides a reliable method of determining if the user has held down a key for an extended period of time, rendering that particular key press as invalid.
Initially, the keypad's scanning system was designed to be a function that the program would initially enter before looping consistently. When a button was pressed, the program would go to other pre-determined sections of code, performing any operation that was previously defined for that key. This form of implementation worked well for a majority of the project, however it was rather taxing on program memory, as it involved implementing a look-up table for each menu of the interface. The more significant issue occurred with the final implementation of the waypoint checking function, as this interfered with the counter that was being implemented for the scanning system; as will be elaborated in section 5.1: Keypad redesign. In light of these issues, the keypad scanning function was modified so as to be completely modular; being able to scan the matrix once before returning to its parent function. This was done by having the keypad instead return the ASCII value of the key that was pressed, with its parent function being able to manipulate the data upon return. If no keys had been pressed, the output would be cleared and the scanning function would return a NULL result.
This form of implementation proved highly efficient and rendered the use of a look-up table obsolete. This allowed for the use of peripheral menus without any additional program memory usage, not only improving response time, but allowing for greater usability and an improved user interface.
9

3.3 LCD
For the system to be operational, the LCD was the centrepiece of the project, with all menus and designs catering for its successful operation. In order to implement a robust LCD display function, separate sub-functions had to first be implemented, which would collaborate with one another in order to produce the reliable outputs as seen in the final design of the system.
In order to initialise the LCD and have it ready for the user, the read and write subroutines had to first be implemented. This was performed by observing the read and write operation timing charts provided in
Appendix Figures 7.1 and 7.2. The main difference between writing instructions to the LCD and writing information to the LCD is the status of the Register Select (RS) bit. When the RS bit is high, the byte written to the LCD will be a printable character that the LCD can display; when low, the LCD will perform a predetermined function which will alter the LCD’s internal operation. When writing an instruction from the micro processing unit to the module, the enable of the LCD must first be off, and the information from the ports on the
PIC transferred to the data ports of the LCD. Clearing the Read/Write (R/W) bit, the enable must then be pulsed in order to have the data correctly transferred to the LCD. This can be seen in Figure 7.4 with the
'write_op' subroutine responsible for writing all instruction sets to the LCD’s data lines. Alternatively, the
‘write_MSB_LSB’ subroutine, differing only by the setting of the RS bit, is responsible for writing information to the LCD which is able to be printed in the form of ASCII characters.
Reading from the LCD is slightly more troublesome, as this first involves storing the information held on the ports of the PIC which are connected to the LCD. After disabling the RS bit and enabling the R/W bit, we must set the enable bit of the LCD before transferring the saved data of the PIC ports to a separate register; in this case, 'read_status'. This read operation is a necessity as the LCD cannot properly operate without it. Using simple delays in the hope that the busy flag would be reset during the delayed period proved to be highly inefficient, and resulted in the LCD performing unpredictably.
To ensure a successful write operation, the 'busy_check' subroutine must be used. In conjunction with the read operation, this routine performs a bit check on the separate register containing the saved port information from the PIC. By checking the third bit of the register, we are able to determine if the busy flag is 'high', indicating that an internal operation is being processed. This bit must be checked, as during this time the next instruction cannot be accepted until the busy flag has been returned to the 'low' state. This is an integral part of the LCD's operation, as without it, the LCD will refuse to function correctly and will display incorrect characters. After having composed these read and write subroutines, the initialisation routine was ready to be produced, as shown below. 10

Table 3.3.1: LCD initialisation routine

It would have been possible to implement the LCD in 8-bit mode, however this would require an entire port of the PIC to be dedicated to only the data lines of the LCD. This would prove rather costly for the system's implementation, as we only had 3 peripheral registers to work with (PORTA, PORTB and PORTC), each with exactly 8 ports. To account for this, it was decided that the system would be implemented in 4-bit mode, with each write operation being performed two nibbles at a time in order to transfer an entire instruction to the module. This is shown by the 'write_init' and 'write_char', detailing the switching of the nibbles in the original instruction; moving the least significant nibble first to the LCD, followed by the most significant, which in two cycles allows for the LCD to be given the entire instruction set. This involves the use of a temporary register
'write_reg', which stores the original nibble pattern before swapping them and placing each in the 'W' register, with the busy flag being checked between each nibble operation.
Having completed the necessary subroutines with which to read and write both characters and data to the module, it was essential to account for the very limited user interface. With this particular module, the Samsung
KS0066U, certain regions of memory could be written to but not displayed on screen. This called for the manipulation of the DDRAM addresses inside the LCD, which was the driver memory storing the characters which were to be displayed. This resulted in the screen functioning as two separate halves, with one ranging from
DDRAM addresses 0 to 7, and the other ranging from DDRAM addresses 40 to 47. A counter was implemented that would decrement once every time a character was written to the LCD, and upon having crossed to the second half, peripheral counters were used to ensure that the information displayed onscreen did not push past
DDRAM address 47. In conjunction, the 'clearscreen' function in Figure 7.4 was used when the sixteen character limit was reached, with the DDRAM counter being reset to its initial decimal value of '8'. By doing so, all characters were able to be displayed perfectly on screen without any syntax errors or breaks in the printed string.

3.4 GPS
The EUSART on-board the PIC16F886 transmits and receives data using the standard non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format. NRZ implies that consecutively transmitted data bits of the same value stay at the output level of that bit without returning to a neutral level between each bit transmission; in other words, an NRZ transmission port idles in the mark state. Each character transmission consists of one 'start' bit followed by 8 or 9 data bits and is always terminated by one or more 'stop' bits. The 'start' bit is always a space, and the 'stop' bits are always marks,
11

with the most common data format being 8 bits. The EUSART transmits and receives the LSB first, with the transmitter and receiver being functionally independent, however sharing the same data format and baud rate.
Moving the decimal value of '25' into the SPBRG register sets the baud rate to 9600bps, meaning that the onboard EUSART would be able to transmit one bit at a time at a speed of 9600 bits per second; a method of communication also referred to as TTL serial communication. For the EUSART receiver to be enabled, the following three control bits must be set like so:

Table 3.4.1: EUSART controller bit configurations

All other EUSART control bits are assumed to be in their default state.
The EUSART on-board the PIC already has an in-built busy flag, indicating whether a byte has already been stored in the buffer that is ready to be used. This flag, called the RCIF flag, must be set before the controller is able to read the data from the RX port. After determining if the RCIF flag has been set, it is necessary to check for any framing or over-run errors. A framing error indicates that a ‘stop’ bit was not seen at the expected time, and is accessed via the frame error (FERR) bit of the RCSTA register. Without either ‘start’ or ‘stop’ bit present, the microprocessor would not be able to determine which byte the current information being read belongs to.
The over-run error occurs when the RX port is not being accessed and the buffer that stores the incoming string becomes saturated and unable to hold any more data. However, handling these error checks are extremely simple, and only involves resetting or moving the appropriate bits as seen in Figure 7.4, namely the CREN bits and the RCREG register.
As the project brief required that the user be able to display their current latitude and longitude, it was necessary to filter out the required strings from the stream of data provided by the GPS module. It was decided that in order to store, display and refresh the user's current global coordinates, the '$GPRMC' string had to be obtained from the output stream of the GPS, as this particular NMEA (National Marine Electronics Association) sentence provided the time, fix status, latitude, longitude, ground speed, tracking angle and date. In regards to this system, it was only the time, fix status, latitude and longitude that were of interest to us.

3.5 Memory management
In the final design, it was realised that the sequential use of general purpose registers would be the most efficient form of practice towards producing a system that would require as little use of program memory as possible. For this reason, the use of EEPROM for pre-initialised strings when displaying menus, help prompts, and peripheral messages was considered a non-viable option in regards to the design criteria, as the methods with which to read

12

and write from the stored strings would prove inefficient and nearly as program intensive as simply reading from the GPRs.

3.5.1 GPS coordinates
The 'coord_read' function seen in Figure 7.4 of the Appendix is the routine that searches for the actual
'$GPRMC' string inside the raw GPS output. After finding this particular prefix, a method of memory storage called ‘indirect addressing’ was used. Indirect addressing is a method of register manipulation that allows the program to store certain bytes of information using memory addresses instead of pre-defined register names. This allows for vast amounts of information to be stored quickly and efficiently in sequentially ordered memory.
Having found the necessary NMEA prefix within the GPS’s output, this method of memory addressing was used to store the next thirty-seven bytes of data into the allocated GPRs using the 'store_EUSART' function. After performing the necessary operations provided in the 'time_fix' function, the GMT output from the GPS would be converted to our local Sydney time zone, and stored back into the appropriate registers.
With the data now ready to display to the user, the 'fix_check' subroutine in Figure 7.4 was implemented to account for the "No fix" requirement in the brief. When the GPS would still be finding a fix, the status code of the valid bit would be a 'V', for ‘Void’. If it were an 'A', it would imply ‘Active’; in other words, the GPS now had a lock. To account for when the GPS still hadn't obtained a lock, the value of the appropriate GPR was
XOR'd with the ASCII value 'A'. When the Z flag of the STATUS register was set, this would imply that the GPS had obtained a fix, and the program would continue to write the values stored inside the general purpose registers to the LCD display; once again using indirect addressing. By incrementing the file select register (FSR) and traversing through the thirty-seven GPRs used before, the system was able to display the user's current global coordinates. If the Z flag of the STATUS register was cleared, the words 'No fix...' would appear on-screen for four seconds before returning the user to the main menu.

3.5.2 Waypoints
The method with which the user would set their desired waypoints worked similarly to the method used to store the data obtained from the GPS, except that the data was now inputted via the keypad, with the ASCII value of the key being printed to the LCD screen.
Having to account for three separate locations, the waypoints definitely consumed the most amount of memory, with seventy-five general purpose registers being set aside; twenty-five of the registers dedicated to each waypoint. Only twenty-five registers were needed for each waypoint as the periods and commas were both ignored during the storage of the user’s inputted data. For optimum coding efficiency, the current GPS coordinates were stored on the first bank of program memory, with the entire GPRs of the waypoints residing in the second. Throughout the development of the final design, the 2048 line program memory threshold was never crossed, and as such, neither of the ‘PAGESELLING’ or ‘BANKSELLING’ ASM commands was needed when storing the user’s input into the relevant GPRs. This also resulted in not having to use relocatable code, with the
ASM file able to be compiled as an absolute form of code without requiring any sibling header files with which to function. Considering the amount of time required to perform the waypoint checking function (which could take up to an entire second to perform), it was decided not to use the LCD to prompt the user whether they had arrived at a particular waypoint. Instead, three 20mA blue LEDs would be used to signal the user's presence at a particular
13

waypoint. If the user was present at a waypoint during the specified time, the LED for that waypoint would turn off. However, when not present, the LED would turn on. Albeit simple, this form of signalling was chosen so as to improve the functionality of the system while executing the waypoint checking operation. This was done as once the desired time had been reached, the checking function would perform extensive tests to determine the position of the GPS compared to the waypoint. As seen in the flowchart of Figure 7.3 in the Appendix, the number of subprograms to be executed was rather extensive, and the amount of time required was lengthy compared to other executed routines. This would result in a considerable delay between the LCD interface and the user. This implied that if the LCD were to display a message for each waypoint, the user would be locked out of using the system for a full sixty seconds given the worst case scenario that all three waypoints were set to the same time. The LCD would consistently display whether the user was at these three waypoints and would interrupt any previous tasks the user was performing. The use of LEDs as a signal for waypoint checking allowed the user to still interface with the system while it performed the automatic waypoint check once every eight seconds, improving user functionality and ultimately the user experience. With one LED per waypoint, this would prove sufficient in satisfying the design criteria.

4

TESTING AND RESULTS

Having visited the three locations B617, B616A and B421, the data obtained was tabulated and compared to the survey coordinates provided. The data was obtained by positioning the antennae of the GPS module over the golden bolts planted along the walkway of UNSW, with six readings taken from each of the locations B617,
B616A and B421. As will be discussed in section 5.2: Positional accuracies, these values were compared to the coordinates provided by the UNSW School of Surveying, and would allow for the accuracy of the GPS readings to be determined; with Table 4.1 below displaying the results.

Table 4.1: Results for positional accuracy testing performed on the UNSW walkway

5

DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

Throughout the development and construction of the final design, many challenges were faced with the number of goals to satisfy steadily increasing as the project progressed. This primarily came in the form of software, due to the almost limitless ways of implementing the system, and also in regards to allowing the design meet the criteria imposed by the results of the analyses. This section will discuss the various problems which were encountered during the implementation of the final design and the analyses performed in order to produce a fully functioning system.
14

5.1 Keypad redesign
Initially, all code was dependent upon the key scan function. After declaring and clearing all registers and initialising the EUSART controller, the main menu would jump to the key scan function and loop indefinitely until a key was pressed. However, toward the completion of the project and the implementation of the checking function, this became a significant design flaw as when the checking function's counter had reached zero, the program would cancel whatever routine it was executing and return the user to the home menu. In essence, this meant that every 8 seconds, the user was returned to the main menu regardless of how they interacted with the system. This design flaw was produced by the fact that the keypad scanning system was based on a looped mechanism that would produce an output only if there was input; the program would never leave the scanning function until the user had pressed a key. This resulted in the redesigning of the keypad function to be completely modular, instead returning the value of whatever key was pressed by the user to the program. With these values, each menu was now able to have different key press functions without repeating the same matrix scanning technique, proving far more efficient in terms of program memory usage and execution. As the key scan function was now modular, the waypoint checking counter was now able to function independently of other routines, acting as a global counter that would compare current GPS coordinates and user inputted waypoint data every eight seconds during operation.

5.2 Positional accuracies
The checking function that was implemented to compare the waypoint coordinates to those of the GPS included a
‘rounding’ function due to the slight inaccuracies of the GPS module when in open air. As seen in Table 5.2.1, the coordinates obtained by the GPS contained a small amount of error, with Table 4.1 depicting the second centi-minute fluctuating even when the GPS was laid still over the golden bolts.

Table 5.2.1: Average GPS results for
B617, B616A and B421 with their respective uncertainties At times, these fluctuations would induce a roll-over that would be necessary to consider if the user were to accurately determine if they were at their waypoint. To account for this, a rounding function was implemented so as to provide the user with some leeway when it came to comparing their current GPS coordinates with those of the waypoints. It was determined that the best form of ‘rounding’ would be to check the user's position within a 36 metre grid-span in both the latitude and longitude direction. This was done by discarding the final two digits of the latitude and longitude coordinates and by incrementing and decrementing the tens of milli-minutes; effectively adding +/-1 to the current latitude and longitude readings provided by the GPS. By cross referencing each set of coordinates with those stored for the waypoint, this would ensure that the user’s position was accurate up to 18 metres in either positive or negative direction of latitude and longitude, improving the functionality of the system and its usability when becoming mobile.

15

5.3 Power consumption
Each of the LEDs used in the system has a current draw of 20mA, with five LEDs in total being used for indicating waypoint arrival, scanning and GPS fix status. This implies that the waypoint system could draw up to
100mA when all five LEDs are activated simultaneously. However, the probability for all LEDs to be operating at the same period of time are highly unlikely, as this would require all three waypoints to have the same specified time and the user to not have arrived at either of the three locations while having a no-fix status; which is impossible, as the waypoint system would render all waypoint LEDs inactive if a no-fix status was determined. As such, when idling, the waypoint system would draw only approximately 20mA on average due to the pulsing of the scanning LED, and a possible 80mA when considering the worst case scenario.
With the backlight on, the entire system excluding the waypoint LEDs measured approximately 54.6 mA. With the waypoint LEDs on, this fluctuated to a reading of approximately 63.7 mA due to the consistent pulsing of the scanning LED.
The Duracell Coppertop 9V battery used to power the system has a rated capacity of 550mAh. Using this value in conjunction with a possible current draw of 143.7mA, this implies that the system is able to last for approximately 3.83 hours, or approximately 4 hours before the source is depleted.

5.4 Possible system improvements
Throughout operation, it became apparent that whenever the scanning LED was activated, the entire system was rendered unusable, with the time function hanging on the current second before resuming normal operation post-pulse. This was because the main function that was linked to the key scanning input entered the sub-routine where it would compare the waypoint and GPS times obtained from the module. If a match was determined, then it would perform the necessary calculations to determine whether the user was at the waypoint. This particular type of implementation could be fixed with more efficient coding practices, or through an alternative means of comparing the user’s waypoint data to those obtained from the GPS module.
Additionally, after having left the one minute window after signalling whether the user is at the waypoint or not, the waypoint information is not erased from the relevant GPRs. This means in twenty-four hours, the waypoint will be checked again as the information is still stored. This could be fixed by automatically wiping the information stored in the waypoint GPRs upon every hard-restart of the system, or by implementing a checking function to determine whether the GPS time has surpassed the one minute window, and if so, then automatically deleting the specific waypoint data.

6

CONCLUSION

The project was a success as it was able to meet all relevant criterions provided by the design proposal and resulted in a greater understanding regarding the functional aspects of microcontrollers. A deeper knowledge of lower-level assembly language was also obtained through this interfacing of hardware of software and the fundamentals of machine language and instruction sets.

16

7

APPENDIX

Figure 7.1: Time characteristics when writing data to the LCD

Figure 7.2: Time characteristics when reading data from the LCD

17

Figure 7.3: Flowchart detailing construction and direction flow of software for the final design
18

19

20

21

22

list p=16f886 #include

; list directive to define processor
; processor specific variable definitions

__CONFIG
_CONFIG1, _LVP_OFF & _FCMEN_ON & _IESO_OFF & _BOR_OFF & _CPD_OFF & _CP_OFF
& _MCLRE_ON & _PWRTE_ON & _WDT_OFF & _INTRC_OSC_NOCLKOUT
__CONFIG
_CONFIG2, _WRT_OFF & _BOR21V cblock 0x020
COUNTERL
COUNTERH
INDEX
d1 d2 d3 write_reg address_count read_status valid
EUSART_count
display_reg count store
WP_count

Figure 7.4: Assembly file that was used to implement the final design

endc

w_temp EQU status_temp pclath_temp

0x7D
EQU
EQU

string fix lat_D lat_M lat_O lon_D lon_M lon_O H'30'
H'3B'
H'3D'
H'42'
H'47'
H'49'
H'4F'
H'54'

EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU

0x7E
0x7F

WP_1_time
WP_1_lat_D
WP_1_lat_M
WP_1_lat_O
WP_1_lon_D
WP_1_lon_M
WP_1_lon_O

EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU

H'A0'
H'A6'
H'AA'
H'AE'
H'AF'
H'B4'
H'B8'

WP_2_time
WP_2_lat_D
WP_2_lat_M
WP_2_lat_O
WP_2_lon_D
WP_2_lon_M
WP_2_lon_O

EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU

H'B9'
H'BF'
H'C3'
H'C7'
H'C8'
H'CD'
H'D1'

WP_3_time
WP_3_lat_D
WP_3_lat_M

EQU
EQU
EQU

H'D2'
H'D8'
H'DC'

23

WP_3_lat_O
WP_3_lon_D
WP_3_lon_M
WP_3_lon_O

EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU

H'E0'
H'E1'
H'E6'
H'EA'

WP_loop EQU key_output remove_count keypad_xor interf_delay1 interf_delay2 comp_reg comp_count comp_WP comp_GPS comp_WP_no check_count check_count2 temp_FSR lon_looknice round_reg round_reg1 round_reg2 round_reg3

H'57'
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU

H'58'
H'59'
H'5A'
H'5B'
H'5C'
H'5D'
H'5E'
H'5F'
H'60'
H'61'
H'62'
H'63'
H'64'
H'65'
H'66'
H'67'
H'68'
H'69'

;**********************************************************************
ORG
0x000 ; processor reset vector nop goto

main

; go to beginning of program

ORG

0x004

; interrupt vector location

movwf movf movwf movf movwf

w_temp ; save off current W register contents
STATUS,w
; move status register into W register status_temp ; save off contents of STATUS register
PCLATH,w
; move pclath register into w register pclath_temp ; save off contents of PCLATH register

; isr code can go here or be located as a call subroutine elsewhere movf movwf movf movwf swapf swapf retfie pclath_temp,w
; retrieve copy of PCLATH register
PCLATH ; restore pre-isr PCLATH register contents status_temp,w ; retrieve copy of STATUS register
STATUS ; restore pre-isr STATUS register contents w_temp,f w_temp,w
; restore pre-isr W register contents
; return from interrupt

main
BANKSEL
ANSEL clrf ANSEL clrf ANSELH
BANKSEL
TRISA movlw B'00001111' movwf TRISA clrf TRISB clrf TRISC

24

clrf
TRISC
BANKSEL
PORTC
clrf
PORTC
clrf write_reg clrf read_status clrf address_count clrf valid clrf
EUSART_count
clrf display_reg clrf count clrf store clrf
WP_count
clrf
WP_loop
clrf key_output clrf remove_count clrf keypad_xor clrf interf_delay1 clrf interf_delay2 clrf comp_reg clrf comp_count clrf comp_WP clrf comp_GPS clrf comp_WP_no clrf check_count clrf check_count2 clrf temp_FSR clrf lon_looknice movlw movwf movlw movwf movlw movwf D'8' address_count D'1' check_count D'1' check_count2 ;setting up baud rate
BANKSEL
SPBRG movlw D'25' movwf SPBRG
;configuring TXSTA
BANKSEL
TXSTA movlw B'00100100' movwf TXSTA
;configuring serial port
BANKSEL
RCSTA bsf RCSTA,SPEN bsf RCSTA,CREN call call

LCD_initial delay_150 goto

GPS

;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
INITIALISE MENU
;------------------------------------------------------------------------GPS

25

call menu goto menu_nav ;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
KEYPAD FUNCTIONS
;------------------------------------------------------------------------check_count2_reset
movlw D'255' movwf check_count2 check_count_reset movlw D'255' movwf check_count goto keyscan keypad_input decfsz check_count,1 goto keyscan decfsz check_count2,1 goto check_count_reset bsf PORTC,4 movf FSR,0 movwf temp_FSR call coord_read_time call check_valid movf temp_FSR,0 movwf FSR bcf PORTC,4 goto check_count2_reset keyscan bsf
STATUS,0
movlw B'01111111' movwf store movlw D'04' movwf count rowscan movf movwf movf nop xorwf movwf btfss goto rrf decfsz goto clrf return keypad_release movf movwf movf nop xorwf btfsc goto goto store,0
PORTA
PORTA,0 store,0 keypad_xor
STATUS,2
keypad_release store,1 count,1 rowscan key_output

store,0
PORTA
PORTA,0 store,0 STATUS,2 setchar keypad_release

setchar movf count,0

26

addwf nop goto goto goto goto PCL,1

count1

btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call return

keypad_xor,0 store_1 keypad_xor,1 store_2 keypad_xor,2 store_3 keypad_xor,3 store_F count2

btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call return

keypad_xor,0 store_4 keypad_xor,1 store_5 keypad_xor,2 store_6 keypad_xor,3 store_E count3

btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call return

keypad_xor,0 store_7 keypad_xor,1 store_8 keypad_xor,2 store_9 keypad_xor,3 store_D count4

btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call return

keypad_xor,0 store_A keypad_xor,1 store_0 keypad_xor,2 store_B keypad_xor,3 store_C movlw movwf return

'1' key_output movlw movwf return

'2' key_output movlw movwf return

'3' key_output count1 count2 count3 count4 store_1

store_2

store_3

27

store_4 movlw movwf return '4' key_output movlw movwf return

'5' key_output movlw movwf return

'6' key_output movlw movwf return

'7' key_output movlw movwf return

'8' key_output movlw movwf return

'9' key_output movlw movwf return

'0' key_output movlw movwf return

'A' key_output movlw movwf return

'B' key_output movlw movwf return

'C' key_output movlw movwf return

'D' key_output movlw movwf return

'E' key_output store_5

store_6

store_7

store_8

store_9

store_0

store_A

store_B

store_C

store_D

store_E

store_F movlw 'F' movwf key_output return ;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
MAIN MENU
;------------------------------------------------------------------------menu_nav
call keypad_input movlw

'0'

28

xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc call

key_output,0
STATUS,2
print_time
'B'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
print_latitude
'C'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
print_longitude
'F'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
add_WP1
'E'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
add_WP2
'D'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
add_WP3
'A'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
remove_WP

goto

menu_nav

add_WP1 call add_WP1_loop call movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto goto insert_WP1 movlw movwf goto add_WP2 call add_WP2_loop call movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc double_check_WP1 keypad_input '2' key_output,0 STATUS,2
GPS
'1' key_output,0 STATUS,2 insert_WP1 add_WP1_loop
WP_1_time
FSR waypoint_add double_check_WP2 keypad_input '2' key_output,0 STATUS,2
GPS
'1' key_output,0 STATUS,2

29

goto goto insert_WP2 movlw movwf goto add_WP3 call add_WP3_loop call movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto goto insert_WP3 movlw movwf goto

insert_WP2 add_WP2_loop WP_2_time
FSR
waypoint_add

double_check_WP3 keypad_input '2' key_output,0 STATUS,2
GPS
'1' key_output,0 STATUS,2 insert_WP3 add_WP3_loop
WP_3_time
FSR waypoint_add double_check_WP1 call clearscreen call delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call

'A' write_char 'd' write_char 'd' write_char '' write_char 'W' write_char 'P' write_char '1' write_char '?' write_char '' write_char 'Y' write_char '/' write_char 'N' write_char '~' write_char '1' write_char '/' write_char 30

movlw call '2' write_char return double_check_WP2 call clearscreen call delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call 'A' write_char 'd' write_char 'd' write_char '' write_char 'W' write_char 'P' write_char '2' write_char '?' write_char '' write_char 'Y' write_char '/' write_char 'N' write_char '~' write_char '1' write_char '/' write_char '2' write_char return double_check_WP3 call clearscreen call delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw

'A' write_char 'd' write_char 'd' write_char '' write_char 'W' write_char 'P'

31

call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call

write_char
'3'
write_char
'?'
write_char
''
write_char
'Y'
write_char
'/'
write_char
'N'
write_char
'~'
write_char
'1'
write_char
'/'
write_char
'2'
write_char

return remove_WP call call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw

clearscreen delay_150 'E' write_char 'r' write_char 'a' write_char 's' write_char 'e' write_char '' write_char 'W' write_char 'P' write_char '' write_char '1' write_char '|' write_char '2' write_char '|' write_char '3' write_char '|' write_char 'F'

32

call remove_loop call

write_char

keypad_input

movlw xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc call movlw xorwf btfsc goto '1' key_output,0 STATUS,2 remove_WP_1 '2' key_output,0 STATUS,2 remove_WP_2 '3' key_output,0 STATUS,2 remove_WP_3 'F' key_output,0 STATUS,2
GPS

goto

remove_loop

remove_WP_1 movlw movwf movlw movwf call goto remove_WP_2 movlw movwf movlw movwf call goto remove_WP_3 movlw movwf movlw movwf call goto

'1' key_output WP_1_time
FSR
remove_time remove_message '2' key_output WP_2_time
FSR
remove_time remove_message '3' key_output WP_3_time
FSR
remove_time remove_message remove_time movlw D'6' movwf remove_count remove_loop_time movlw '.' movwf INDF incf FSR,1 decfsz remove_count,1 goto remove_loop_time remove_lat movlw D'9' movwf remove_count remove_loop_lat 33

movlw movwf incf decfsz goto remove_lon movlw movwf remove_loop_lon movlw movwf incf decfsz goto return

'.'
INDF
FSR,1 remove_count,1 remove_loop_lat
D'10'
remove_count
'.'
INDF
FSR,1
remove_count,1 remove_loop_lon remove_message call clearscreen call delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movf call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call

'W' write_char 'P' write_char '' write_char key_output,W write_char '' write_char 'n' write_char 'o' write_char 'w' write_char '' write_char 'r' write_char 'e' write_char 'm' write_char 'o' write_char 'v' write_char 'e' write_char 'd' write_char call goto delay_2
GPS

;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
UART FUNCTIONS
;-------------------------------------------------------------------------

34

overrun_error
BANKSEL
RCSTA bcf RCSTA,CREN bsf RCSTA,CREN goto RX frame_error BANKSEL
RCSTA
movf
RCREG,W
goto
RX
RX
BANKSEL
PIR1 btfss PIR1,RCIF goto RX
BANKSEL
RCSTA btfsc RCSTA,FERR goto frame_error btfsc RCSTA,OERR goto overrun_error
BANKSEL
RCREG movf RCREG,W
BANKSEL
PORTA return coord_read call xorlw btfss goto call xorlw btfss goto call xorlw btfss goto call xorlw btfss goto call xorlw btfss goto call xorlw btfss goto call xorlw btfss goto movlw movwf call RX
'$'
STATUS,2 coord_read RX
'G'
STATUS,2 coord_read RX
'P'
STATUS,2 coord_read RX
'R'
STATUS,2 coord_read RX
'M'
STATUS,2 coord_read RX
'C'
STATUS,2 coord_read RX
','
STATUS,2 coord_read D'37'
EUSART_count
store_EUSART

35

call return time_fix

movlw movwf movf xorlw btfss goto return

fix
FSR
INDF,W
'A'
STATUS,2 no_fix movlw movwf btfsc goto btfsc goto incf return string
FSR
INDF,0 time_case_1 INDF,1 time_case_2 INDF,1

fix_check

time_fix

time_case_1 incf btfsc goto btfsc goto decf incf return

FSR,1
INDF,2
time_case_1_4
INDF,3
time_case_1_4
FSR,1
INDF,1

time_case_1_4 decf decf decf decf decf decf

INDF,1
INDF,1
INDF,1
INDF,1
FSR,1
INDF,1

return time_case_2 decf decf incf incf incf incf incf incf incf

INDF,1
INDF,1
FSR,1
INDF,1
INDF,1
INDF,1
INDF,1
INDF,1
INDF,1

;Take off 4 hours
;Take off 10 hours

;Take off 20 hours

;Add 6 hours

return print_time call call movlw

clearscreen delay_150 'T'

36

call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call time_loop_1 movlw movwf time_loop_2 movwf time_loop_3 call movlw xorwf btfsc goto decfsz goto decfsz goto call movlw call movlw movwf movlw movwf loop_time_hour call incf decfsz goto movlw call movlw movwf loop_time_min call incf decfsz goto movlw call movlw write_char
'i'
write_char
'm'
write_char
'e'
write_char
':'
write_char
''
write_char
''
write_char
''
write_char

D'37' interf_delay1 movlw D'255' interf_delay2 keypad_input
'F'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
GPS interf_delay2,1 time_loop_3 interf_delay1,1 time_loop_2 coord_read B'10101000' write_init string
FSR
D'2' display_reg movf
INDF,W
write_char
FSR,1
display_reg,1 loop_time_hour ':' write_char D'2' display_reg movf
INDF,W
write_char
FSR,1
display_reg,1 loop_time_min ':' write_char D'2'

37

movwf loop_time_sec call incf decfsz goto goto

display_reg movf INDF,W write_char FSR,1 display_reg,1 loop_time_sec time_loop_1 print_latitude call call

clearscreen delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call 'L' write_char 'A' write_char 'T' write_char ':' write_char '' write_char lat_reset call call movlw movwf movlw movwf loop_lat movf call incf decfsz goto

coord_read fix_check lat_D
FSR
D'11' display_reg INDF,W write_char FSR,1 display_reg,1 loop_lat

lat_loop_1 movlw movwf

D'100' interf_delay1 lat_loop_2 movwf lat_loop_3 call movlw xorwf btfsc goto decfsz goto decfsz goto movlw D'255' interf_delay2 keypad_input
'F'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
GPS interf_delay2,1 lat_loop_3 interf_delay1,1 lat_loop_2

movlw call movlw movwf B'10000101' write_init D'3' address_count goto

lat_reset

38

print_longitude call call bsf movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call clearscreen delay_150 lon_looknice,0
'L'
write_char
'O'
write_char
'N'
write_char
':'
write_char

lon_reset call call movlw movwf movlw movwf loop_lon movf call incf decfsz goto

coord_read fix_check lon_D
FSR
D'12' display_reg INDF,W write_char FSR,1 display_reg,1 loop_lon

lon_loop_1 movlw movwf

D'100' interf_delay1 lon_loop_2 movwf lon_loop_3 call movlw xorwf btfsc goto decfsz goto decfsz goto movlw D'255' interf_delay2 keypad_input
'F'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
GPS interf_delay2,1 lon_loop_3 interf_delay1,1 lon_loop_2

movlw call movlw movwf B'10000100' write_init D'4' address_count goto

lon_reset

store_EUSART movlw string movwf FSR store_EUSART_loop call
RX
movwf INDF incf FSR,1

39

decfsz goto return

EUSART_count,1 store_EUSART_loop btfsc call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call lon_looknice,0 move 'N' write_char 'o' write_char '' write_char 'f' write_char 'i' write_char 'x' write_char '.' write_char '.' write_char '.' write_char clrf call call

lon_looknice delay_2 delay_2

goto

GPS

call decf return

increment_cursor address_count,1 no_fix

move

;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
LCD FUNCTIONS
;------------------------------------------------------------------------LCD_initial
call delay_150 movlw b'00000011' call write_op call delay_10 movlw b'00000011' call write_op call delay_10 movlw b'00000011' call write_op call delay_10 movlw b'00000010' call write_init movlw b'01001000' call write_init movlw b'00001000' call write_init movlw b'00001100' call write_init

40

movlw call movlw call movlw call b'00000110' write_init b'00000001' write_init b'00001100' write_init call call clearscreen delay_150 return clearscreen movlw call movlw movwf return

b'00000001' write_init D'8' address_count menu call call

clearscreen delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call '|' write_char 'A' write_char '-' write_char 'O' write_char '-' write_char 'B' write_char '-' write_char 'C' write_char '|' write_char '|' write_char 'F' write_char '-' write_char 'E' write_char '-' write_char 'D' write_char '|' write_char return write_init 41

movwf swapf call call write_reg write_reg,W write_op busy_check movf call call return write_reg,W write_op busy_check

;for writing nibbles of info to LCD data lines write_op bcf
PORTC,3 ;enable off nop movwf PORTB ;write info to data ports bcf PORTB,5 ;RS is 0 bcf PORTB,4 ;R/W is 0 bsf PORTC,3 ;enable on nop bcf
PORTC,3 ;enable off return ;for writing nibbles of characters to LCD data lines write_MSB_LSB bcf
PORTC,3 ;enable off nop movwf PORTB ;write info to data ports bsf PORTB,5 ;RS is 1 bcf PORTB,4 ;R/W is 0 bsf PORTC,3 ;enable on nop bcf
PORTC,3 ;enable off return write_char movwf swapf call call

write_reg write_reg,W write_MSB_LSB busy_check movf call call

write_reg,W write_MSB_LSB busy_check

call return LCD_check

LCD_check decfsz return call return
DDRAM_change
movlw call call return address_count,1
DDRAM_change

B'10101000' write_init delay_10

42

read_op
BANKSEL
TRISB movlw B'00001111' movwf TRISB
BANKSEL
PORTB bcf bsf nop bsf nop movf movwf PORTB,5 ;RS is 0
PORTB,4 ;R/W is 1

bcf bcf bcf

PORTC,3 ;enable is off
PORTB,4 ;R/W is 0
PORTB,5 ;RS is 0

PORTC,3 ;enable is on
PORTB,W
read_status

BANKSEL clrf TRISB
BANKSEL
return busy_check call btfsc goto return TRISB
PORTC

read_op read_status,3 busy_check

;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
WAYPOINTS
;------------------------------------------------------------------------waypoint_add movlw B'00001111' call write_init call call

clearscreen delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call 'T' write_char 'i' write_char 'm' write_char 'e' write_char ':' write_char '' write_char '' write_char '' write_char movlw call movlw

B'10101000' write_init 'H'

43

call movlw call call movlw call movlw call call movlw call movlw call

write_char
'H'
write_char increment_cursor 'M' write_char 'M' write_char increment_cursor
'S'
write_char
'S'
write_char

movlw call movlw call call call movlw call movlw call B'10101010' write_init ':' write_char increment_cursor increment_cursor ':' write_char B'10101000' write_init movlw D'3' movwf WP_loop waypoint_time movlw D'2' movwf WP_count waypoint_loop_time call
WP_set_keypad
decfsz WP_count,1 goto waypoint_loop_time call increment_cursor decfsz WP_loop,1 goto waypoint_time call call call call call call

delay_150 delay_150 delay_150 delay_150 clearscreen delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call 'L' write_char 'A' write_char 'T' write_char ':' write_char '' write_char movlw

D'3'

44

movwf movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call call movlw call

address_count
'-'
write_char
'-'
write_char
'-'
write_char
'-'
write_char increment_cursor '-' write_char '-' write_char '-' write_char '-' write_char increment_cursor
'-'
write_char

movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw movwf B'10101001' write_init '.' write_char B'10101110' write_init ',' write_char B'10000101' write_init D'3' address_count movlw movwf waypoint_lat movlw movwf waypoint_loop_lat call decfsz goto call decfsz goto call

D'2'
WP_loop
D'4'
WP_count
WP_set_keypad
WP_count,1
waypoint_loop_lat increment_cursor WP_loop,1 waypoint_lat WP_set_keypad

call call call call call call delay_150 delay_150 delay_150 delay_150 clearscreen delay_150 movlw call movlw

'L' write_char 'O'

45

call movlw call movlw call

write_char
'N'
write_char
':'
write_char

movlw movwf movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call call movlw call D'4' address_count '-' write_char '-' write_char '-' write_char '-' write_char '-' write_char increment_cursor
'-'
write_char
'-'
write_char
'-'
write_char
'-'
write_char increment_cursor '-' write_char movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw movwf B'10101001' write_init '.' write_char B'10101110' write_init ',' write_char B'10000100' write_init D'4' address_count movlw D'5' movwf WP_count waypoint_loop_lon_1 call
WP_set_keypad
decfsz WP_count,1 goto waypoint_loop_lon_1 call increment_cursor movlw movwf

D'4'
WP_count

waypoint_loop_lon_2 call WP_set_keypad decfsz WP_count,1 goto waypoint_loop_lon_2

46

call call increment_cursor
WP_set_keypad

goto

saved

call call call call call call delay_150 delay_150 delay_150 delay_150 clearscreen delay_150 movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call movlw call '' write_char '' write_char '' write_char '' write_char '' write_char 'S' write_char 'a' write_char 'v' write_char 'e' write_char 'd' write_char '' write_char '' write_char '' write_char '' write_char '' write_char '' write_char call

delay_2

movlw call B'00001100' write_init goto

GPS

saved

increment_cursor movlw B'00010100' call write_init return WP_set_keypad

47

call movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf

keypad_input
'0'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'1'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'2'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'3'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'4'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'5'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'6'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'7'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'8'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'9'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypad2
'A'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypadN
'B'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypadS
'C'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypadE
'D'
key_output,0
STATUS,2
WP_set_keypadW
'F'
key_output,0

48

btfsc goto STATUS,2
WP_set_keypadF

goto

WP_set_keypad

WP_set_keypad2 movf movwf call incf return WP_set_keypadN movlw movwf call incf return WP_set_keypadS movlw movwf call incf return WP_set_keypadE movlw movwf call incf return WP_set_keypadW movlw movwf call incf return WP_set_keypadF movlw call goto key_output,0
INDF
write_char
FSR,1

'N'
INDF
write_char
FSR,1

'S'
INDF
write_char
FSR,1

'E'
INDF
write_char
FSR,1

'W'
INDF
write_char
FSR,1

B'00001100' write_init GPS

;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
WAYPOINT CHECKING
;------------------------------------------------------------------------coord_read_time
call
RX
xorlw
'$'
btfss
STATUS,2
goto coord_read_time call
RX
xorlw
'G'
btfss
STATUS,2
goto coord_read_time call
RX
xorlw
'P'
btfss
STATUS,2
goto coord_read_time call
RX
xorlw
'R'
btfss
STATUS,2

49

goto call xorlw btfss goto call xorlw btfss goto call xorlw btfss goto movlw movwf call call return compare_general movf incf movwf movf movwf movf incf movwf movf return check_valid movlw movwf movf xorlw btfss goto bcf check_time movlw movwf movlw movwf call movlw movwf movlw movwf call movlw movwf movlw movwf call return compare_time movlw coord_read_time
RX
'M'
STATUS,2
coord_read_time
RX
'C'
STATUS,2
coord_read_time
RX
','
STATUS,2
coord_read_time
D'12'
EUSART_count store_EUSART time_fix

comp_WP,0 comp_WP,1 FSR
INDF,0
comp_reg comp_GPS,0 comp_GPS,1
FSR
INDF,0

fix
FSR
INDF,0
'A'
STATUS,2 no_valid PORTC,5
WP_1_time
comp_WP
'1'
comp_WP_no compare_time WP_2_time comp_WP '2' comp_WP_no compare_time
WP_3_time
comp_WP
'3'
comp_WP_no compare_time string

50

movwf comp_GPS movlw D'4' movwf comp_count compare_time_loop call compare_general xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss
STATUS,2
goto no_match decfsz comp_count,1 goto compare_time_loop call coord_read incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 compare_lat_D movlw lat_D movwf comp_GPS movlw D'3' movwf comp_count compare_lat_D_loop call compare_general xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss
STATUS,2
goto not_at_WP decfsz comp_count,1 goto compare_lat_D_loop movf movwf movf movwf movlw movwf movf movwf incf movf movwf lat_checking_00 movlw xorwf btfss goto movlw xorwf btfss goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto lat_up_check_01 movf movwf movf xorwf btfss

comp_GPS,0
FSR
INDF,0 round_reg3 lat_M
FSR
INDF,0 round_reg2 FSR,1
INDF,0
round_reg1
'0'
round_reg2,0
STATUS,2
lat_checking_99
'0'
round_reg1,0
STATUS,2
compare_lat_D_continue
'0'
round_reg3,0
STATUS,2
compare_lat_D_continue

comp_WP,0
FSR
INDF,0 round_reg3,0 STATUS,2

51

goto lat_lower_check_99 lat_up_check_follow_on_01 incf FSR,1 movf INDF,0 xorlw '0' btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP incf movf xorlw btfss goto movf movwf incf incf incf goto FSR,1
INDF,0
'1'
STATUS,2
lat_middle_check_00
FSR,0
comp_WP comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 compare_lat_O

lat_middle_check_00 movf INDF,0 xorlw '0' btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP movf FSR,0 movwf comp_WP incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 goto compare_lat_O

lat_lower_check_99 decf round_reg3,1 movf INDF,0 xorwf round_reg3,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP incf FSR,1 movf INDF,0 xorlw '9' btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP incf FSR,1 movf INDF,0 xorlw '9' btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP movf FSR,0 movwf comp_WP incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 goto compare_lat_O

lat_checking_99

52

movlw '9' xorwf round_reg2,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto compare_lat_D_continue movlw '9' xorwf round_reg1,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto compare_lat_D_continue movlw '9' xorwf round_reg3,0 btfsc STATUS,2 goto compare_lat_D_continue lat_up_check_00 movf comp_WP,0 movwf FSR movf INDF,0 incf round_reg3,1 xorwf round_reg3,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto lat_middle_check_99 lat_up_check_follow_on_00 incf
FSR,1
movf
INDF,0
xorlw
'0'
btfss
STATUS,2
goto not_at_WP incf movf xorlw btfss goto movf movwf incf incf incf goto

FSR,1
INDF,0
'0'
STATUS,2
not_at_WP
FSR,0
comp_WP comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 compare_lat_O

lat_middle_check_99 movf INDF,0 decf round_reg3,1 xorwf round_reg3,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP incf movf xorlw btfss goto FSR,1
INDF,0
'9'
STATUS,2
not_at_WP

incf movf xorlw btfss goto movf movwf

FSR,1
INDF,0
'9'
STATUS,2
lat_lower_check_98
FSR,0
comp_WP

53

incf incf incf goto comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 compare_lat_O lat_lower_check_98 movf INDF,0 xorlw '8' btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP movf FSR,0 movwf comp_WP incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 goto compare_lat_O compare_lat_D_continue movlw H'40' movwf comp_GPS call compare_general xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP compare_lat_M_first movlw lat_M movwf comp_GPS call compare_general xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP compare_lat_M_second call compare_general movwf round_reg movlw '0' xorwf round_reg,0 btfsc STATUS,2 goto normal_lat_checking_function movlw '9' xorwf round_reg,0 btfsc STATUS,2 goto normal_lat_checking_function movf round_reg,0 incf round_reg,1 movf round_reg,0 xorwf comp_reg,0 btfsc STATUS,2 goto lat_M_round2 decf round_reg,1 movf round_reg,0 xorwf comp_reg,0 btfsc STATUS,2 goto lat_M_round2 decf round_reg,1 movf round_reg,0 xorwf comp_reg,0 btfsc STATUS,2 goto lat_M_round2

54

goto

not_at_WP

normal_lat_checking_function movf round_reg,0 xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP lat_M_round2 incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 compare_lat_O movlw lat_O movwf comp_GPS call compare_general xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP

compare_lon_D movlw lon_D movwf comp_GPS movlw D'4' movwf comp_count compare_lon_D_loop call compare_general xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss
STATUS,2
goto not_at_WP decfsz comp_count,1 goto compare_lon_D_loop movf comp_GPS,0 movwf FSR movf INDF,0 movwf round_reg3 movlw lon_M movwf FSR movf INDF,0 movwf round_reg2 incf FSR,1 movf INDF,0 movwf round_reg1 lon_checking_00 movlw '0' xorwf round_reg2,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto lon_checking_99 movlw '0' xorwf round_reg1,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto compare_lon_D_continue movlw '0' xorwf round_reg3,0 btfsc STATUS,2 goto compare_lon_D_continue lon_up_check_01 movf comp_WP,0 55

movwf FSR movf INDF,0 xorwf round_reg3,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto lon_lower_check_99 lon_up_check_follow_on_01 incf
FSR,1
movf
INDF,0
xorlw
'0'
btfss
STATUS,2
goto not_at_WP incf movf xorlw btfss goto movf movwf incf incf incf goto

FSR,1
INDF,0
'1'
STATUS,2
lon_middle_check_00
FSR,0
comp_WP comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 compare_lon_O

lon_middle_check_00 movf INDF,0 xorlw '0' btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP movf FSR,0 movwf comp_WP incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 goto compare_lon_O lon_lower_check_99 decf round_reg3,1 movf
INDF,0
xorwf round_reg3,0 btfss
STATUS,2
goto not_at_WP incf
FSR,1
movf
INDF,0
xorlw
'9'
btfss
STATUS,2
goto not_at_WP incf
FSR,1
movf
INDF,0
xorlw
'9'
btfss
STATUS,2
goto not_at_WP movf
FSR,0
movwf comp_WP incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 goto compare_lon_O

56

lon_checking_99 movlw '9' xorwf round_reg2,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto compare_lon_D_continue movlw '9' xorwf round_reg1,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto compare_lon_D_continue movlw '9' xorwf round_reg3,0 btfsc STATUS,2 goto compare_lon_D_continue lon_up_check_00 movf comp_WP,0 movwf FSR movf INDF,0 incf round_reg3,1 xorwf round_reg3,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto lon_middle_check_99 lon_up_check_follow_on_00 incf
FSR,1
movf
INDF,0
xorlw
'0'
btfss
STATUS,2
goto not_at_WP incf movf xorlw btfss goto movf movwf incf incf incf goto

FSR,1
INDF,0
'0'
STATUS,2
not_at_WP
FSR,0
comp_WP comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 compare_lon_O

lon_middle_check_99 movf INDF,0 decf round_reg3,1 xorwf round_reg3,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP incf movf xorlw btfss goto FSR,1
INDF,0
'9'
STATUS,2
not_at_WP

incf movf xorlw btfss goto

FSR,1
INDF,0
'9'
STATUS,2
lon_lower_check_98

57

movf movwf incf incf incf goto FSR,0 comp_WP comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 comp_WP,1 compare_lon_O lon_lower_check_98 movf INDF,0 xorlw '8' btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP movf FSR,0 movwf comp_WP incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 goto compare_lon_O compare_lon_D_continue movlw H'4D' movwf comp_GPS call compare_general xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP compare_lon_M_first movlw movwf call xorwf btfss goto lon_M comp_GPS compare_general comp_reg,0 STATUS,2 not_at_WP compare_lon_M_second call movwf movlw xorwf btfsc goto movlw xorwf btfsc goto movf incf movf xorwf btfsc goto decf movf xorwf btfsc goto compare_general round_reg '0' round_reg,0 STATUS,2 normal_lon_checking_function '9' round_reg,0 STATUS,2 normal_lon_checking_function round_reg,0 round_reg,1 round_reg,0 comp_reg,0 STATUS,2 lon_M_round2 round_reg,1 round_reg,0 comp_reg,0
STATUS,2
lon_M_round2

58

decf movf xorwf btfsc goto goto round_reg,1 round_reg,0 comp_reg,0
STATUS,2
lon_M_round2 not_at_WP normal_lon_checking_function movf round_reg,0 xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP lon_M_round2 incf comp_WP,1 incf comp_WP,1 compare_lon_O movlw lon_O movwf comp_GPS call compare_general xorwf comp_reg,0 btfss STATUS,2 goto not_at_WP at_WP movlw xorwf btfsc bcf movlw xorwf btfsc bcf movlw xorwf btfsc bcf return not_at_WP movlw xorwf btfsc bsf movlw xorwf btfsc bsf movlw xorwf btfsc bsf return no_match movlw xorwf btfsc bcf movlw

'1' comp_WP_no,0 STATUS,2
PORTC,2
'2' comp_WP_no,0 STATUS,2
PORTC,1
'3' comp_WP_no,0 STATUS,2
PORTC,0

'1' comp_WP_no,0 STATUS,2
PORTC,2
'2' comp_WP_no,0 STATUS,2
PORTC,1
'3' comp_WP_no,0 STATUS,2
PORTC,0

'1' comp_WP_no,0 STATUS,2
PORTC,2
'2'

59

xorwf btfsc bcf movlw xorwf btfsc bcf return comp_WP_no,0
STATUS,2
PORTC,1
'3'
comp_WP_no,0
STATUS,2
PORTC,0

bsf return PORTC,5

no_valid

;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
DELAYS
;------------------------------------------------------------------------delay_10 movlw 0xCE movwf d1 movlw 0x08 movwf d2 delay_10_0 decfsz d1, f goto $+2 decfsz d2, f goto delay_10_0 goto $+1 nop return delay_150 movlw 0x2E movwf d1 movlw 0x76 movwf d2 delay_150_0 decfsz d1, f goto $+2 decfsz d2, f goto delay_150_0 goto $+1 nop return delay_2 movlw movwf movlw movwf movlw movwf delay_2_0 decfsz goto decfsz goto decfsz goto return 0x11 d1 0x5D d2 0x05 d3 d1, f
$+2
d2, f
$+2
d3, f delay_2_0 60

;------------------------------------------------------------------------;
END
;------------------------------------------------------------------------END

61

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