Free Essay

2g Scam

In: Other Topics

Submitted By priyesh29
Words 551
Pages 3
2G Scam an UPDATE

From the time allegations of misappropriation during the bidding for allocation of 2G spectrum surfaced, till Telecom Minister A Raja's ouster, high drama charged both politics in Delhi and Tamil Nadu. So what exactly is the Spectrum Scam that led to all this?

WHAT IS SPECTRUM SCAM? • 2G licenses issued to private telecom players at throwaway prices in 2008 • CAG: Spectrum scam has cost the government Rs. 1.76 lakh crore • CAG: Rules and procedures flouted while issuing licenses
WHAT ARE THE CHARGES ON FORMER TELECOM MINISTER A RAJA? CHEAP TELECOM LICENSES • Entry fee for spectrum licenses in 2008 pegged at 2001 prices • Mobile subscriber base had shot up to 350 million in 2008 from 4 million in 2001 NO PROCEDURES FOLLOWED

• Rules changed after the game had begun • Cut-off date for applications advanced by a week • Licenses issued on a first-come-first-served basis • No proper auction process followed, no bids invited • Raja ignored advice of TRAI, Law Ministry, Finance Ministry • TRAI had recommended auctioning of spectrum at market rates

FAVOURITISM, CORPORATES ENCASH PREMIUM • Unitech, Swan Telecom got licenses without any prior telecom experience • Swan Telecom given license even though it did not meet eligibility criteria • Swan got license for Rs. 1537 crore, sold 45% stake to Etisalat for Rs. 4200 crore • Unitech Wireless got license for Rs. 1661 crore, sold 60% stake for Rs. 6200 crore • All nine companies paid DoT only Rs. 10,772 crore for 2G licences

STORY:
"The entire process of allocation of UAS (Unified Access Service) licences lacked transparency and was undertaken in an arbitrary, unfair and inequitable manner. The Hon'ble Prime Minister had stressed on the need for a fair and transparent allocation of spectrum, and the ministry of finance had sought for the decision regarding spectrum pricing to be considered by an EGoM. Brushing aside their concerns and advices, DoT , in 2008, proceeded to issue 122 new licenses for 2G spectrum at 2001 prices, by flouting every canon of financial propriety, rules and procedures,"
In November 2007, PM Manmohan Singh wrote to Raja expressing concern that given inadequate spectrum and the unprecedented number of applications received from fresh licenses, an auction process be followed. Raja replied saying that the auction of spectrum was considered by both TRAI and Telecom Commission and that his ministry has come to a conclusion that an auction "will be unfair, discriminator and capricious" as it would distort the level-playing field for new entrants.
The finance ministry questioned the "sanctity of continuing with a price determined way back in 2001 without any indexation or current valuation and sought review of the matter." DoT member (finance) agreed with the finance ministry, and sought an "in-depth analysis of the issue prior to taking any further action." To this Raja audaciously wrote: "These types of continuous confusions observed on the file whoever be the officer concerned do not show any legitimacy and integrity but only their vested interest."
As a matter of fact, DoT did not follow "its own guidelines on eligibility conditions arbitrarily changed the cut-off date for receipt of applications post facto and altered the conditions of the FCFS (first-come first-serve) procedure at crucial junctures without valid and cogent reasons, which gave unfair advantage to certain companies,"

Similar Documents

Free Essay

2g Scam

...Financial Frauds in India The 2G scam Aniruddh Narsimhan - P35114 Disha - P35125 Manu Vatayan – P35149 Mrinalini - P35152 Svethal Bhasin - P35188 2G spectrum scam took place in India in late 2000’s which involved politicians and government officials who tried illegal undercharging mobile telephone companies for frequency allocation licenses, which they would then use to create 2G spectrum subscriptions for mobiles. The entire process of allocation of UAS licences lacked transparency and was undertaken in an arbitrary, unfair and inequitable manner. The Hon'ble Prime Minister had stressed on the need for a fair and transparent allocation of spectrum. Let us understand the intricacies of the scam. What is Spectrum? Radio Frequency Spectrum is the entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation which is used as carrier of wireless transmission and thus a basic requirement for providing wireless services. It is a finite but non-consumable global natural resource and commands high economic value in the telecommunication sector In simple words , Whenever data is being transferred from one place to another, say Ahmedabad to Mumbai. So, If data was a “truck”, how would you transport it from Ahmedabad to Mumbai ? Obviously through a path. Spectrum is that path. Radio frequency spectrum, i.e., the entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, is a finite global natural resource with a high economic value, due to its heavy demand in the......

Words: 5398 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

2g Scam and Its Effect

...The 2G spectrum scam in India involved the issue of 1232 licenses by the ruling Congress-led UPA alliance[1] of the 2G spectrum to 85 companies[1] including many new telecom companies with little or no experience in the telecom sector at a price set in the year 2001. The scam involved allegations regarding the under pricing of the 2G spectrum by the Department of Telecommunications which resulted in a heavy loss to the exchequer, and the illegal manipulation of the spectrum allocation process to favour select companies The issue came to light after the auction of airwaves for 3G services which amounted to 677,190 crore (US$151.01 billion) to the exchequer.[2] A report submitted by the Comptroller and Auditor General based on the money collected from 3G licenses estimated that the loss to the exchequer due to under pricing of the 2G spectrum was 176,379 crore (US$39.33 billion).[3] The scam came to public notice when the Supreme Court of India took Subramaniam Swamy's complaints on record [With Case type:Writ Petition (Civil),Case No:10, Year:2011].[4]All the accused have been booked under sections 120(B) (criminal conspiracy), 468 (Forgery for purpose of cheating), 471 (using as genuine a forged document or electronic record), 420 (cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property) and 109 (abetment if the act abetted is committed in consequence, and where no express provision is made for its punishment) of the Indian Penal Code.[5] Politicians, Ministers and......

Words: 2542 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Ethics and 2g Scam

...Ethics and Value Management The2G Scam A Students Initiative. Table of Content 1. Abstract 1.1 Introduction 2. Ethical Issues 3. Ethical Dilemma’s 3.1. Dilemma faced by A. Raja 3.1.1. Role of A. Raja 3.1.2. Ethical Theories 3.1.3. Cost and Benefit analysis 3.1.4. Recommendation for resolving the Dilemma 3.2. Dilemma faced by Corporates 3.2.1. Role of Corporates 3.2.2 Ethical Theories 3.2.3. Cost and Benefit analysis 3.2.4. Recommendation for resolving the Dilemma 3.3. Dilemma faced by Government 3.3.1. Role of Government 3.3.2. Ethical Theories 3.3.3. Cost and Benefit analysis 3.3.4. Recommendation for resolving the Dilemma 3.4 Dilemma faced by Media 3.4.1. Role of Media 3.4.2. Ethical Theories 3.4.3. Recommendation for resolving the Dilemma 4. Recommendations for avoiding recurrence of the issue 4.1 Plan to avoid recurrence of such a scam 1|Page 5. References 5.1. Websites 5.2. Books 2|Page 1. Abstract 1.1. Introduction: The 2G spectrum scam involved politicians and government officials in India illegally undercharging mobile telephony companies for frequency allocation licenses, which they would then use to create 2G subscriptions for cell phones. The shortfall between the money collected and the money that the law mandated to be collected is estimated to be 176,645 Crore (US$32.15 billion), as valued by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India based on 3G and BWA spectrum auction prices in 2010. However, the exact loss is disputed. The Supreme......

Words: 4651 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Migration Form 2g to 3g

...Migration from 2G to 3G - Options: Evolution of Mobile Technologies: The Migration Path This is a brief overview of what has been already done and possible expected migration path of mobile operators. At the 2G phase, there were three major dominant systems in market: a) GSM operating in 900, 1800 and 1900MHz band, b) TDMA operating in 800MHz, 1900MHz and 850MHz (North America), and c) CDMA (IS-95) operating in 1900 and 800MHz band. 2G systems offered enhanced voice services and improved capacity to its customers. With the growing demand in mobile services and the need to connect corporate networks for data communications, an intermediate generation (2.5G) of technologies were developed: GPRS and EDGE (both in the GSM family), and cdma2000 1X-RTT. While migrating from 2G to 2.5G, operators made decisions based on their future planning and business interests targeting third generation (3G) networks. From 2G to 2.5G, GSM operators migrated to GPRS and EDGE systems with some of the TDMA operators also migrating to GSM/GPRS systems (see figure 1). Among them * Vodafone is the largest player with a global foot print in offering GSM/GPRS ser-vices. * Prominent TDMA operators in the United States include AT&T Wireless and Cingular Wireless. * Another major operator includes T-Mobile-USA, offering GSM/GPRS services. * In India, Bharti Cellular (AirTel), IDEA Cellular, Hutchison are some of the GPRS operators whose GPRS networks are in......

Words: 1405 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Me Myself and I

...Third Generation (3G) mobile devices and services will transform wireless communications in to on-line, real-time connectivity. 3G wireless technology will allow an individual to have immediate access to location-specific services that offer information on demand. Mobile phones are rapidly becoming the preferred means of personal communication, creating the world's largest consumer electronics industry. The rapid and efficient deployment of new wireless data and Internet services has emerged as a critical priority for communications equipment manufacturers. Network components that enable wireless data services are fundamental to the next-generation network infrastructure. Wireless data services are expected to see the same explosive growth in demand that Internet services and wireless voice services have seen in recent years. Telecommunications service providers and network operators are embracing the recently adopted global third generation (3G) wireless standards in order to address emerging user demands and to provide new services. The concept of 3G wireless technology represents a shift from voice-centric services to multimedia-oriented (voice, data, video, fax) services. In addition, heavy demand for remote access to personalized data is fueling development of applications, such as the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and multimedia management, to complement the 3G protocols. Complementary standards, such as Bluetooth, will enable interoperability between a mobile......

Words: 278 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bodybuilding

...3/23/2015 Bodybuilding.com ­ 30 Days Out Calculator Results 24/7 Customer Service • 1-866-236-8417 Get Discounts & Deals Free Gift with Orders Over $75 Like You, Sunny Israni and 2,600,200 others like this. Home › Training › Find A Plan › 30 Days Out › Nutrition Overview STORE TRAINING ARTICLES & VIDEOS COMMUNITY Search COMMUNITY ACTIVITY daytonohioguy added a new program to his calendar: 12-Week Daily Trainer. baddupp friends with Log In/Join TWO WAYS TO USE YOUR RESULTS 987 1 FOLLOW THE DAILY TOTALS Using the foods list at the bottom, distribute your daily calorie and macro totals across as many meals as you like. 2 FOLLOW THE MEALS Spread your calories and macros over six meals per day, as shown below. Customize your meals with foods from the full list. jadonc3 new program to his calendar: Stoppani's 6-Week Shortcut To Shred View WEEK 1 CALORIES PER DAY: 1915 DAY 1 PROTEIN: 1.5 X WEIGHT REMAINING CALORIES CARBS: 80% - FATS: 20% DAY 2 PROTEIN: 1.5 X WEIGHT REMAINING CALORIES CARBS: 60% - FATS: 40% DAY 3 PROTEIN: 1.5 X WEIGHT REMAINING CALORIES CARBS: 50% - FATS: 50% DAY 4 PROTEIN: 1.5 X WEIGHT REMAINING CALORIES CARBS: 50% - FATS: 50% DAY 5 PROTEIN: 1.5 X WEIGHT REMAINING CALORIES CARBS: 20% - FATS: 80% DAY 6 PROTEIN: 1.5 X WEIGHT REMAINING CALORIES CARBS: 20% - FATS: 80% DAY 7 PROTEIN: 1.5 X WEIGHT REMAINING CALORIES CARBS: 50% - FATS: 50% TOTALS Calories: 1915 Protein: 241g Carbs:......

Words: 5914 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Technology

...4g Wireless Network 4G Wireless Networks: Opportunities and Challenges Hassan Gobjuka Verizon 919 hidden Ridge Irving, TX 75038 Abstract With the major wireless service providers planning to start deployment of 4G wireless networks by mid 2010, research and industry communities are racing against time to find solutions for some of the prominent still open issues in 4G networks. The growing interest in 4G networks is driven by the set of new services will be made available for the first time such as accessing the Internet anytime from anywhere, global roaming, and wider support for multimedia applications. In this paper describe some of the key opportunities will be made available by 4G networks, present key challenges and point to some proposed solutions. Index Terms—4G networks, Wireless Networks, Security and Privacy, Quality of Service, Architecture I.INTRODUCTION The existence of 4G Networks in today’s technology-driven society is important indicators of advancement and change. 4G, or Fourth Generation networks, are designed to facilitate improved wireless capabilities, network speeds, and visual technologies. It is anticipated that as these networks continue to thrive, the demand for advanced related technologies will also grow, thereby creating new alternatives for savvy technology users to exceed their desired expectations. The following discussion will evaluate the current state of 3G Networks and will examine the future potential of these networks in......

Words: 2805 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

4g: Communication

...20mbps is employed. Mobile speed will be up to 200km/hr. The high performance is achieved by the use of long term channel prediction, in both time and frequency, scheduling among users and smart antennas combined with adaptive modulation and power control. Frequency band is 2-8 GHz. it gives the ability for worldwide roaming to access cell anywhere. Wireless mobile communications systems are uniquely identified by "generation designations. Introduced in the early 1980s, first generation (1G) systems were marked by analog frequency modulation and used primarily for voice communications. Second generation (2G) wireless communications systems, which made their appearance in the late 1980s, were also used mainly for voice transmission and reception The wireless system in widespread use today goes by the name of 2.5G-an "in between " service that serves as a stepping stone to 3G. Whereby 2G communications is generally associated with Global System for Mobile (GSM) service, 2.5G is usually identified as being "fueled” by General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) along with GSM. In 3G systems, making their appearance in late 2002 and in 2003, are designed for voice and paging services, as well as interactive media use such as teleconferencing, Internet access, and other services. The problem with 3G wireless systems is bandwidth-these systems provide only WAN coverage ranging from 144 kbps (for vehicle mobility applications) to 2 Mbps (for indoor static applications). Segue to 4G, the......

Words: 776 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

4g Wireless Network

...4G Wireless Networks: Opportunities and Challenges Hassan Gobjuka Verizon 919 hidden Ridge Irving, TX 75038 Abstract With the major wireless service providers planning to start deployment of 4G wireless networks by mid 2010, research and industry communities are racing against time to find solutions for some of the prominent still open issues in 4G networks. The growing interest in 4G networks is driven by the set of new services will be made available for the first time such as accessing the Internet anytime from anywhere, global roaming, and wider support for multimedia applications. In this paper describe some of the key opportunities will be made available by 4G networks, present key challenges and point to some proposed solutions. Index Terms—4G networks, Wireless Networks, Security and Privacy, Quality of Service, Architecture I.INTRODUCTION The existence of 4G Networks in today’s technology-driven society is important indicators of advancement and change. 4G, or Fourth Generation networks, are designed to facilitate improved wireless capabilities, network speeds, and visual technologies. It is anticipated that as these networks continue to thrive, the demand for advanced related technologies will also grow, thereby creating new alternatives for savvy technology users to exceed their desired expectations. The following discussion will evaluate the current state of 3G Networks and will examine the future potential of these networks in expanding technology-based......

Words: 2759 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Cis 505 Wk 9 Assignment 5 Wireless Technology

...CIS 505 WK 9 ASSIGNMENT 5 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY To purchase this visit here: http://www.activitymode.com/product/cis-505-wk-9-assignment-5-wireless-technology/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM CIS 505 WK 9 ASSIGNMENT 5 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY CIS 505 WK 9 Assignment 5 - Wireless Technology There are a number of cellular phone companies each serving their own unique geographical areas. Likewise, they each may use a different technology to transfer communication. Research the pros and cons 3G and 4G technologies and its role in today’s applications. Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you: 1.Compare the pros and cons of 3G and 4G technology to determine the best uses of 3G and 4G technology in today’s applications. 2.Describe how an enterprise would use 3G, 4G, WWAN, and WIAMX to improve business. Explain why they would use one (1) solution over the remaining three (3). 3.Analyze the changes in 4G technology since the printing of the textbook in 2009 and identify those of importance for a user of 4G technology. 4.Take a position on the following statement, “Wireless application protocol is a necessity for wireless communication organizations and their users.” Then, explain your position with supporting evidence. 5.Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: • Be typed, double spaced, using Times......

Words: 1006 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Reference

...2gprod.com/comparing-2g-and-3g-technology-under.html 2. http://www.slideshare.net/hemanthcrpatna/project-report-on-brand-preference-of-mobile-phones-with-special-reference-to-motorola-phones(questionnaire)]’ 3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/2021570/Questionnaire-regarding-mobile-phone-usage 4. http://www.forbes.com/2006/08/12/microsoft-ibm-mobiledevices-cx_dh_0814smallbizresource.html-Six Mobile Innovations That Will Change Your Life 5. http://blogs.hbr.org/innovations-in-health-care/2011/03/david-aylward-the-mobile-phone.html -How mobiles can transform healthcare. 6. http://www.scalado.com/display/en/Innovations- innovations in camera technology. 7. http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Nokia-Mobiles---Style-And-Innovation-At-Your-Fingertips/2262004#ixzz26RafI3YL 8. http://techcrunch.com/2012/05/01/samsung-is-the-new-king-of-mobile/ Top of Form Receive news by e-mail [pic] Bottom of Form Menu • Home • What Is 2G Technology? • Comparing 2G And 3G Technology • How 2G Technology Works? • 2G Technology Capacity • New Developments In 2G Technologies • Disadvantages Of 2G Technologies • Advantages Of 2G Technology • Supporting 3G Networks With 2G Technologies • About Us [pic] http://www.2gprod.com/comparing-2g-and-3g-technology-under.html Comparing 2G And 3G Technology The prime focus of this page is comparing 2g and 3g technology and...

Words: 509 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

4g vs 3g

...4G Wireless Networks Elizabeth McDowell Strayer University CIS 500, Summer Semester Professor Robert Culver August 20, 2012 (for week 4) 4G Wireless Networks Standards for communication have come a long way in the world of mobile devices. It starts as early as the 1980’s with the 1G, or first generation, that was a totally analog service (Brown, 2012). The nineties stepped up technology with the 2G, or second generation, network and this service was fully digital and the beginnings of wireless data being supported by mobile devices (Brown, 2012). The two most current used services are 3G (3rd generation) and 4G (4th generation). 3G was introduced in the 2000’s and offered faster service than the 2G did previously. It offers data throughput of up to 3.1 mbps, with a peak upload rate of 50 Mbit/s and a peak download rate of 100 Mbit/s (NA, 2012). It uses packet switching and a Wide Area cell Based network (NA, 2012). Although, truly, there is no clear definition of what data rate a user can expect with 3G service (Segan, 2012). There is, however an increased transmission rate with the 3G service of 2 Mbit/s for someone who is stationary and 384 Kbit/s in a moving vehicle (Goodman, 2005). Current services that can be offered on a 3G network are mobile TV, video conferencing, telemedicine, location based services and GPS. This was the first service that allowed for streaming of audio, video and video calling (NA,......

Words: 1024 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Verizon Value Chain Analysis

...Value Chain Analysis Verizon Wireless, like many other companies, uses a value chain analysis to comprehend the parts of their operations that create value, and those parts that do not. This analysis is very important because they will only be able to gain high returns within their industry if the value they create is greater than the costs they acquired to create that value. Verizon’s value chain is divided into primary and support activities. Some of the primary activities are research and development, customer service, marketing and sales, and customer service. The competition within the wireless industry is very aggressive, especially between Verizon and AT&T, which are the two largest providers within the United States. This strong competition influences many properties of the value chain including their positioning, brand equity, pricing, and the products that are offered. New carriers such as Cricket have entered the market as a low cost leader, but not at the level of Verizon or AT&T. The access to Verizon’s inputs such as high capital requirements, economies of scale, and switching costs, make it difficult for competitors to enter the market successfully. It is important for Verizon Wireless to differentiate themselves in order for them to create exclusive added value. The products that Verizon offers can generally be categorized into devices, service/network, and customer service. Within any telecommunication company, the network that they......

Words: 412 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mr Mzk

...SEMENAR TOPIC 3G&4G TECHNOLOGY [pic] SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY R.V.S.Nagar, chittoor - 517127 Presented by: ASLAM BASHA. S, 07781A0407. Abstract: T his paper provides an insight into 4G technology. 4G is the next generation of wireless networks. 4G is a conceptual framework for a discussion point to address future needs of a universal high speed wireless network that will interface with wire line backbone network seamlessly. 4G technology provides the download speed for mobile internet connections. It provides motivation for 4G researches before 3G has not been deployed. It is impossible to predict technology developments and the evolution of latest at present. In wireless communication, mobile technology is advanced and in this system 4G is the latest at present. One of the key objectives is to follow an evolutionary path from the current 3G technologies to 4G. So that it can interoperate with the existing mobile systems by using advanced system integration technologies. Generations of evolution of 4G are cleared explained. 4G is an evolutionary path for advancing the 3G mobile technology. 4G is also represents the hope and ideas of a group of researchers. Culture and customer needs. 4G in principle will allow high-quality smooth video transmission. ...

Words: 2908 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Emerging Technologies

...Emerging Technologies Introduction The technology of today’s world has advanced with a rapid pace in the last 30 years. Products which were not deemed possible or were only parts of science fiction are now materializing right before our eyes. Science and Technology have enable mankind to travel to the moon and to manufacture products on the microscopic scale. This is truly a world of emerging technologies and the advancement of scientific knowledge. The emerging technology that I am going to discuss for project is 4G (4th Generation) Cellular communication technology. Cell phones and wireless technology are now embedded in our lives and our social survival depends upon these products (Annadata, 2010). So it is only natural that this field of communication has much faster advancement rate than any other technological field. 4G technology in cell phone communication basically refers to the advancement of certain features in cell phones like the provision of ultra-high speed internet access, IP telephony, high definition gaming service, high definition mobile TV, the option of video conferencing and potential aspect of 3D television viewing. 4G is a successor to the 3G mobile technology and improves on many of its aspects and features. The data transmission speed is much higher in this technology and it provides nearly 300 mbps of data transfer rate compared to the 3.1 mbps rate of 3G. The uploading rate of this technology has also increased from 50 Mb/s to an amazing 500......

Words: 2030 - Pages: 9