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3 Essential Properties of Atoms

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The three essential properties of every material depend on features such as the kinds of atoms of which it is made of, the way in which they are arranged and the way they are bonded together. The strength of a material can be examine as to how well they resist outside forces, and the ability of the material to conduct electricity. In fact the most important new material that has changed modern society, as a result the semiconductor and the microchip has changed and revolutionized computing. Several properties of silicon have made these developments in microelectronics possible. Silicon based microelectronic devices have revolutionized our world in the past three decades. Integrated circuits, built up from many silicon devices (such as transistors and diodes) on a single chip, control everything from cars to telephones, not to mention the Internet. Silicon technology is still the most reliable and cost-efficient way to fabricate large microelectronic circuits. Semiconductors have played an amazing role and have impacted technology in many ways. Every technology product we use in the modern world is created with silicon and depends on semiconductors. The earliest semiconductor device was a diode which let electricity flow in only one direction. Integrated circuits are called micro chips which are complex circuits that are made of many miniature chips of semiconductor and made of silicon. These chips are packaged in a plastic casing and the fine wires inside the chip link to the pins outside. Microchip is the integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip or on a few chips and greatly reduced the cost of processing power. The integrated circuit processor is produced in large numbers by highly automated processes. A microchip or microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit, or at most a few integrated circuits. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Single-chip processors increase reliability as there were many fewer electrical connections to fail. As microprocessor designs get faster, the cost of manufacturing a chip (with smaller components built on a semiconductor chip the same size) generally stays the same. Microprocessors integrated into one or a few large-scale ICs the architectures that had previously been implemented using many medium- and small-scale integrated circuits. Continued increases in microprocessor capacity have rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers. The internal arrangement of a microprocessor varies depending on the age of the design and the intended purposes of the processor. The complexity of an integrated circuit is bounded by physical limitations of the number of transistors that can be put onto one chip, the number of package terminations that can connect the processor to other parts of the system, the number of interconnections it is possible to make on the chip, and the heat that the chip can dissipate. Advancing technology makes more complex and powerful chips feasible to manufacture. As integrated circuit technology advanced, it was feasible to manufacture more and more complex processors on a single chip. The size of data objects became larger; allowing more transistors on a chip allowed word sizes to increase from 4- and 8-bit words up to today's 64-bit words. Additional features were added to the processor architecture; more on-chip registers speeded up programs, and complex instructions could be used to make more compact programs. Floating-point arithmetic, for example, was often not available on 8-bit microprocessors, but had to be carried out in software. Integration of the floating point unit first as a separate integrated circuit and then as part of the same microprocessor chip, speeded up floating point calculations. Integrated circuits were made possible by experimental discoveries showing that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuits mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. Integrated circuits are used in virtually all electronic equipment today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the low cost of production of integrated circuits. Computer has a combination of programs that operate and run its functions. However this doesn’t make the computers alive. Computers don’t need food and they surely cannot feel pain neither the ability maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes or just cry. They don’t have all of the futures that would make it human a living being or essentially alive. The computer can run a program but where and what would it be without the human brain? The only difference between man and the computer is that man has the need to learn. In other words the computer has to be programmed in order for it to learn, in fact it cannot perform this action on its own, and it must take input from the operator and cannot reproduce. Computers process information very rapidly, but in serial fashion: the information is processed by a single central processing unit which is the CPU which performs one operation after another. But by subdividing its various tasks into subtasks and alternating rapidly among them the CPU can simulate parallel processing. The computer’s integrated circuits are much faster than brain’s neurons. But the brain’s power comes from its being a machine that performs massively parallel processing. The brain does not have a CPU, but instead it has millions of neurons that combine signals simultaneously. At any given time, many large, specialized areas of the brain are operating in parallel to perform a variety of tasks, such as processing visual or auditory information or planning an action. And even within each of these areas, information flows through neural networks that have no significant serial structures. Computers can evaluate equations from chaos in advance physics, in which the results of deterministic processes can be greatly influenced by variations in the initial conditions. But the brain is considered a non-deterministic system, for the simple reason that it’s never really completely the same from one day to the next. The brain is continually forming new ideas and strengthening or weakening obtainable ideas according to how they are being utilized. Accordingly, a given input will never produce exactly the same output twofold. However, the physiochemical processes fundamental brain activity is considered to be deterministic. When we study computer science our major concern is to understand the nature of intelligence and implementing computer systems and it potential intelligent action. It embodies the multiple motives of furthering our scientific understanding and producing computers that are more superior in the service of humanity. Artificial intelligence is primarily concerned with symbolic representations of knowledge and heuristic methods of reasoning, as by using common assumptions and rules of thumb. Two examples in studying of artificial intelligence are planning how a robot, or average person, might assemble the same complicated device, or move from one place to another; and diagnosing the nature of a the diseased person , or of a glitches in a machine or computer, from the observable manifestations of their problems. In both cases, reasoning with emblematic descriptions predominates over computer calculating. The programming of a computer to perform tasks that implicate intelligence when, yet carried out by human beings. Present goals for artificial intelligence incorporate producing computers that understand English or respond to statements correctly and reject nonsensical ones, or using computers in fine art and music as part of the creative element rather than just as tools or instruments. Some seemingly easy tasks have proved remarkable difficulty for computers; it will be years in the future before the first robot be built that can cope with the simplest non-laboratory situations, such as a home or office environment.

Hodger, D. J. (2003). Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits. McGraw-Hill.
Mead, C. C. (1980). Introduction to the VLSI Systems. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Muller, S. R. (2003). Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits. Indianapolis: John Wiley & Sons.
Rabaey, J. M. (2003). Digital Integrated Circuits. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

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