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4. Compare and Contrast Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Cell Walls with Regard to (a) Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Agents, (B) Resistance to Phagocytosis, (C) Chemical Composition, and (D) Decolorization by Alcohol.


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Research paper. NUTRITION FOR THE ELDERLY: Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, performance, health and well-being across the entire life-span. A good nutrition adequate well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity is a cornerstone of good health. While poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Many elderly people have unique barriers that prevent them from eating a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity. Difficulty chewing, a sensitive stomach, reduced appetite, and dietary restrictions are just a few of the barriers to healthy eating that the elderly experience. It is important to encourage the older adults to eat healthfully.
NUTRITIONAL NEED FOR OLDER PERSON: Older persons are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition. Moreover, attempts to provide them with adequate nutrition encounter many practical problems. First, their nutritional requirements are not well defined. Since both lean body mass and basal metabolic rate decline with age, an older person’s energy requirement per kilogram of body weight is also reduced.
FOODS THAT ARE GOOD FOR THE ELDERLY: when choosing food for the elderly, it is important to include fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fat-free or low-fat dairy products. Also a diet low in saturated and trans fats and rich in lean meats, beans and nuts. These foods can help prevent constipation as well as lower the risk for chronic diseases. Milk products are high in calcium and vitamin D, which helps keep bones strong in aging. It is important that the elderly have three

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...4. Compare and contrast gram-positive and gram-negative cell walls with regard to (a) sensitivity to antimicrobial agents, (b) resistance to phagocytosis, (c) chemical composition, and (d) decolorization by alcohol. Gram-positive bacteria differ from gram-negative bacteria in the structure of their cell walls. The cell walls of gram-positive bacteria are made up of twenty times as much murein or peptidoglycan than gram-negative bacteria. These complex polymers of sugars and amino acids cross-link and layer the cell wall. The thick outer matrix of peptidoglycan, teichoic acid, polysaccharides, and other proteins serve a number of purposes, including membrane transport regulation, cell expansion, and shape formation. Almost all bacteria can be classified as gram-positive or gram-negative. The classification relies on the positive or negative results from Gram’s staining method, which uses complex purple dye and iodine. Because gram-positive bacteria have more layers of peptidoglycan in their cell walls than gram-negative, they can retain the dye. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have a cell wall made up of peptidoglycan and a phospholipid bilayer with membrane-spanning proteins. However, gram-negative bacteria have a unique outer membrane, a thinner layer of peptidoglycan, and a periplasmic space between the cell wall and the membrane. In the outer membrane, gram-negative bacteria have lipopolysaccharides (LPS), porin channels, and Murein lipoprotein all of which gram-positive...

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...disease, the pathogen must be isolated from the host and grown in a pure culture, the pathogen in the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy lab animal, and finally the pathogen must be isolated from the animal and must be shown to the original organism. Bassi and Pasteur were not able at that time to correlate the pathogen with the specific disease. Question 3: In 1884, Hans Christian Gram described a method of staining bacterial cells while not staining surrounding animal tissues; however, he thought the staining method he developed was faulty because not all bacteria stained. In a letter to the editor of the journal in which Gram published his findings, write your response to Gram's concern. Answer 3: Dear Editor, when staining bacteria I first heat the smear and cover with a basic purple dye, after that short time the purple dye is washed off and the smear is then colored with iodine. After the iodine is placed certain cells become purple and some become dark violet. The slide is decolorized to remove the purple from some cells but not from all. Safranin is then applied. Some bacteria were seen until...

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...Temple, TX Acquisitions Editor: David B. Troy Product Manager: John Larkin Managing Editor: Laura S. Horowitz, Hearthside Publishing Services Marketing Manager: Allison Powell Designer: Steve Druding Compositor: Maryland Composition/Absolute Service Inc. Ninth Edition Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer business © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, © 1996 Lippincott-Raven, © 1992, 1988, 1983, 1979 JB Lippincott Co. 351 West Camden Street Baltimore, MD 21201 Printed in the People’s Republic of China All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including as photocopies or scanned-in or other electronic copies, or utilized by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copyright owner, except for brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U.S. government employees are not covered by the above-mentioned copyright. To request permission, please contact Lippincott Williams & Wilkins at 530 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, via email at, or via web site at (products and services). Not authorized for sale in North America and the Caribbean. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication...

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