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8th Habit

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The 8th Habit

By Stephen Covey

A Summary

The Whole-Person paradigm says that people are whole people - body, mind, heart and spirit - and they have four related capacities: (1) Physical Intelligence, (2) Mental Intelligence, (3) Emotional Intelligence, and (4) Spiritual Intelligence. People also have four related needs: (1) To Live - Survival, (2) To Love - Relationships, (3) To Learn - Growth and Development, and (4) To Leave a Legacy - Meaning and Contribution.

People have choices - in fact, there are six choices that we have in any situation (1) rebel or quit, (2) malicious obedience, (3) willing compliance, (4) cheerful cooperation, (5) heartfelt commitment and (6) creative excitement. People want to be paid fairly, used creatively, treated kindly and given an opportunity to serve human needs in principled ways.

So, whole people (body, mind, heart and spirit) with four basic needs (1) to live, (2) to learn, (3) to love, and (4) to leave a legacy) and four intelligences or capacities (physical, mental, emotional and spiritual) and their highest manifestations (discipline, vision, passion and conscience) all of which represent the four dimensions of voice (need, talent, passion and conscience).

Our voice lies at the intersection of talent (your natural gifts and strengths), passion (things that naturally energise, excite, motivate and inspire you), need (including what he world needs enough to pay you for), and conscience (that still voice within that assures you of what is right and that prompts you to actually do it.

Your voice (or calling) is found as you engage in work that taps your talents and fuels your passion, that rises out of a great need in the world that you feel drawn by conscience to meet. As we apply these four capacities talent or discipline, need or vision, passion and conscience to any role of your life you can find your voce in that role. The challenge is to take any role in our life and ask the following questions:
1. What need do I sense?
2. Do I possess a true talent that, if disciplined and applied, can meet the need?
3. Does the opportunity to meet the need tap unto my passion?
4. Does my conscience inspire me to take action and become involved?

Everyone must choose one of two roads in life: (1) the well-travelled road to mediocrity or (2) the road to greatness. The path to greatness unleashes and realises human potential. Greatness lies in Finding Your Voice and Inspiring Others to Find Theirs. This is the 8th Habit.

There are three kinds of greatness:

1. Personal greatness - this is achieved as we develop three birth-gifts: choice, principle and the four human intelligences. As we develop these gifts and intelligences we develop a character that is full of vision, discipline and passion that is guided by conscience.

A. Our Birth Gifts

(1) The Freedom to Chose - between stimulus and response there is a space, and in that space lies our freedom and power to choose our response and in those choices lie our growth and our happiness.

(2) Natural Laws or Principles - we live by principles (that are universal and inarguable) or natural laws rather than by going along with today's culture of quick fix. We also live by the specific values that we choose to govern our life - social norms that are personal, emotional, subjective and arguable. Consequences are governed by principles and behaviour is governed by values.

(3) The Four Intelligences or Capacities of our Nature - our nature has four parts (body, mind, heart and spirit) and corresponding to these four parts are four capacities or intelligences that we all possess: our physical intelligence (PQ), our mental intelligence (IQ), our emotional intelligence (EQ) and our spiritual intelligence (SQ).
A. Physical Intelligence - the things our body does without conscious effort - it runs our respiratory, nervous and other systems - constantly scanning its environment, destroying diseased cells and fighting for survival.
B. Mental Intelligence - the ability to analyse, reason, think abstractly, use language, visualise and comprehend.
C. Emotional Intelligence - this is our self-knowledge, self-awareness, social sensitivity, empathy and ability to communicate successfully with others. It is a sense of timing and social appropriateness, and having the courage to acknowledge weakness and express and respect differences.
D. Spiritual Intelligence - this is the central intelligence as it guides the other three - it represents our drive for meaning and connection with the infinite.

The challenge is to develop all four intelligences. One way to do this is to make four basic assumptions: (1) For the body - assume you have had a heart attack; now live accordingly; (2) for the mind - assume the half-life of your profession is two years; now prepare accordingly; (3) for the heart - assume everything you say about another, they can overhear; no speak accordingly; and (4) for the spirit - assume you have a one-on-one visit with your Creator every quarter; now live accordingly.

These four intelligences have four related manifestations:
A. For the Mental - Vision. Vision is seeing with the mind's eye what is possible in people, in projects, causes and in enterprises.
B. For the Physical - Discipline. Discipline is paying the price to bring that vision into reality.
C. For the Emotional - Passion. Passion is the fire, the desire, the strength of conviction and the drive that sustains the discipline to achieve the vision.
D. For the Spiritual - Conscience. Conscience is the inward moral sense of what is right and what is wrong, the drive toward meaning and contribution - it is the guiding force to vision, discipline and passion - and is in stark contrast to a life dominated by ego.

2. Leadership greatness - this is achieved by people who choose to inspire others to find their voice and who practise the four roles of leadership (modelling, pathfinding, aligning and empowering).
A. Modelling (Conscience) - Being a model involves fining your own voice and then choosing the attitude of initiative (taking initiative to expand your influence in every opportunity around you). As we model character and competence we lay the foundation of trust in every relationship and organisation. Modelling also involves developing strong relational skills that build trust and that create third-alternative solutions to your differences with other people.
B. Pathfinding (Vision) - Pathfinding involves creating with others a common vision about your highest priorities and the values by which you will achieve your priorities.
C. Aligning (Discipline) - This is the voice of execution where goals and enabling systems are aligned for results.
D. Empowering (Passion) - This is the empowering voice - were we release passion and talent by clearing the way before people and then getting out of the way.

Leadership is communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come it see it themselves and set in motion the process of seeing, doing and becoming. We lead (empower) people while we manage and control things.

3. Organisational greatness - this is achieved as the organisation translates their leadership roles and work (including mission, vision and values) into principles or drivers of execution in an organisation. The execution gap consists of:
* Clarity - people don't clearly know what the goals and priorities of their team are;
* Commitment - people don't but the goals;
* Translation - people don't know what they need to do to help the team achieve its goals;
* Enabling - people don't have the right structure, systems or freedom to do their job well;
* Synergy - people don't get along or work together well
* Accountability - people don't regularly hold each other accountable.

There are four disciplines which will close the execution gap: (a) Focus on the wildly important, (b) Create a compelling scorecard, (c) Translate lofty goals into specific actions, and (d) Hold each other accountable - all of the time.

As a person engages in the sequential 8th Habit process of finding their own voice and expanding their influence as they help others find their voices, they increase their freedom and power of choice to solve their greatest challenges and to serve human needs - they also learn how leadership can become a choice not a position, and they are able to empower people rather than manage things.

An organisation is made up of individuals who have a relationship and a shared purpose. All people belong to organisations. Most of the worlds work is done in and through organisations. The highest challenge facing organisations is to set them up and run them in a way that enables each person to inwardly sense his or her innate worth and potential for greatness and to contribute to their unique talents and passions.

There are four chronic problems with acute symptoms:
1. When spirit or conscience is neglected in an organisation the result is low trust which leads to backbiting, in-fighting, victimism, defensiveness, information hoarding and defensive, protective communication.
2. When the mind or the vision of an organisation is neglected the result is a lack of shared vision or common value system which leads to people acting with hidden agendas, playing political games, and using different criteria in decision making.
3. When the body of an organisation (skeletal structure, systems, processes) is neglected the result is no alignment or discipline built into the organisation's structures, systems, processes and culture which results in interdepartmental rivalry, co-dependency, clear hypocrisies and misalignment with core mission, values and strategy.
4. When the heart of an organisation is neglected the result is a profound disempowerment of the people which results in moonlighting, day dreaming, boredom, escapism, anger, fear, apathy and malicious obedience.

So, when we neglect body, mind, heart or spirit you get four chronic problems in an organisation - low trust, no shared vision and values, misalignment and disempowerment - and all they acute symptom.

Developing influence it involves a process of ethos (ethical nature, your personal credibility, the amount of trust or confidence others have in your integrity and competence); pathos (empathy, the feeling side - it means that you understand how another person feels, what their needs are and how they see things) and logos (logic which has to do with the power and persuasion of your own presentation, your own thinking).

Covey presents tools for each of the four roles of leadership.

1. The Modelling Tools

A. Be a Trim-Tab - The Trim-Tab is the small rudder that turns the big rudder that turns the entire ship. This is people who exercise initiative in their circle of influence to positively affect the entire organisation. There are seven levels of initiative or self-empowerment:
(a) Wait until told
(b) Ask
(c) Make a recommendation
(d) "I intend to"
(e) Do it and report immediately
(f) Do it and report periodically
(g) Do it

B. Be Trustworthy
Trustworthiness is produced by Character and Competence.

There are three facets to Character:
A. Integrity - this means that you are integrate around principles that govern the consequences of our behaviour - honesty is the principle of telling the trust while integrity is keeping promises made to self and others.
B. Maturity - this develops when a person pays the price of integrity and wins the private victory over self that allows them to be bother courageous and kind - ie. They deal with touch issues compassionately.
C. Abundance Mentality - this means that rather than seeing life as a competition with only one winner, you see it as an abundance with ever enlarging opportunity, resources and wealth.

There are three facets to Competence:
A. Technical competence is the skill and knowledge necessary to accomplish a particular task.
B. Conceptual knowledge is being able to see the big picture, how different parts relate to each other - it is being able to think strategically and systematically, not just tactically.
C. Interdependency is an awareness of the reality that all of life is connected.

The Personal Planning System
The first task is to get your focus right - to decide what matters most, to identify your core values, to clarify your passion and determine were you want to make a difference in life. You must begin by writing down in a paper or electronic planner what matters most to you and then build those governing priorities into your planning system so that you can balance the need for structure and discipline with the need for spontaneity. This planning tool has three criteria: it is integrated into your lifestyle, it is mobile to be always accessible and it is personalised so it suits your needs. We must consider the four levels of planning:
A. Identify your mission and governing values
B. Identify your most important roles and set goals for the week that are aligned with the values and associated with the roles you have identified.
C. Do weekly planning where you reflect on your roles, select the big rocks and plan those in first before you begin to schedule your week.
D. Finally, you need to do daily planning where you make realists task lists, prioritise tasks and review scheduled appointments throughout the day.

C. Build Trust
There are ten key deposits and withdrawals that we can make with others that have a profound impact on the level of trust in our relationships (to practise these we need initiative, humility and sacrifice):
(1) Seeking first to understand - all relationships require a starting point of understanding.
(2) Keeping promises - nothing builds and strengthens trust like keeping a promise. We should never use the word promise unless we are willing and able to pay the price to keep it.
(3) Being honest and open - people will walk with us if they sense that we are honest with them.
(4) Being kind and courteous - children, as well as adults, must learn these four expressions: "please", "thank you", "I love you" and "How may I help?"
(5) Practising win-win - we must suspend our interests long enough to understand what the other person wants so that we can work on a new creative solution that meets both our interests.
(6) Clarifying expectations - almost all communication breakdown is the result of ambiguous expectations about roles and goal.
(7) Being loyal to those not present - how we treat people who are absent is the highest test of character and the depth of bonding that has taken place in a relationship.
(8) Apologising - this involves learning to say, "I was wrong, I'm sorry".
(9) Giving and receiving feedback - both negative and positive feedback is helpful when we describe our feelings and concerns rather than accusing, judging or labelling the person.
(10) Practising forgiveness - true forgiveness involves forgetting, letting go and moving on.

D. Search for the Third Alternative
There are two steps to find a third alternative: (a) Would you be willing to search for a solution that is better than what either one of you (us) has proposed? (b) Would you agree to a simple ground rule: no one can make their point until they have restated the other person's point to his or her satisfaction.

2. The Pathfinding Tools

A. The Mission Statement
Pathfinding is about deciding what to focus on as an organisation as you ask values-and-purpose questions. Through an interactive process you create a written mission statement that includes your sense of purpose, your vision and your values, and you then create a strategic plan (see next tool). The mission statement should touch all four dimensions and needs of life (and each has a related motivation): physical (survival or economic prosperity), mental (growth and development), emotional (love and relationships) and spiritual (meaning, integrity and contribution).

B. The Strategic Plan
This is a crisp description of how you will provide value to your customers and stakeholders - it is your value proposition - your focus - or your organisation's voice. While a mission statement involves the WHY and WHO, the strategic plan deals with HOW and WHEN.

The test of a good mission statement and strategic plan is being able to approach anyone at any level of an organisation and have them describe how what they do contributes to the strategic plan and is in harmony with governing values.

8. The Aligning Tools
We need to create using feedback systems to align goals and systems for results. One example is the Balanced Scorecard. The people who are involved must jointly create a compelling performance scoreboard that reflects the mission, values and strategy of the organisation so they can stay aligned with the process and be responsible and accountable. A scoreboard makes three things clear: From what? To what? By when? The key is to identify the top priorities or "wildly important goals" and then create a scoreboard for each with the following elements: (1) the current results - where we are now, (2) the target results - where we need to be, and (3) the deadline - by when. It can take the form of a bar graph, a trend line or a pie chart - either way it must be visible, dynamic and accessible. Then post the scoreboard and ask people to review it every day and every week as appropriate - then meet over it, discuss it and resolve issues as they come up.

9. The Empowering Tools
The Win-Win agreement process - this not is a formal job description, neither is it a legal contract. It is an open-ended, psychological/social contract that is explicitly defines expectations. It is first written in hearts and minds of people and then put on paper. Responsibilities are clarified, mutual expectations are articulated and accountability to these expectations using a balanced scoreboard is established.

A best boss is a humble servant leader who runs alongside asking questions like:
* How is it going?
* What are you learning?
* What are your goals? What are you trying to accomplish?
* How can I help you?

Modeling Is Living The 7 Habits Of Highly Effective People
The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People embody the essence of becoming a balanced, integrated, powerful person and creating a complementary team based on mutual respect. They are the principles of personal character. The Habits cannot be adequately covered here in a way that truly impacts - that is best experienced in the book. But below you'll find a brief summary of the 7 Habits:

Habit 1 - Be Proactive
Being proactive is more than taking initiative. It is recognizing that we are responsible for our own choices and have the freedom to choose based on principles and values rather than on moods or conditions. Proactive people are agents of change and choose not to be victims, to be reactive, or to blame others.

Habit 2 - Begin with the End in Mind
Individuals, families, teams and organizations shape their own future by first creating a mental vision for any project, large or small, personal or interpersonal. They don't just live day-to-day with no clear purpose in mind. They identify and commit themselves to the principles, relationships and purposes that matter most to them.

Habit 3 - Put First Things First
Putting first things first means organizing and executing around your most important priorities. Whatever the circumstance, it is living and being driven by the principles you value most, not by the urgent agendas and forces surrounding you.

Habit 4 - Think Win-Win
Thinking win-win is a frame of mind and heart that seeks mutual benefit and mutual respect in all interactions. It's thinking in terms of abundance and opportunity rather than scarcity and adversarial competition. It's not thinking selfishly (win-lose) or like a martyr (lose-win). It's thinking in terms of "we," not "me."

Habit 5 - Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood
When we listen with the intent to understand others, rather than with the intent to reply, we begin true communication and relationship building. Opportunities to then speak openly and to be understood come much more naturally and easily. Seeking to understand takes consideration; seeking to be understood takes courage. Effectiveness lies in balancing or blending the two.

Habit 6 - Synergize
Synergy is the third alternative-not my way, not your way, but a third way that is better than either of us would come up with individually. It's the fruit of respecting, valuing, and even celebrating one another's differences. It's about solving problems, seizing opportunities, and working out differences. It's the kind of creative cooperation of 1+1=3, 11, 111 ...or more. Synergy is also the key to any effective team or relationship. A synergistic team is a complementary team - where the team is organized so that the strengths of some compensate for the weaknesses of others. In this way you optimize and run with strengths and make individual weaknesses irrelevant.

Habit 7 - Sharpen the Saw
Sharpening the saw is about constantly renewing ourselves in the four basic areas of life: physical, social, emotional, mental and spiritual. It's the habit that increases our capacity to live all other habits of effectiveness.

All that has been covered in The 8th Habit can be summarised in two words: Focus and Execution. Focus deals with what matters most and execution deals with making it happen. The first two roles of leadership (modelling and pathfinding) are about focus while the second two roles (aligning and empowering) are about execution. Pathfinding is strategic wok - it's deciding what the higher-priority goals are - what values are to serve as guidelines in accomplishing and sustaining those goals. But this requires a clear understanding and a commitment in the culture towards these goals. This commitment is based on trust, trustworthiness and synergy, the essence of modelling. Next comes execution that involves creating structures, systems and processes (aligning) that intentionally enable individuals and teams to translate the organisations goals or priorities (pathfinding) into their actual day-to-day work and team goals. In other words, people are empowered to get the job done.

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...and not statistically significant; students from English medium school were high academic achievers than Malayam medium schools; Navodaya Vidyalayas appeared to promote academic achievement followed by unaided schools, and students of government schools did not represent any among the high academic achiever category; socio economic status appeared to be the best predictor of academic achievement. Koreswara et al. (1998) studied reading achievement in relation to demographic variable with the objective to study the relationship between gender and reading achievement among high school students by taking a sample of 1296 students of 8th, 9th and 10th grade and found that girls were better than boys in reading achievement; class as a variable affected reading achievement of students of 10th class were far better in achievement than 8th and 9th Review of Related Literature 23 class; students of residential schools performed better than day scholar students in rural and urban area; region and locality had no significant influence on reading achievement of high school students. Haseen (1999) studied academic achievement as a function of social class, parent child interaction, dependency behaviour and school management and found that type of school and school management effects the academic achievement of students; all the four independent variables namely social class, parent child interaction, dependency behaviour and school management had significant......

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...One habit that I have developed over time is getting up too late. I set my alarm in the morning, and then hit snooze multiple time. I have gotten positive reinforcement from hitting the snooze button. I know if I hit the snooze button, I am rewarded with 10 more minutes of sleep. My alarm clock is right next to my bed. One way I could correct this behavior is to move my alarm clock to the other side of the room. I would the have to get out of bed, walk across the room, and turn the alarm of. I feel this would be an example of negative reinforcement. Hearing the alarm is unpleasant, so me getting up and turning it off would stop that. I would be rewarded by not hearing the alarm sound any more. An example of a positive reinforcement, other than hitting snooze, would be to get a coffee maker that has a timer on it. Set the coffee maker to start brewing my morning cup when my alarm goes off. If I get out of bed, and into the kitchen right away, my coffee will be hot and ready for me. If I hit snooze it will be cold. I could also use positive punishment if I do not get out of bed on the first alarm. I like to watch specific shows at night. If I don’t get up on the first alarm, then I could force myself to miss the show that’s on for that evening and go to bed early. By using one of these operant conditioning methods I can break the bad habit I learned and reinforced over many years. The easiest method I think to break my habit is going to be the negative......

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...time. If your schedule doesn't work, revise it. You must understand that your schedule is to help you develop good study habits. Once you have developed them, schedule building becomes easier. The Process of Study How to use your time Time is the most valuable resource a student has. It is also one of the most wasted of resources. The schedule you develop should guide you in how to allocate the available time in the most productive manner. Sticking to your schedule can be tough. Don't dribble away valuable time. Avoiding study is the easiest thing in the world. It's up to you to follow the schedule you prepared. A good deal of your success in high school or college depends on this simple truth. Where to study You can study anywhere. Obviously, some places are better than others. Libraries, study lounges or private rooms are best. Above all, the place you choose to study should not be distracting. Distractions can build up, and the first thing you know, you're out of time and out of luck. Make choosing a good physical environment a part of your study habits. Strategies Thinking skills Everybody has thinking skills, but few use them effectively. Effective thinking skills cannot be studied, but must be built up over a period of time. Good thinkers see possibilities where others see only dead-ends. If you're not a good thinker, start now by developing habits that make you ask yourself questions as you read. Talk to other students who you feel are good thinkers. Ask them......

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Study Habits

...psychologist Deirdre Barrett has found that people who experience vivid dream-like mental images reserve the word for these, whereas many other people refer to milder imagery, realistic future planning, review of past memories or just "spacing out"--i.e. one's mind going relatively blank—when they talk about "daydreaming."[2] Habits (or wonts) are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously.[1][2][3] Habitual behavior often goes unnoticed in persons exhibiting it, because a person does not need to engage in self-analysis when undertaking routine tasks. Habituation is an extremely simple form of learning, in which an organism, after a period of exposure to a stimulus, stops responding to that stimulus in varied manners. Habits are sometimes compulsory.[3][4] The process by which new behaviours become automatic is habit formation. Examples of habit formation are the following: If you instinctively reach for a cigarette the moment you wake up in the morning, you have a habit. Also, if you lace up your running shoes and hit the streets as soon as you get home, you've acquired a habit. Old habits are hard to break and new habits are hard to form because the behavioural patterns we repeat are imprinted in our neural pathways.[5] One way of defining interpersonal communication is to compare it to other forms of communication. In so doing, we would examine how many people are involved, how physically close they are to one another, how many......

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8th Grade Project

...[pic] 8th Grade Project #2 Mr.Sanquintin “Excel” NAME: ___________________________________ DATE: __________________ Instructions: The objective of this project is to see how well you can manage formulas. You will imagine that you are a doing a study of the percent of luxury vehicles sold in the US in the last 5 years. First you must put a title for your study. Ex: “Percent of sales between motor vehicle companies in the last 5 years” Steps to do for the project: ➢ You must combine cells so your title will fit correctly. ➢ Your data/information must be of at least 5 different luxury vehicle companies. ➢ You must do the correct formula to get the total percentage per year. ➢ Then you will do a graph that shows this percent difference. ➢ When you are finished calculating the percent difference per year then you will do the same for the companies, which company had the best outcome in the last 5 years. ➢ Last part of the project is to add format to the cells. The next page shows an example of what your project should look like once it’s done. Procedure for turning in project: ➢ Save the project in an USB and bring it to technology class (recommended) ➢ Send it to me by e-mail. DO NOT: Bring the project in a printed document, if you bring it on paper I won’t be able to see the formula that you used to do the procedure. Example of what your project......

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The 8th Habit: from Effectiveness to Greatness

...The 8th Habit: From effectiveness to greatness Author(s): Publishers: Edition: ISBN: Reviewed by: Stephen Covey Simon & Schuster 2004 0743206827 Gill McKay, Director, Extensor Limited It is 18 years since Stephen Covey published his seminal work “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People”, which was a hugely impactful book, selling millions of copies across the globe. In that book, Dr Covey showed us how to become as effective as we possibly could be. In the 8th Habit, he opens up more potential for us all – by moving from “effectiveness to greatness”. The world today is different, with more challenge, ambiguity and complexity and while the 7 Habits form a strong basis upon which to start, it is this next step – the 8th Habit –that will take us to true fulfilment in what Covey describes as the age of the knowledge worker. I learned a lot from his previous books, particularly the 7 Habits, and approached the 8th Habit with real enthusiasm. Unfortunately I found it a much more difficult read which, although it contained some good tips and new and metaphors, did not deliver on its initial perceived promise. The book’s synopsis promises that The 8th Habit is the answer to the yearning for greatness, the organisation's imperative for significance and superior results, and the human’s search for its "voice". I believe there are some handy tips to be found in the book, but it is a much less intuitive read than his previous works. The book is divided into two......

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