Free Essay

A Brief Look at the Origin of Algebra

In: Other Topics

Submitted By beachpi98
Words 842
Pages 4
A Brief Look at the Origin of Algebra
Connie Beach
Professor Clifton E. Collins, Sr.
Math 105: Introduction to College Mathematics
May 22, 2010 Abstract
In this paper we look at the history of algebra and some of its different writers. Algebra originated in ancient Egypt and Babylon around 1650 B.C. Diophantus of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician, and Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, a Persian mathematician from Baghdad, astronomer and geographer, shared the credit of being the founders of algebra. Diophantus, who is known as the “father of algebra”, carried on the work of the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians, but the word Algebra actually came from the word al-jabr, which is from al-Khwārizmī’s work, Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala. The algebraic notation had gone through 3 stages: rhetorical (or verbal), stage, syncopated (use of abbreviated words) stage, and symbolism (the use of letters for the unknown) stage. As a matter of fact, the algebra that we know of today began during the 16th century, even though its history shows that it began almost 4000 years ago. A Brief Look at the Origin of Algebra I have always had a love for math. My favorite math class was Algebra; in fact, I had taken Algebra I, II, III, and IV all through high school, and aced every class. I can just look at a problem and know the answer. Then, I returned to college after 30 years, and took an Intro to College Math class. I wasn’t sure if I still remembered what I had learned in high school, but it all clicked after just one week. After reading Real World Application #20, The Origins of Equations, in this class, I started thinking, where did all these equations come from, when did it start and where. So in this paper, the origin of algebra and some of its different writers will be looked at. Algebra’s history had originated from ancient Egypt and Babylon. From the Rhind papyrus, which was written around 1650 B.C., is where much of our understanding of ancient Egyptian math is established. They were solving problems such as linear equations; but they did not use symbols, instead their equations were spoken aloud. During that same time, ancient Babylon’s use of math was much greater than Egypt. They were solving quadratic equations, where possibly the quadratic formula was created. They were using some symbols, but like the Egyptians, their problems were solved verbally (Highlights in the History of Algebra).
Diophantus of Alexandria, (who lived around 200 – 298 A.D.), carried on the traditions of Egypt and Babylon. He was a Greek mathematician, who was also the author of Arithmetica, a book that gives many solutions to complicated undefined equations. He is sometimes called “the father of algebra”, because he contributed to the number theory and mathematical notation (Diophantus, 2010). The word algebra actually comes from the word al-jabr which is from the work of Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, (who lived around 780 – 850 A.D.). He was a Persian mathematician, astronomer and geographer; who lived in Baghdad, Iraq. He wrote Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala, one of the first Arabic algebras; it demonstrated the analytical solution of linear and quadratic equations. He is credited as being the founder of algebra, one that he shares with Diophantus (Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, 2010).
Although algebra had originated more than 4000 years ago, it wasn’t until the 16th century that symbolism were introduced, where the use of letters were used for the unknown. The algebraic notation had gone through three stages: rhetorical, syncopated, and symbolic stages. The rhetorical stage, used during the ancient Egypt and Babylon times, is where the equations were solved verbally. The syncopated stage, which was introduced during Diophantus’ time, is where the words were abbreviated. And then the symbolic stage is how we know algebra today (Highlights in the History of Algebra).
In conclusion, I find that Algebra has been around for more than 4000 years. It started in ancient Egypt and Babylon, but was carried on by Diophantus, who is known as the “father of algebra”. The word Algebra comes from the word al-jabr, from the works of Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, who is also known as the founder of algebra. But the algebra that we know of today wasn’t developed until around the 16th century. I find it really interesting that the development of algebra was based in the Middle East, which is where civilization had begun; but I’ll save that discussion for the next paper I need to write about. References
Diophantus. (2010, May 9). Retrieved May 22, 2010, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diophantus
Highlights in the History of Algebra. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2010, from UL of Lafayette: http://www.ucs.louisiana.edu/~sxw8045/history.htm
Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī. (2010, May 19). Retrieved May 22, 2010, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_ibn_M%C5%ABs%C4%81_al-Khw%C4%81rizm%C4%AB

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Algebra

...Preparation of income statement, balance sheet and statement of cash flows: Accounting for specialized items: Property, Plant & Equipment, bad debts; provisions; financial instruments; leases; employee benefits; income taxes; revenues,; foreign currency transactions etc.;Accounting for mergers and consolidations; IFRS vs GAAP; Financial statement analysis 3. Cost and Management Accounting: Cost concepts; Job-order costing vs process costing;ABC Costing; Marginal costing vs absorption costing: CVP analysis; Relevant costs: special order, make or buy decisions; ROA, residual income and economic value added; Standard costing and variance analysis; EOQ and linear programming 4. Quantitative Methods and Business Mathematics: Algebra and logarithm; Series and progressions; Probability, confidence intervals and testing; Measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion; Simple and compound interest: compounding and discounting;Differentiation and integration; Regression and correlation 5. Business Management: Vision, mission and strategy; Human resource management : recruitment and retention, performance measurement and development, compensation, employee rations and ethics etc.; Marketing; Organizational culture, organizational change and effective communication; Business analyses: SWOT, PESTLE, balanced scorecard 6. Microsoft Excel 2003/2007/2010: Financial Model Development; Visual Basic for Application(VBA) development, Lookup; Solver;......

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

A Brief Look at Failing Service at Little Ochie Seafood and Restaurant

...A Brief Look at Failing Service at Little Ochie Seafood and Restaurant College of Business and Hospitality Management Marketing in a Service Organization Julia Graham 11090057 Tracey-Ann Ellis 13090103 Rashida King Racquel Hudson 11100104 Roy Palmer 11030554 Kish-Wayne Wade Northern Caribbean University Mr. Jonas Semugeshi December 3, 2012 Table of Content Content Page Acknowledgement---- ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Background-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------5-6 Services offered-------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 The Four Broad categories of Service------------------------------------------------------8-9 Role and Script Theory-----------------------------------------------------------------------10 Front Stage and Back Stage Activities-----------------------------------------------------11 The Service Encounter Stage------------------------------------------------------------------12 Service Attributes and perceived Risk------------------------------------------------------13 The seven (7) P’s of Marketing---------------------------------------------------------------14-5 The Flower of Service-------------------------------------------------------------------------16-22 Problems and effects-----------------...

Words: 6450 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Algebra

...Week four assignment MAT221: introduction to algebra Thurman Solana July 7, 2013 Below we will go through a few equations for this week’s assignment. I will show my knowledge of how to properly find the correct answers to each problem. As well as showing my knowledge of the words: Like terms FOIL Descending Order Dividend and Divisor. Compound semiannually On page 304 problem #90 states “P dollars is invested at annual interest rates r for one year. If the interest rate is compounded semiannually then the polynomial p(1+r2) represents the value of investment after one year. Rewrite the problem without the equation.”(Algebra) For the first equation p will stand for 200 and r will stand for 10%. First I need to turn the interest rate into a decimal. 10%=0.1. Now I can rewrite the equation.2001+0.122. Now that I have my equation written out I can start to solve. I start by dividing 0.1 by 2 to get 0.05. Now I can rewrite 2001+0.052. First I add the 1 and 0.05 giving me 1.05 to square. Any number times itself is called squaring. So now we square (1.05)*(1.05)=(1.1025). Again we rewrite our equation 200*1.1025=220.5. Now we can remove the parentheses leaving us with an answer of 220.5. The answer for this first part of 2001+0.0122=220.5. Second Part On this second part let p stand for 5670 and r will stand for 3.5%. Again I start by turning my percentage into a decimal 3.5%=0.035. Now that we have our decimal we can write out our equation......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Algebra

...sentence including an equal sign. Equivalent fractions - fractions equal to one another, even though they may have different denominators. Even - a number that is divisible by 2. Exponent - in the expression x to the second power, the exponent is 2; x will be multiplied by itself two times. Expression - mathematical incomplete sentence that doesnt contain an equal sign. Factor - if a is a factor of b, then b is divisible by a. Factorial - operation that multiplies a whole number by every counting number smaller than it. Formula - rule or method that is accepted as true and used over and over in common applications. Fraction - ratio of two numbers representing some portion of an integer. Fundamental theorem of algebra - guarantees that a polynomial of degree n, if set equal to 0, will have exactly n roots. Function - a relation whose inputs each have a single, corresponding output. Graph - plotted figure in a plane. Greatest common factor - the largest factor of two or more numbers or terms. Grouping symbols - elements like parentheses and brackets that explicitly tell you what to simplify first in a problem. Horizontal line test - tests the graph of a function to determine whether or not its one to one. Hypotenuse - longest side of right triangle. i - The imaginary value square root of -1. Identity element - the number(0 for addition, 1 for multiplication) that leaves a numbers value unchanged when the corresponding operation...

Words: 3052 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

A Brief Look Into Jainism and Judaism

...Running head: A Brief Look into Jainism and Judaism A Brief Look into Jainism and Judaism Tammy Chace Strayer University REL212 Dr. Travien L. Capers July 31, 2013 A Brief Look into Jainism and Judaism While studying different religions I became fascinated with Jainism and I have always been interested in Judaism. In this paper we will take a look at the basic origin of each religion and several of their foundational spiritual beliefs. We will then look at a few spiritual practices of each religion. We will look at an example of how each religion is practiced today. Jainism Jainism dates backs to the 6th century B.C.E. in India. The religion derives its name from the jinas, meaning conquerors, a title given to twenty-four great teachers , through whom their faith was revealed. Mahavira, the last of the tirthankaras, is considered the founder of Jainism. The ultimate goal of Jainism is the liberation of one’s self from rebirth, which is attained through the elimination of accumulated karma. This occurs through both the disciplined cultivation of knowledge and control of bodily passions. When the passions have been utterly conquered and all karma has been removed, one becomes a Jina, or “conqueror", and is no longer subject to rebirth. Jainism conceives of a multi-layered universe containing both heavens and hells. Movement through these levels of the universe requires adherence to the Jainism doctrines emphasizing a peaceful and disciplined life. These......

Words: 2528 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Algebra Assignment

...Many people are intimidated and afraid of mathematics and algebra largely due to the fact that upon first glance, certain problems or expressions may seem overwhelmingly large, difficult, or complicated. Along with remembering formulas, this can often times lead to anger, confusion, and frustration. There are several very important key elements and aspects involved within mathematics that helps combat this confusion and frustration and can even help the most intimidated person feel at ease and comfortable with solving these problems. This particular report will demonstrate the importance of understanding certain key mathematical principles and components and show how understanding and utilizing certain mathematical definitions can help limit the amount of confusion and intimidation one may have. These definitions include but are not limited to simplifying, adding like terms, coefficient, distributive property, and removing parenthesis. This report will also demonstrate how much easier and more simplistic mathematics and algebra can be by remembering and utilizing just a few important concepts. Example 1: 2^a(a-5) +4(a-5) This is the first example that will be used. The variable a is used. This particular example has a coefficient of two. Step 1: The distributive property can be utilized to multiply 2a by everything inside of the parenthesis (a-5 in this case) resulting in: 2a^2-10a Step 2: The distributive property is used once again to multiply 4 by everything in......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Brief Look at the Lion King Musical

...  This short clip depicts the opening scene from the musical The Lion King with singing and dancing to the song The Circle of Life. As the sun slowly rises many different animals celebrate the start of a new day, or the circle of life. This Lion King scene is a very visually appealing musical and makes use of not just the stage but the full arena and actors in costumes and using props are shown walking down the aisles of the theatre. While in the clip that was viewed had a very limited amount of a scenery the use of costumes, characters and puppets told this part of the story very well. In fact for some of the costumes you would need to look hard for the actor controlling the puppet as your mind you not even realize that there is an actor under the costume. Overall the costume design along with the choreography makes for a visually stunning opening scene. One gets a sense of a three ring circus where so many things are happening that there is no way you could take it all in at once as your eyes and head swivel from side to side in an attempt to capture it all. The Lion King musical is a classic coming of age story along with a good versus evil aspect. The opening scene shows the sun rising and the musical number The Circle of Life playing. The sun symbolizes the pattern of night to day and day to night, the same pattern of life to death and death to life. Simba along with his father share the protagonist role in the musical and represent good. Simba is the king’s son, the......

Words: 1022 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

On Origins

...“On Origins” Neveen Hirmiz Prof. Cary S. Tagasaki Word Count: 612 209641051 06/02/14 "On Origins" It is the world's longest and most massive structure built by man, its name The Great Wall of China. As early as the Qin Dynasty we see these tamped- earth structures representing a defensive fortification for the people of China. Since then, future generations have altered the Wall’s image, both physically and ideologically, through the cultural interplay between material reconstruction and historical reinvention. It is this process that Carlos Rojas believes most significantly defines the Wall’s identity, and is directly responsible for the preservation of the physical structure itself. Carlos Rojas suggests that it is important to consider the historical context of the Wall to appreciate its various meaning throughout history. He refers to the different Chinese anniversaries being commemorated, in which they all helped to shape the culture, society, and politics of modern China. At the same, the different ways in which the anniversaries are observed demonstrates the role of contemporary concerns in shaping a vision of the past. Over many generations, ideas are developed about forming the wall, in that different representations of the Wall add to the body of tradition, in which it allows for its historical longevity. Rojan states, the way that the Wall is commonly perceived today is largely influenced by recent attempts......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Algebra

...SUBDOMAIN 212.1 - NUMERACY, ALGEBRA, & GEOMETRY Competency 212.1.2: Solving Algebraic Equations - The graduate solves algebraic equations and constructs equations to solve real-world problems. Introduction: An important element of learning is to connect mathematical concepts with physical concepts. Graphical representations of mathematical functions will allow you to visualize the meaning and power of mathematical equations. The power of computer programs and graphing calculators provide a more thorough connection between algebraic equations and visual representation, which will increase appreciation and understanding of mathematical language. In this task, you will be making connections between algebraic equations and graphical representations. You will use the following situation to complete your task: A man shines a laser beam from a third-story window of a building onto the pavement below. The path of the laser beam is represented by the equation y = –(2/3)x + 30. In this problem, y represents the height above the ground, and x represents the distance from the face of the building. All height and distance measurements are in feet. Task: A. Use the situation above to complete parts A1 through A5. 1. Find the x-intercept and y-intercept of the given equation algebraically, showing all work. 2. Graph the given equation. • Label each axis of the coordinate plane with descriptive labels. • Label each intercept as “x-intercept” or “y-intercept” and include the ordered pair. 3.......

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

A Jungian Analysis of the Warrior Woman in Popular Culture and a Brief Look at What the Archetype Means Culturally and Psychologically

...A Jungian analysis of the warrior woman in popular culture and a brief look at what the archetype means culturally and psychologically. The 1990s and the new millennium saw an influx of female action heroes on television from Xena to Scully, Buffy to Sidney Bristow. Countless girls and boys eagerly jumped to their television set each evening to absorb the warrior energy of their new role models. Adults, too, were intrigued by the possibility of a new gender role for women – fighters. These women were not only stereotypically beautiful characters, but, untypically, they were also highly intellectual, courageous and strong – stronger indeed than the men portrayed alongside them, if not their equals. These fighting women usually depended on themselves for rescue and did not always wait around for their men. Some women warriors had martial arts expertise (Xena, Buffy, Sidney, Nikita), some wielded weapons (Dana Scully from The X Files, Samantha Carter from Stargate SG1), while others used magic (Willow from Buffy the Vampire Slayer, the three sisters in Charmed), and then there was the cyborg (Seven of Nine from Voyager and Max from Dark Angel). All nevertheless embodied the warrior archetype: a fighting spirit evoking a new female consciousness, one that reflected a shift of values in Western society's gender norms. C. G. Jung Research Online books, journals for academic research, plus bibliography tools. www.Questia.com/C._G._Jung Jungian Philosophy Analytical......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Problems and the Free Market: a Brief Look at Illegal Drugs and Its Market

...Social Problems and the Free Market: A Brief Look at Illegal Drugs and Its Market Nicola Jones Baker Kaplan University Professor T. Ayanou, PhD February 17, 2015 The present research report seeks to show the relationship between a “free market” economy and the acquisition and dispensing of illegal drugs. This report will begin with a general look at what constitutes a “free market” economy and how its aspects of supply and demand are the very cornerstones of its existence. After discussing the concepts of supply and demand, the author will then address how the tenants of supply and demand relate to individual freedoms and individual competitions. Following this section of the present report, the author will seek to discuss illegal drug markets. In the final and closing section of this research report, the author will argue that the social problems created by illegal drug addiction could be managed in a “free market” economy that views addiction as a treatable disease rather than a criminal offense. The fundamental underpinning of a free market system is the competition it generates among those who are vying for the consumers’ dollars. The goal of the free market is for person (A) to provide a good or service that is wanted by customer (B). Person (A) and customer (B) then negotiate a price for that particular good or service. If person (A)’s price is too high or the good or service is inadequate, customer (B) then has the right and freedom to go to......

Words: 2670 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

A Brief Look at Honda

...Honda today remains the world's largest producer of motorcycles and is a growing company in small engines, lawn mowers, and portable generators. Honda passed Chrysler to become the third largest U.S. seller of cars, but Toyota is close behind and even surpasses Honda when trucks are included in sales figures. The success of the company has been based on its selling of two cars in the U.S. for every one it sells in Japan, and the Accord has been the number one selling car in the United States for the past three years. However, the U.S. market share has dropped to less than 9 percent because of weak sales in California and inroads made by Ford's Taurus, Toyota's Camry, and Pontiac's Grand Am, undercutting sales of the Accord in spite of heavy sales incentives. Sales of Honda cars have also been much reduced in Japan, where the company has fallen from number three to number five, with a 7.6 percent market share. In order to promote sales, Honda has reorganized its North American, European, and Japanese auto operations into autonomous units that are more cost efficient. The company has also worked to introduce more Americans into management, and to accomplish this task some 50 employees from the Ohio plant are spending two to three years in Japan learning the Japanese methods. Honda manufactures products in 40 countries, and four of its seventeen largest manufacturing plants are located in the United States--Marysville, Ohio; Anna, Ohio; East Liberty, Ohio; and Swepsonville,......

Words: 592 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Origin of Native American Man: a Look at Possible Migrations of Pre-Historic Man Into North America

...The Origin of Native American Man: A Look at Possible Migrations of Pre-Historic Man Into North America Ally Crawford ARC 330 Dr. Ortmann Spring 2011 Abstract The origins of Native American people have been a topic of debate in academia for decades. There have been several theories, up to and including the possibility that Native Americans arrived via alien intervention. The origins of Native Americans are much less fantastic. Native Americans are descended from ancient Eastern Asians, who crossed into the New World sometime before 14,000 BC. Until recently, archaeology could only speculate on this notion. Recent research in the field of molecular biology is proving this theory has merit. Mitochondrial DNA is showing the same markers in Native American populations as in the Asian populations. Other avenues of research have also lead to the discovery that there are similarities in the X and Y-Chromosomes of the two populations. There are many archaeological and anthropological mysteries surrounding the Americas. Perhaps one of the most perplexing and pervasive is the origin of the Native American peoples. There has been little archaeological data found that can substantiate a human or proto-human presence in the Americas before approximately 14,000 BC. If this is the case, the question becomes from where did the Native American population derive? There have been many hypotheses, ranging from the mundane to the bizarre. A popular conspiracy theory......

Words: 1865 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Algebra

...What is Algebra? Algebra is a branch of mathematics that uses mathematical statements to describe relationships between things that vary over time. These variables include things like the relationship between supply of an object and its price. When we use a mathematical statement to describe a relationship, we often use letters to represent the quantity that varies, sisnce it is not a fixed amount. These letters and symbols are referred to as variables. (See the Appendix One for a brief review of constants and variables.) The mathematical statements that describe relationships are expressed using algebraic terms, expressions, or equations (mathematical statements containing letters or symbols to represent numbers). Before we use algebra to find information about these kinds of relationships, it is important to first cover some basic terminology. In this unit we will first define terms, expressions, and equations. In the remaining units in this book we will review how to work with algebraic expressions, solve equations, and how to construct algebraic equations that describe a relationship. We will also introduce the notation used in algebra as we move through this unit. History of algebra The history of algebra began in ancient Egypt and Babylon, where people learned to solve linear (ax = b) and quadratic (ax2 + bx = c) equations, as well as indeterminate equations such as x2 + y2 = z2, whereby several unknowns are involved. The ancient Babylonians solved......

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

A Brief Look at Happiness

...A Brief Look at Happiness If nothing else, one thing can be said about happiness: If individuals are happy and they know they are happy, they should clap their hands. While the intent of this simple statement is merely to amuse children, developing true happiness is thought by many to be very difficult. Also, happiness is often falsely recognized and misinterpreted. Therefore, being truly happy and knowing you are truly happy are very loaded concepts. The object of this paper is to analyze and compare the thoughts of three philosophers’ whose remarks on happiness have been most influential for centuries after their time. They are Aristotle, St. Augustine, and St. Thomas Aquinas. Although I do not have the perfect understanding of happiness and believe no one does, I believe that each of their approaches to happiness hold a common theme that must be inconsistent with true happiness. They base happiness ultimately on self fulfillment. One of the earliest to ask the question ‘what is happiness?’ was Aristotle, who, in a manner typical of philosophers, before providing an answer insisted on making a distinction between two different questions. His first question was what was meant by the word ‘happiness’—or rather, its ancient Greek equivalent eudaimonia. His second question was where happiness was to be found, that is to say, what is it that makes us truly happy? Reasonably enough he thought that it was futile to try to answer the second question without having given thought......

Words: 3294 - Pages: 14