Premium Essay

A Contrast and Comparison of Community Psychology and Public Health

In: Social Issues

Submitted By muano1
Words 787
Pages 4
TOPIC: A contrast and comparison of community psychology and public health
1. Introduction
Community psychology and public health are disciplines that form part of psychology mainly concern with health. Community psychology focuses on physical and mental health promotion, empowerment and social action, while the focus of public health is on health promotion and disease prevention. These two differ in some aspect and also have existing similarities. They can also complement each other have greater impact on community health when integrated. This essay will attempt to reveal the differences, similarities as well as the strength and weakness of these two approaches, it will further conclude by discussing how they complement each other. Firstly a brief overview and historical background will be given for a better understanding.
2. Overview and historical background
Community psychology movement developed in the USA, during an era when there was growing concern about both lack of resources and treatment facilities and the impact of social systems on the human psyche (Iscoe& Speilberger, cited in New perspective in community psychology, 2002) In the 1980s it then gained interest in South Africa, in parallel with the struggle for democracy, when psychologist examined the appropriateness’ of Euro-American based psychology. Public health on the other hand was developed during the era of industrial revolution. It was stimulated by unhealthy social conditions in both industrialised, urban and rural areas .It is based on the western or biomedical model of illness which assumes that disease and distress are a result of lesions within the body or the mind. (Tutorial letter, 2013:8)
3. Approaches of public health and community psychology to social problems
Public health identifies four models sanitary health science, social medicine, community health and the new public health...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Community and Health Psychology Assignment 1

... 3. Approaches 4 1. Prevention and health promotion 4 2. Empowerment and citizen participation 5 4. Conclusion 6 5. List of references 7 1. Introduction This assignment is about critically comparing and contrasting the community psychology and public health approaches to social problems. Firstly I will define the concepts involved, secondly I will briefly discuss historical context of both community psychology and public health and lastly I will discuss approaches. . The comparison will be based upon prevention and health promotion, empowerment, individual wellness and citizen participation 2. Definition of concepts Community psychology is all about how individuals relate to the society in which they live. Public health on the other hand is defined as being concerned with preventing disease and distress. Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals. On the other hand, community psychology is fundamentally concerned with the relationship between social systems and individual well-being in the community context. Community psychology aims to promote human welfare. Community psychology focuses on economic, environmental, political and social......

Words: 1323 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Public Health and Community Psychology

...Development pg.3 * Similarities between Community Psychology and Public Health pg.4 * Limitations and Differences between Community Psychology and Public Health pg.6 * Conclusion pg.7 * Reference List pg.8 Introduction According to Perkins (https://my.vanderbilt.edu/perkins/2011/09/intro-to-community-psychology/) community psychology (CP) can be defined as the relationship between social systems and individual well-being in the community context. Thus, community psychologists grapple with an array of social and mental health problems and they do so through research and interventions in both public and private community settings. PH on the other hand according to Last (cited in Gilbert, 1995) can be defined as one of the efforts organised by society to protect, promote and restore the people’s health. It is the combination of science, skills and beliefs that are directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people through collective or social actions. The goal of this essay will be to critically compare and contrast these unique disciplines with focusing on both their strengths and weaknesses that......

Words: 1225 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Homeless Youth

...Homeless Youth: Research, Intervention, and Policy by Karen Spuriel Coleman- MBA Abstract Homelessness among youth in the U.S. is disturbingly common, with an estimated annual prevalence of at least 5 percent for those ages 12 to 17. Although homeless youth appear throughout the nation, they are most visible in major cities. Rigorous research on this special population is sparse, making it difficult to capture an accurate and complete picture. Despite its limitations, recent research describes homeless youth as a large and diverse group. Many homeless youth have multiple overlapping problems including medical, substance abuse, and emotional and mental problems. Literature suggests that comprehensive and tailored services are needed that address both the immediate and long-term needs of homeless youth. Where appropriate, services should include assistance with meeting basic needs as perceived by youth as a gateway to other needed services. In addition to serving those already homeless, interventions are needed to prevent homelessness among at-risk youth. Lessons for Practitioners, Policy Makers, and Researchers • As used here, the term “homeless youth” focuses on minors who have experienced literal homelessness on their own—i.e., who have spent at least one night either in a shelter or "on the streets" without adult supervision. On occasion, where warranted by the research being discussed, the term is also used to describe homeless young adults up to age 24.......

Words: 15735 - Pages: 63

Premium Essay

Models of Crisis Intervention

...University Abstract Natural disasters come fast and leave fast but the communities are left with long and difficult injuries. They can be physical, monetary, family structure, and mental injuries and they do not leave along with the hurricane or ease up quickly like the earthquake, they stay around leaving many in need of multiple services. Communities are not ready most of the time and crisis intervention models have been created along the way in the aftermath of several disasters. These models include an important element used today when natural disasters strike and it is called Psychological First Aid (PFA). Many professionals and volunteers get together to collaborate and aid the communities in need. This research is focused on the services offered for mental health disturbances, and compare and describe some of the models seen in a disaster area today. Models of Crisis Intervention Natural disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and floods are some of the numerous crisis situations many individuals experience every year around the world leaving many off them in need of crisis intervention. Throughout a lifetime people have seen and gone through some of the hardest natural disasters in history and have been left with many physical and emotional disturbances. While the physical disturbances are easy to see, the emotional disturbances are no,t and interventions from mental health professionals are needed to help the survivors cope with the......

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Youth and Development

...Developmental Psychology 2006, Vol. 42, No. 3, 391–394 Copyright 2006 by the American Psychological Association 0012-1649/06/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.3.391 Children, Adolescents, and the Internet: A New Field of Inquiry in Developmental Psychology Patricia Greenfield Zheng Yan University of California, Los Angeles University at Albany, State University of New York With this special section on children, adolescents, and the Internet, we survey the state of a new field of enquiry in developmental psychology. This field is important because developmentalists need to understand how children and adolescents live in a new, massive, and complex virtual universe, even as they carry on their lives in the real world. We have selected six empirical articles to showcase various aspects of child and adolescent development in this virtual universe. These articles reflect three major themes of this new field: the Internet. Encompassing the broad areas of cognitive and social development, these articles address a number of different specific developmental functions. Yan analyzes the factors influencing the development of an understanding of the Internet in both its technical and social dimensions. Jackson et al. demonstrate the positive impact of home Internet access on the reading achievement of low-income, mostly African American children. In the arena of social development, articles deal with five important foci of adolescent development: identity (Subrahmanyam et al.);......

Words: 3437 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Generational Differences in the Workplace

...Ambition, Altruism, Affiliation and Anxiety in the workplace: A review of generational differences in work attitudes. Madeleine Fogarty Melbourne University Abstract Popular books and articles claim that there are significant differences between the generations in attitudes to work. However, there are relatively few empirical studies that support this claim. This review examines the reasons for the dearth of empirical work, reports on the US and Australasian findings published in the past decade, and suggests a taxonomy of ambition, altruism, affiliation and anxiety to synthesise the diversity of previous research and reach a coherent conclusion: all are on the rise for Gen Y. Directions for future research and recommendations for organisations are discussed. News articles regularly demand that we pay attention to the different needs of the next generation and their attitudes towards work. Last week the Sydney Morning Herald claimed that “Generation Y . . . has high expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges, are not afraid to question authority, value teamwork, seek the affirmation of others, crave attention and want to be included and involved” (Zavos, 2010). Other stereotypes of Gen Y, including Myers & Sadaghiani (2010), pitch them as self-centred, unmotivated, disrespectful and disloyal. There have been many articles and books in “popular literature” that describe differences between the generations, including Strauss & Howe (1991),...

Words: 5105 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Reason for Hiv Disclosure

...Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2004, pp. 747-767 REASONS FOR HIV DISCLOSURE DERLEGA ET AL. REASONS FOR HIV DISCLOSURE/NONDISCLOSURE IN CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS: TESTING A MODEL OF HIV–DISCLOSURE DECISION MAKING VALERIAN J. DERLEGA AND BARBARA A. WINSTEAD Old Dominion University KATHRYN GREENE Rutgers University JULIANNE SEROVICH Ohio State University WILLIAM N. ELWOOD Center for Public Health and Evaluation Research This research examined the relative importance of reasons for HIV disclosure/nondisclosure with a friend, intimate partner, and parents. Participants were 145 men and women with HIV. Overall, catharsis, a will to duty/educate, and having a close/supportive relationship were endorsed as reasons that influence HIV disclosure. Privacy, self–blame, fear of rejection, and protecting the other were endorsed as reasons that influence nondisclosure. Both men and women endorsed testing the other’s reaction as a reason for disclosing more for an intimate partner, whereas they endorsed privacy more as a reason for not disclosing to a friend. Men (mostly self–identified as homosexuals or bisexuals), but not women (mostly self–identified as heterosexuals), endorsed similarity as a reason for disclosing more to a friend or intimate partner than to a parent. The results are consistent with a Model of HIV–Disclosure Decision Making that indicates how cultural attitudes This research is partly supported by a research grant (#R01DA13145–01A1) from......

Words: 8661 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Theories on Crime Comparison

...Introduction “Criminology is the scientific study of the causation, correction and prevention of crime” (Legal Dictionary, 2015). Understanding crime and the events that happen leading up to the act help compare and contrast the causes, effects, and patterns of criminal behavior. The studies of such involve developing theories; this is the development of criminology. Scientific research is conducted to better understand individuals in societies. Criminology is the foundation of the justice system where crime is studied along with issues related to crime. This paper is intended to discuss the sociobiological theory that will explain the relationship between personality and criminal behavior, to compare key elements of sociobiological with biological and psychological theories, and finally, to identify the philosophical basis to each of these theories. The Relationship between Personality and Criminal Behavior Sociobiological theory is based on the combination of human behavior that occurs naturally with the effects of society. Researchers have thought of this theory by means of learning behaviors that are genetic compared to the environments that individuals are surrounded by. Founded by E.O. Wilson, the sociobiological theory used principles are Darwinism, in that human behaviors are evolutionary (Stanford, 2009). There are predisposition behaviors that will separate a criminal from an upstanding citizen. One example can be found among gang members as they......

Words: 1129 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sct Social Cognitive Theory

...The European Journal of Counselling Psychology ejcop.psychopen.eu | 2195-7614 Social Learning Conceptualization for Substance Abuse: Implications for Therapeutic Interventions a Theodoros Giovazolias* , Olga Themeli a [a] Department of Psychology, University of Crete, Rethymno, Greece. Abstract Substance misuse and abuse among adolescents and young adults, especially students, remain a significant public health issue, often associated with serious academic, psychological and health problems. Theoretical models of social behaviour emphasize the importance of peer behaviour as a modelling or normative influence. The processes by which social influence factors contribute to substance misuse behaviour have been described in models derived from the social learning paradigm, including both socio-environmental (e.g. social modelling, perceived norms) and coping skills and cognitive variables (e.g. self-efficacy, outcome expectancies). However, this growing body of the literature often reveals contradictory findings regarding the precise mechanisms of processes by which social and cognitive variables may influence substance misuse in youth populations. This review critically examines the literature on different forms of peer influence and accordingly provides suggestions for intervention strategies that take into consideration the relevant research findings on social learning constructs. Keywords: social learning, norms, self-efficacy, youth, substance abuse, counselling......

Words: 11696 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Mass and Individual Communication for Greater Population Awareness and Receptiveness of Natural/Alternative Methods of Medicine

...INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 2.0 MIND BODY CONNECTION 3.0 HEALTH COMMUNICATION 4.0 HEALTH EDUCATION AND LEARNING STYLES IN ADULTS 5.0 CONCLUSION 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Good health is the most important aspect in an individual’s life. Studies have shown that the health of a person can be affected by many different factors. At the advent of science and the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures only the physical/environmental factors were thought to influence the health of a person. Thus the health promotion activities that were developed mainly advocated the prevention or enhancement of physical determinants of health. This was boosted by the scientific studies which identified a significant link between the physical factors such as microbial agents and health of a person. Measures have for a long time been developed and are still being researched to address the environmental factors that adversely affect health. The healthcare system in place is sufficiently equipped to address the healthcare needs arising from a person’s interaction with environmental factors. However, more recent research reveals that the greatest cause of ill health does not lie in the disease causing agents or other environmental factors, but rather in people’s minds. It has been identified that the way people react to different stimuli in their day to day life determines the state of their health. This now creates a difficult state of affairs for a......

Words: 8876 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Comparing and Contrasting Essentialist Approaches to Social Psychology with Social Constructionist Approaches to Social Psychology.

...Comparing and Contrasting Essentialist Approaches to Social Psychology with Social Constructionist Approaches to Social Psychology. A widely recognised definition of social psychology is “an effort to understand and explain how the thought, feeling, and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others” (Allport, 1985). However, how to measure this, the research methods to be used and what constitutes useful evidence has caused much debate in the history of social psychology. This essay will compare and contrast the two epistemologies of essentialist and social constructionist approaches to social psychology and the research methods of quantitative and qualitative used in each approach. Essentialists’ view of the world is that the properties possessed by a group are universal in that group and do not depend on context. However, a member of a group may possess other characteristics that are not required to include it as a group member but, it must not have characteristics that preclude it from being a member of the group (Burr, 1995). For example, essentialists believe that personality consists of a number of traits and personality of an individual is established by the level of each of these traits. Essentialists also believe that these traits remain more or less stable over time and it is our personality that influences behaviour (Maltby, 2010). As essentialists are able to classify groups as such, they use quantitative......

Words: 3936 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

The Difference Between Male and Female Brain in the Workplace

...amazing knowledge which has been demonstrated since they establish as a society by implementing new science areas, developing more technology day by day and so on. Even though male and female have the same purpose and thoughts to be better as a person and as a society, they also show to be different not only physically but also in intellectual knowledge primarily. And hence, both of them have been studied for many scientist through the years because it is fairly important to understand the similarities and dissimilarities among them in order to assimilate the especial abilities that they possesses in opposite areas such as engineering or psychology. This essay will give a deeper look at different kind of abilities between male and female that are important to select professional areas of study such as Psychology and Engineering. To make a fair comparison the male brain vs female brain as left hemisphere and right hemisphere, that find a specific characteristics developed in each of them. Nevertheless, students who are currently thinking about to choose a perfect major should know which career must be adequate for them considering their aptitudes and skills that they need and they hold.  Through scientific testing it has proven what people already know for some time: that the female brain is different from their male counterpart. Neuronal distribution and use of different hormones lead to its own reality in women, forming what might be called "the female universe" and a......

Words: 2160 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Alcohol and Energy Drinks

...Running Head: Pyschodynamic and Behaviourist Perspectives A Comparison and Contrast of the Psychodynamic and Behaviourist Perspective in Psychology Matthew Sealey – 1778013 Swinburne University of Technology Due Date: Monday 31st March Alcohol and Energy Drinks Abstract The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol consumption increased when an individual consumed an energy drink. 172 participants completed a two part survey comprising of questions regarding alcohol consumption and completion of the Risk Taking Questionnaire 18. The hypothesis that alcohol consumption in a single sitting would be higher in the high propensity group in comparison the low propensity group was supported. The hypothesis that alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption in a single sitting would be higher than alcohol only consumption in a single sitting was rejected. It was concluded that an individual with a higher pre-disposition for risk-taking behaviour would consume more alcoholic beverages in a single sitting than an individual without the pre-disposition to risk-taking behaviour. Future research should examine the effects alcohol has on energy drinks in comparison to individual consumption in order to truly understand the effects it has. Energy drinks (ED)’s are a relatively new concept in the overall soft-drink market, but are essentially rebranding and reselling caffeine to a different target market with an entire new sense......

Words: 2430 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...HUMAN BEHAVIOUR IN PUBLIC SPACES By VENETIN AGHOSTIN-SANGAR THESIS Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Planning within the Faculty of the Built Environment at the University of New South Wales, 2007 Sydney, NSW FACULTY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT BACHELOR OF PLANNING Declaration Relating to Disposition of Undergraduate Thesis This is to certify that I, Venetin Aghostin-Sangar, being a student for the degree of Bachelor of Planning, am aware that the University reserves the right to retain at its own discretion the copy of my thesis submitted for examination. I consent to the thesis being placed in the Faculty Library, to be consulted there and to part(s) of this thesis being quoted in manuscripts or typescripts for the purpose of scholarship or research, provided my authorship is acknowledged. In the light of the Copyright Act (1968) I declare that I wish to grant the University further permission for the following actions provided my authorship is acknowledged: • Copy or allow others to copy in any medium the whole of the thesis for the purpose of scholarship or research; or • Publish or allow others to publish, the whole of the thesis. Signature: ……………………………………………………………………… Witness: ……………………………………………………………………… Date: 23rd February 2007 ii Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude to all those who dedicated their valuable time to assist in furthering the ideas that form this thesis. A......

Words: 24152 - Pages: 97

Premium Essay

An Argumentative Research Paper on Research Topic: What Is Science?

...PERU E. M COLLINS COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS TERM PAPER ARGUEMENTATION STUDENT ID NO: D33/34238/2010 AN ARGUMENTATIVE RESEARCH PAPER ON RESEARCH TOPIC: WHAT IS SCIENCE? TOPIC: Dispelling Misconceptions; Physical and Natural Sciences are not superior over Social Sciences. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract. 3 Introduction 4 Recommendations 22 REFERENCES 25 Abstract. Science in general is a great and highly developed human enterprise. Its intricacies are clearly not limited to the scientists alone, but it is essential for the entire human race. If we think of science as a space within the larger space of society then it is at the interfaces between these two spaces that human beings are involved with science. To see this interface clearly from the space of science is not the same as seeing it as a mere collection of facts that should be construed to be true and nothing but the truth. Science is beyond facts, ideals and thoughts. It is a process and a model that has undergone tests, been tried, reviewed and accepted as a true representation of the processes and occurrences in the natural world However, due to the broad nature of science, and the work, time and resources involved in pursuit of knowledge in different science fields which entails different interests, and thereby different values too; and the......

Words: 9230 - Pages: 37