Premium Essay

A Discussion of the Issues Relative to Genetic Diversity

In: Science

Submitted By DesertDogg57
Words 1263
Pages 6
A Discussion of the Issues relative to Genetic Diversity an essay by
Timothy D. Roxbury

A Discussion of the Issues relative to Genetic Diversity

Introduction When we discuss genetic diversity, we describe the genetic differences of certain members of a population, whether they are mammal (humanoid or animal), plant or any other type of living organism. Upon first discovery of genetic differences, we notice that the alleles for each diverse characteristic may be placed under one of two categories: high genetic diversity or low genetic diversity. In the case of high genetic diversity, we will find a variety of differing alleles for each characteristic. Conversely, nearly all of the members of a population will have the same alleles when the case of low genetic diversity is considered. The following discussion will take into consideration the concept of genetic diversity, how it is introduced into a population and what, if any, are the resulting factors. The four means of introduction are:
• Migration
• Mutation
• Population Size
• Sexual Reproduction In the following synopsis, each means of introduction will be considered separately followed by a conclusion of the assignment.

Migration as it relates to Genetic Diversity

Migration is defined as the movement of a living organism from one place to another. During the process of migration, the living organism is subject to spread its alleles among other like living beings. This, it seems, is where the concept of genetic diversity begins to take place in regards to the concept of migration. The extent of the migration process doesn’t have to be profound. If the alleles that the male or female possess are rare or abundant, it can either grossly or marginally affect the population from which it departed and possibly have an equal effect on the beings in its new...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Phenotypic Characterization

...“phenotypic characterization of AnGR” is used to refer to the process of identifying distinct breed populations and describing their characteristics and those of their production environments. In this context, the term “production environment” is taken to include not only the “natural” environment but also management practices and the common uses to which the animals are put, as well as social and economic factors such as market orientation, niche marketing opportunities and gender issues. Recording the geographical distribution of breed populations is here considered to be an integral part of phenotypic characterization. Complementary procedures used to unravel the genetic basis of the phenotypes of AnGR, their patterns of inheritance from one generation to the next, and to establish relationships between breeds are referred to as molecular genetic characterization (FAO, 2010b). In essence, phenotypic and molecular genetic characterization of AnGR are used to measure and describe genetic diversity in these resources as a basis for understanding them and utilizing them sustainably. The guidelines distinguish between two phases or levels of characterization. The term “primary characterization” is used to refer to activities that can be carried out in a single visit to the field (e.g. measurement of animals’ morphological features, interviews with livestock keepers, observation and measurement of some aspects of the production environment, mapping of geographical......

Words: 8523 - Pages: 35

Free Essay

Analysis of Diversity Among Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources and Their Utilization in Developing F1 Hybrids in Pearl Millet [Pennisetum Glaucum (R.) Br]

...Indian J. Genet., 69(4) (Spl. issue): 352-360 (2009) Analysis of diversity among cytoplasmic male sterile sources and their utilization in developing F1 hybrids in Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (R.) Br] C. Tara Satyavathi*, Sakkira Begum, B. B. Singh, K. V. Unnikrishnan and C. Bharadwaj Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 Abstract The present study aims at analysis of diversity among parental lines of different cytoplasmic sources and their utilization in developing F1 hybrids. Seven male sterile cytoplasmic lines belonging to A1 – 3; A4 – 2 and A5 – 2 were crossed with three elite restorers. The cluster analysis done with molecular data obtained from genomic DNA using SSR markers grouped the parental lines belonging to A1 cytoplasm into one cluster, A4 into one and A5 into the other. The assessment of the performance of the F1 hybrids was done through standard heterosis, heterobeltiosis and economic heterosis. The study clearly indicated that all the seven cytoplasmic male sterile lines coming from different cytoplasmic sources are capable of producing new superior hybrids. Physiological characters like chlorophyll, relative carotenoids and root length density have also been studied to assess the performance of parents and F1 hybrids. Higher economic heterosis was observed for yield in A 1 cytoplasm compared to A4 and A5 cytoplasms. Desirable effects of earliness and maturity can be obtained using A4 cytoplasm while......

Words: 5522 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Risk Management

...I.Table of Content II. Introduction The Human Genome Project (HGP) goal is to describe in intricate detail the Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from humans and other selected organisms. Because DNA is the information molecule that carries instructions for creating and maintaining all life, resources and analytical technologies generated by the HGP and other genetic research can be applied to the DNA of all organisms on earth. (Congressional Project, 1998) Gene tests. DNA-based tests are employed to diagnose a condition or estimate the likelihood for developing one, studies in Alzheimer's disease, (Atkins, E.R., 2010); Implications for Retinal Diseases Parapuram, S. K., Cojocaru, R. I., Chang, J. R., Khanna, R., Brooks, M., Othman, M., & Swaroop and A; (2010) and studies lead by team, led by (J. Craig Venter, 2010) at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, Md., sketched out a rough picture of part of the human genome by identifying segments of genes that are turned on in the brain. Test results already are being offered as evidence to support medical and nonmedical cases in courts, including medical malpractice, discrimination, privacy violations, child custody disputes, and criminal cases, medical disease discoveries. Gene tests according to the Congressional Digest (1998), involve direct examination of the DNA molecule. A DNA sample can be obtained from any tissue, including blood. To do a gene test, scientists scan the sample,......

Words: 1174 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Intellectual

...FOREIGN TRADE UNIVERSITY HCMC ---------***-------- MIDTERM PROJECT SUBJECT: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Major: External Economics IP AND THE PROMOTION OF BIODIVERSITY AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND BENEFIT SHARING WITH PROVIDERS COMMUNITIES Class: K53CLC3 – Group 6 Lecturer: Pham Thi Mai Khanh Ho Chi Minh City, February 2016 I GROUP MEMBERS No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name Khúc Thị Kiều Thương Phạm Mỹ Tiên Trương Thủy Tiên Nguyễn Hoàng Minh Trâm Lương Gia Vĩ Ngô Nhật Vy ID 1401025125 1401025128 1401025129 1401025133 1401025159 1401025162 II TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 1 A. BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................... 2 I. Overview of Intellectual Property ............................................................................................... 2 II. Overvew of Biodiversity ............................................................................................................ 2 III. Overview of Traditional Knowledge ....................................................................................... 4 B. CURRENT SCENERIO ................................................................................................................. 5 I. Intellectual Property in Today World ..........................

Words: 6765 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Anthropology

...What is Anthropology??? • • • 20:41 Anthropology • Scientific Approach, OBJECTIVE • Study of Humankind- human groups • Seeks to produce useful GENERALIZATIONS about people and their BEHAVIORS • To arrive at an UNBIASED UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN DIVERSITY • Only scientific discipline that attempts to embrace an understanding of all of humanity • Helps us understand ourselves an others Anthropology Perspectives • Holistic Approach (broadest view) o To view things in the broadest possible contest o To cover the whole scope of humanity o To provide a total or composite view o Human culture as a system, functional whole, all parts relate o Biocultural Perspective  Studies both the PHYSICAL and SOCIAL  EX: kuru disease (neurological disease)- disease caused by culture, transmitted by mortuary practices • Cultural Relativism o To view the beliefs and customs of other peoples within the context of their culture not one’s own o Practice of not judging other cultures based on the standards of one’s own culture o ENDOCENTRISM  Group centeredness  Tendency to see ones own culture as the center of everything  The measure or standard against which all other lifeways are evaluated  Tendency to consider ones own culture as superior or better than all others o Anthropologists must be unbiased, objective o Involves an effort to remain unbiased in ones observations o Acknowledges that cultures are DIFFERENT, but NOT RANKED o No right or wrong......

Words: 4747 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Gender

...Rights Act of 1991 The Americans with Disabilities Act Uniformed Service Employment and Reemployment Rights Act Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 State and Local EEO Laws Religious and Other Types of Discrimination Sexual Harassment Defenses against Discrimination Allegations The Central Role of Adverse Impact Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Business Necessity Recruitment Word of Mouth Misleading Information Help Wanted Ads Selection Standards Educational Requirements Tests Preference to Relatives Height, Weight, and Physical Characteristics Arrest Records Application Forms Discharge Due to Garnishment Sample Discriminatory Promotion, Transfer, & Layoff Practices Personal Appearance Regulations and Title VII The EEOC Enforcement Process Voluntary Mediation Mandatory Arbitration of Discrimination Claims Diversity Management Potential Threats to Diversity Some Diversity Benefits Managing Diversity Implementing the Affirmative Action Program Reverse Discrimination In Brief: This chapter gives a history of equal opportunity legislation, outlines defenses against discrimination allegations, gives examples of discriminatory practices, describes the EEOC enforcement process, and suggests proactive programs. Interesting Issues: Affirmative action...

Words: 6926 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Genetic Engineering

...Genetic Engineering Wesley Rupe, Jawad Rana, Layli Stroia, Charles Taiwo, Mariella Velasquez, Mark Young DeVry University Genetic Engineering Table of contents Title page ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 1. A brief description of the technology and an explanation of the associated science (Mariella Velasquez) ………………………………………………..……………. 3 2. Psychological considerations and sociological effects (Mariella Velasquez) …………. 3 3. The historical development and context of the technology (Wesley Rupe) …………. 13 4. Political and legal influences (Mark Young) (Not Complete) 5. Economic questions and considerations (Jawad Rana)………………………………….…… 21 6. The technology in its cultural context, media influence (Charles Taiwo) (Not Complete) 7. Implications for the environment (Charles Taiwo) (Not Complete) 8. Moral and ethical implications (Layli Stroia) ……………………………………………………..… 30 Outline A brief description of the technology and an explanation of the associated science Definition: What is Genetic Engineering? Genetic engineering (GE) is the process of manipulation of an organism genome to create a new DNA. The new DNA might be implanted in a totally different DNA species. It is widely used to create hybrids (some species are not able to naturally breed), correct genetic flows in any type of being. It is applied......

Words: 8761 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

None

...uture evolutionary potential of the entire species (Pearse & Avise 2001; Avise et al. 2002; Frankham et al. 2002; Rowe & Hutchings 2003). Given that the current level of shark exploitation worldwide is far exceeding the reproductive capacity of many species and resulting in serious declines in some populations (Manire & Gruber 1990; Baum et al. 2003; Myers & Worm 2003), development of urgently needed and effective conservation measures will benefit from a more thorough understanding of shark mating systems. Field observations suggest that group reproductive behaviour and polyandrous copulations by females in a single mating event may be common in some sharks and batoids (Carrier et al. 1994; Yano et al. 1999; Pratt & Carrier 2001; Chapman et al. 2003). Several species of requiem and hammerhead sharks (families Carcharhinidae and Sphyrnidae, respectively) are also known to store sperm for several months after copulation, raising the possibility that viable sperm from multiple males can accumulate over a protracted mating season and be available for delayed fertilization (Pratt 1993; Manire et al. 1995). Despite these life-history strategies that might seem conducive to multiple paternity, the latter has been documented in only two shark species, the lemon Negaprion brevirostris and nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum. In both these cases, the study animals were from small populations (< 100 breeding animals) and sampled from a single location from insular breeding grounds in......

Words: 6975 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Objective Selection

...Abstract Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques were employed to determine the breeding objectives of Nguni cattle under community-based management of indigenous livestock genetic resources. Six groups each composed of nine representative farmers from communal and small-scale conservation enterprises participated in deriving the objective selection criteria of breeding animals using data on economic weights of preferential traits. The shuffled focus groups brainstormed on the mating strategy and management of breeding animals within low-input conservation enterprises. An economic-weight dependent culling method (EWCM) and two-tier open nucleus breeding scheme were conceptualized. The Nguni breeding animals ideally need to maintain optimum body condition score (4 - 6) and low tick counts across seasons under low-input production system. The indigenous breeding bulls need to have high reproductive efficiency while breeding cows must have calved before reaching 27 month age. The farmers set a two-and-half-year service period of breeding bulls in the in-situ conservation enterprise before culling. Farmers are recommended to objectively assess breeding animals and maintain an updated performance data and information recording system. Keywords: economic weight-dependent culling, focus group discussion,...

Words: 4530 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Student

...of environments (E). Crop improvement can be viewed as a search strategy on a complex G×M×E adaptation or fitness landscape. Here we consider design of an integrated systems approach to crop improvement that incorporates advanced technologies in molecular markers, statistics, bio-informatics, and crop physiology and modelling. We suggest that such an approach can enhance the efficiency of crop improvement relative to conventional phenotypic selection by changing the focus from the paradigm of identifying superior varieties to a focus on identifying superior combinations of genetic regions and management systems. A comprehensive information system to support decisions on identifying target combinations is the critical core of the approach. We discuss the role of ecophysiology and modelling in this integrated systems approach by reviewing (i) applications in environmental characterization to underpin weighted selection; (ii) complex-trait physiology and genetics to enhance the stability of QTL models by linking the vector of coefficients defining the dynamic model to the genetic regions generating variability; and (iii) phenotypic prediction in the target population of environments to assess the value of putative combinations of traits and management...

Words: 8044 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Journal1

...Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America Summary: Recent cancer studies emphasize that genetic and heritable epigenetic changes drive the evolutionary rate of cancer progression and drug resistance. We discuss the ways in which nonheritable aspects of cellular variability may significantly increase evolutionary rate. Nonheritable variability arises by stochastic fluctuations in cells and by physiological responses of cells to the environment. New approaches to drug design may be required to control nonheritable variability and the evolution of resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer progression is a series of evolutionary changes. Those changes include enhanced cellular proliferation, reduced cellular death by abrogating normal apoptotic mechanisms, greater invasiveness by increased expression of proteases, and improved colonizing ability to achieve metastasis [1]. In response to drug treatment, cancer cells often evolve resistance and continue to spread. Each evolutionary step typically proceeds by acquisition of genetic or heritable epigenetic changes in cells. When does the novel genetic change arise in an evolutionary step? By the current view, rare genetic variants arise before widespread phenotypic change. The idea is that a novel phenotype always comes from a novel genotype [2,3]. For example, rare resistant genetic variants may exist before drug treatment [4]. The drug selects those rare resistant variants, killing the other......

Words: 7532 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Low Sociobiology

...father for child abuse. And she would be likely to win. What is common, approved, and thought ethical varies widely across human cultures in time and space: whether one may marry more than one person at a time; who chooses marriage partners; whether abortion and infanticide are approved or forbidden; whether one may eat all meats, some meats, or none; what kinds of killings are forbidden or encouraged. How are we to make sense of all this variety? Human behavior has traditionally been the province of anthropology, sociology, and psychology. Within each of these fields there exist diverse approaches. Recently, behavioral ecology, an evolutionary approach to why we behave as we do, has joined other fields in trying to explain some of the diversity in human behavior. With its roots in Charles Darwin’s work 1 on natural selection, it examines how environmental conditions influence living things. Human behavioral ecology is one of a variety of quite similar evolutionary approaches to human behavior, with a variety of names: evolutionary ecology, biosocial science, human ethology, sociobiology, socioecology, evolutionary biological anthropology, and others.2 Depending on who is reporting, these may vary subtly, or be different names for the same thing....

Words: 9042 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Finance

...http://cls.casa.colostate.edu/transgeniccrops/what.html What Are Transgenic Plants? A transgenic crop plant contains a gene or genes which have been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring them through pollination. The inserted gene sequence (known as the transgene) may come from another unrelated plant, or from a completely different species: transgenic Bt corn, for example, which produces its own insecticide, contains a gene from a bacterium. Plants containing transgenes are often called genetically modified or GM crops, although in reality all crops have been genetically modified from their original wild state by domestication, selection and controlled breeding over long periods of time. On this web site we will use the term transgenic to describe a crop plant which has transgenes inserted. Image:Results of insect infestation on Bt (right) and non-Bt (left) cotton bolls. Source: USDA | Why Make Transgenic Crop Plants? A plant breeder tries to assemble a combination of genes in a crop plant which will make it as useful and productive as possible. Depending on where and for what purpose the plant is grown, desirable genes may provide features such as higher yield or improved quality, pest or disease resistance, or tolerance to heat, cold and drought. Combining the best genes in one plant is a long and difficult process, especially as traditional plant breeding has been limited to artificially crossing plants within the same species or with closely......

Words: 11690 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

The Boy Who Painted Xhrist Black

...The Gay Gene Benjamin C. Bell Jr. Abstract This paper is an expose on one of the prevailing discussions on the gay gene. It has long been debated as to whether or not a person who has embraced has lived gay or lesbian is born that way. The question being is this an act of their own volition or are they born that way. On one side there are those who assert that people are biologically predisposed to such a lifestyle and cannot help but pursue same sex relationships. On the other side there are those who argue it is an issue of will, and one of choice. I believe the current research is inconclusive on both sides. The data is up to date and the results are a testimony to how much ignorance there is about this controversy. As we attempt to understand those whose sexual point of reference we question we must remember that all human beings are the Creator’s offspring and should be treated as such no matter how we feel about their sexual orientation. We must employ respect and reason as we journey down the road to understanding this intriguing subject. People may be different in their sexual expression and it may concern us to no end. The truth of the matter is if their behavior is in our estimation deviant, no matter how wrong we think it is we have a responsibility to treat them in a way that is respectable and proper. People are at liberty to express themselves sexually as they deem it fitting for them. This paper is designed to deliver a biological and scientific......

Words: 10197 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Strategic Management

...1. Introduction 2 Types of strategy Corporate strategy Diversification Vertical Integration Takeover Entry into new business segments Disinvestments Role of headquarter Competitive strategy Product strategy Advertising measures Price strategy Make of buy Innovation strategy Building up market entry barriers Usage of economies of scale Building up alliances Competitive advantages 1. Company 2. Competitor 3. Customer Unique Selling Proposition The unique feature of a product, which enables to have a competitive advantage over other providers. The marketing concept of the unique selling proposition facilitates the successful promotion of products. Highlighting of an outstanding product feature supports the company in positioning their products and helps to convince consumers of its benefits. Different ways of value of the headquarter 1. Stand-alone Influence Separate influence on the strategies and the performance of the particular business fields 2. Linkage Influence Creating synergies by taking advantages of existing relations between business fields 3. Central Functions and Services Avoidance of redundancies by providing cost-efficient centralised services 4. Corporate Development Design of the business portfolio through purchase, sale and restructuring of business fields Business design The totality of how a company selects its costumers, defines and differentiates its offerings, defines the tasks it will perform itself and those it will outsource, configures its resources, goes to market,...

Words: 2100 - Pages: 9