Free Essay

A Message from Hidden Express

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By anusha23
Words 6156
Pages 25
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We have taken a lot of efforts in this project, however it would have not been possible without the kind support and help from many. We are highly indebted to KISHINCHAND CHELLARAM COLLEGE and principal MISS. MANJU NICHANI, the head of the department MR.KAILASH CHANDAK and my teacher MS.ANJALI DHOLAKIYA for giving us the opportunity for doing this project and learning something new, for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project and also for their support in completing the Project. We would like to express our gratitude towards our parents for their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped us in completing this project. Our thanks and appreciation also goes to my friends in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities.

TABLE OF CONTENT SERIAL NO. | PARTICULARS | PAGE NO. | 1. | INTRODUCTION | 3 | 2. | HONOUR KILLING IN INDIA | 5 | 3. | IN LEGAL CODE AND AS CULTURAL PRACTISE | 6 | 4. | CAUSES | 9 | 5. | EFFECTS | 11 | 6. | HONOUR RELATED VIOLENCE | 13 | 7. | CASE STUDY | 14 | 8. | WARNING SIGNS | 17 | 9. | SUPPORT AND PROTECTION | 18 | 10. | INHIBITING FACTORS | 20 | 11. | GUIDELINES FOR SUPPORT | 21 | 12. | PUBLIC FUNDS | 22 | 13. | RECOMMENDATIONS | 23 | 14. | CONCLUSION | 24 | 15. | BIBLOGRAPHY | 26 |

INTRODUCTION
An honor killing or honour killing is the killing of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the belief of the perpetrators that the victim has brought dishonor upon the family or community. Honor killings are directed mostly against women and girls, but have been extended to men.
The perceived dishonor is normally the result of one of the following behaviors, or the suspicion of such behaviors: dressing in a manner unacceptable to the family or community, wanting to terminate or prevent an arranged marriage or desiring to marry by own choice, especially if to a member of a social group deemed inappropriate, engaging in heterosexual acts outside marriage and engaging in homosexual acts. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees state that claims made by LGBT persons often reveal exposure to physical and sexual violence, extended periods of detention, medical abuse, threat of execution and honour killing."
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that perhaps as many as 5,000 women and girls a year are killed by members of their own families. Many women's groups in the Middle East and Southwest Asia suspect the victims are at least four times more. In the modern age, the term was first used by a Dutch scholar of Turkish society ANE NAUTA in 1978. Nauta sought a term that could be used in distinguish honor killings from blood feuds.
Human Rights Watch defines "honor killings" as follows:
Honor killings are acts of vengeance, usually death, committed by male family members against female family members, who are held to have brought dishonor upon the family. A woman can be targeted by (individuals within) her family for a variety of reasons, including: refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce—even from an abusive husband—or (allegedly) committing adultery. The mere perception that a woman has behaved in a way that "dishonors" her family is sufficient to trigger an attack on her life. The loose term "honor killing" applies to killing of both males and females in cultures that practice it. Some women who bridge social divides, publicly engage other communities, or adopt some of the customs or the religion of an outside group may be attacked. In countries that receive immigration, some otherwise low-status immigrant men and boys have asserted their dominant patriarchal status by inflicting honor killings on women family members who have participated in public life, for example in feminist and integration politics.
There is some evidence that homosexuality can also be perceived as grounds for honor killing by relatives. In Brazil, among rural regions but even in the metropolis, non-heterosexual children, specially boys or transgirls, can be killed if disclosed. It has roots in a more virulent version of Latin American machismo. However, it is more common for them to suffer some psychological and physical abuse without deadly consequences, be driven from their homes or be accepted, in varying degrees. People with higher educational levels, higher income, younger, female, residents of urban areas, irreligious persons, non-Christian religious minorities or Christians who are European or Asian descendants and Roman Catholics who are Afro-descendants, and people from the Southern, Southeastern and Central-Western regions, tend to better accept non-heterosexual children than other Brazilians. Anyway, the first time a non-heterosexual Brazilian suffers homophobia, biphobia or transphobia tends to be within the family among all social groups. Feminist groups characterize the dominant societal attitudes in Brazil as deeply sexist and homophobic, and this would be the reason for an abnormal number compared to more developed countries of non-heterosexual youth suffering bullying or committing suicide, and there is a number of homophobic extermination gangs even in regions where far-right and white supremacist groups being unimaginable. Brazil is already in #2 place of this kind of movement in Latin America after Argentina. Since this kind of violence which is usually motivated by extremist ideologies appears to have come with great strength and very quickly to the country despite its limitations within globalization and its unique features, homophobic extermination groups may have originated in a very homophobic culture native to Brazilian society.
Men can also be the victims of honor killings by members of the family of a woman with whom they are perceived to have an inappropriate relationship.

HONOUR KILLING IN INDIA
Honor killings have been reported in northern regions of India, mainly in the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, as a result of people marrying without their family's acceptance, and sometimes for marrying outside their caste or religion. In contrast, honor killings are rare to non-existent in South India and the western Indian states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. In some other parts of India, notably West Bengal, honor killings ceased about a century ago, largely due to the activism and influence of reformists such as Vivekananda, Ramakrishna, Vidyasagar and Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Among Rajputs, marriages with members of other castes can provoke the killing of the married couple and immediate family members. This form of honor killing is attributedto Rajput culture and a traditional view on the perceived “purity” of a lineage.The Indian state of Punjab has a large number of honor killings. According to data compiled by the Punjab Police, 34 honor killings were reported in the state between 2008 and 2010: 10 in 2008, 20 in 2009, and four in 2010. Haryana and Uttarakhand are also notoriously known for incidents of honor killing which is mainly happens in the upper cast of society mainly rajputs and jaats. Bhagalpur in the northern Indian state of Bihar has also been notorious for honor killings.. In June 2010 some incidents were reported even from Delhi. In 1990 the National Commission for Women set up a statutory body in order to address the issues of honor killings among some ethnic groups in North India. This body reviewed constitutional, legal and other provisions as well as challenges women face. The NCW's activism has contributed significantly towards the reduction of honor killings in rural areas of North India. According to Pakistani activists Hina Jilani and Eman M. Ahmed, Indian women are considerably better protected against honor killings by Indian law and government than Pakistani women, and they have suggested that governments of countries affected by honor killings use Indian law as a model in order to prevent honor killings in their respective societies. In June 2010, scrutinizing the increasing number of honor killings, the Supreme Court of India issued notices to the Central Government and six states including Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan to take preventive measures against honor killings. Alarmed by the rise of honor killings, the Government planned to bring a bill in the Monsoon Session of Parliament July 2010[to provide for deterrent punishment for 'honor' killings.
IN NATIONAL LEGAL CODES
According to the report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in 2002 concerning cultural practices in the family that reflect violence against women (E/CN.4/2002/83):
The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regard to the honour defense in Brazil, and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defense in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Peru, Syria, Venezuela and the Palestinian National Authority.
Countries where the law is interpreted to allow men to kill female relatives in a premeditated effort as well as for crimes of passions, in flagrante delicto in the act of committing adultery, include:
Jordan: Part of article 340 of the Penal Code states that "he who discovers his wife or one of his female relatives committing adultery and kills, wounds, or injures one of them, is exempted from any penalty. This has twice been put forward for cancellation by the government, but was retained by the Lower House of the Parliament, in 2003: a year in which at least seven honor killings took place. Article 98 of the Penal Code is often cited alongside Article 340 in cases of honor killings. “Article 98 stipulates that a reduced sentence is applied to a person who kills another person in a ‘fit of fury’”.
Countries that allow men to kill female relatives in flagrante delicto (but without premeditation) include:
Syria: Article 548 states that "He who catches his wife or one of his ascendants, descendants or sister committing adultery (flagrante delicto) or illegitimate sexual acts with another and he killed or injured one or both of them benefits from a reduced penalty, that should not be less than 2 years in prison in case of a killing."
Countries that allow husbands to kill only their wives in flagrante delicto include:
Morocco: Revisions to Morocco's criminal code in 2003 helped improve women's legal status by eliminating unequal sentencing in adultery cases. Article 418 of the penal code granted extenuating circumstances to a husband who kills, injures, or beats his wife and/or her partner, when catching them in flagrante delicto while committing adultery. While this article has not been repealed, the penalty for committing this crime is at least now the same for both genders.
In two Latin American countries, similar laws were struck down over the past two decades: according to human rights lawyer Julie Mertus "in Brazil, until 1991 wife killings were considered to be non-criminal 'honor killings'; in just one year, nearly eight hundred husbands killed their wives. Similarly, in Colombia, until 1980, a husband legally could kill his wife for committing adultery."
Countries where honor killing is not legal but is known to occur include:
Turkey: In Turkey, persons found guilty of this crime are sentenced to life in prison. There are well documented cases, where Turkish courts have sentenced whole families to life imprisonment for an honor killing. The most recent was on January 13, 2009, where a Turkish Court sentenced five members of the same Kurdish family to life imprisonment for the "honor killing" of Naile Erdas, 16, who got pregnant as a result of rape.
Pakistan: Honor killings are known as karo Kari. The practice is supposed to be prosecuted under ordinary killing, but in practice police and prosecutors often ignore it. Often a man must simply claim the killing was for his honor and he will go free. Nilofar Bakhtiar, advisor to Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, stated that in 2003, as many as 1,261 women were killed in honor killings. On December 8, 2004, under international and domestic pressure, Pakistan enacted a law that made honor killings punishable by a prison term of seven years or by the death penalty in the most extreme cases. Women's rights organizations were, however, wary of this law as it stops short of outlawing the practice of allowing killers to buy their freedom by paying compensation to the victim's relatives. Women's rights groups claimed that in most cases it is the victim's immediate relatives who are the killers, so inherently the new law is just whitewash. It did not alter the provisions whereby the accused could negotiate pardon with the victim's family under the Islamic provisions. In March 2005 the Pakistani parliament rejected a bill which sought to strengthen the law against the practice of honor killing. However, the bill was brought up again, and in November 2006, it passed. It is doubtful whether or not the law would actually help women.
Egypt: A number of studies on honor crimes by The Centre of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law, at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, includes one which reports on Egypt's legal system, noting a gender bias in favor of men in general, and notably article 17 of the Penal Code: judicial discretion to allow reduced punishment in certain circumstance, often used in honor killings case.
AS A CULTURAL PRACTISE
Sharif Kanaana, professor of anthropology at Birzeit University, says that honor killing is:A complicated issue that cuts deep into the history of society.arab .. What the men of the family, clan, or tribe seek control of in a matrilineal society is reproductive power. Women for the tribe were considered a factory for making men. The honour killing is not a means to control sexual power or behavior. What's behind it is the issue of fertility, or reproductive power.
An Amnesty International statement adds:The regime of honor is unforgiving: women on whom suspicion has fallen are not given an opportunity to defend themselves, and family members have no socially acceptable alternative but to remove the stain on their honor by attacking the woman. The lawyer and human rights activist Hina Jilani says, "The right to life of women in Pakistan is conditional on their obeying social norms and traditions. Nighat Taufeeq of the women's resource center Shirkatgah (Lahore, Pakistan) says: "It is an unholy alliance that works against women: the killers take pride in what they have done, the tribal leaders condone the act and protect the killers and the police connive the cover-up." A July 2008 Turkish study by a team from Dicle University on honor killings in the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the predominantly Kurdish area of Turkey, has so far shown that little if any social stigma is attached to honor killing. It also comments that the practise is not related to a feudal societal structure, "there are also perpetrators who are well-educated university graduates. Of all those surveyed, 60 percent are either high school or university graduates or at the very least, literate."
CAUSES OF HONOR-KILLINGS
1. The Widening Acumen Of Honor-Killings: The amount of honour killings appears to be steadily accretion as the acumen of what constitutes honour widens. There are honour killings for rape, for gluttonous alliance and for gluttonous divorce. Women are not accustomed a adventitious to bright up accessible misunderstandings. Tradition decrees alone one adjustment to restore honour-to annihilate the abaft woman.
Expressing a admiration to accept a alliance accomplice and in fact application a alliance with a accomplice of one's best in a association area majority of marriages are abiding by parents are advised above acts of defiance. Women who ally a man of their best yield resource to accompaniment law, agreement themselves alfresco the acceptable shame; by the accessible attributes of their action, they abashment their guardians arch them to resort to abandon to restore their honour. Frequently fathers accompany allege of zina adjoin their daughters who accept affiliated ally of their choice. But even if such a complaint is afore a court, some men resort to clandestine amends in the name of honour killings.
2. Misusing Honour Killings for Self Interests: This arrangement provides simple opportunities for the arrant to accomplish money, access a woman in declared advantage or to burrow added crimes, in the abreast authoritativeness that the honour killings, if they appear to cloister at all, will be dealt with leniently. As Nafisa Shah puts it, a accomplished 'honour killing industry' has sprung up with the ambit of pale holders including tribes, people, badge administering and affiliated mediators, "vested interests…use of alibi as a absolute awning for a aggregation of sins".
3. To Camouflage Murder: Reports abound about men who, accepting murdered a man over issues not affiliated with the honour, annihilate a woman of their own ancestors declared as kari to the murdered man as an honour killing. By bulging the annihilation as an honour killing, the assassin will escape the afterlife amends and will balk the charge to pay advantage for the murder.
4. Animalism for Money: The animalism for money appears to accept motivated abounding men to allege their mothers, wives or changeable ancestors of aspersing their families and killing them in adjustment to abstract a advantage from the declared Karos who escape the killings. A man in apple Gujrani, dead his 85-year-old mother as kari in 1992 and acquired 25,000 Rs from the man he declared the karo.
5. Acreage And land: The admiration to access acreage may as well lie abaft some affected honour killings. "Land is the capital affair in Sindh society, all the blow follows from that. If a woman owns land; her brother may annihilate her to get land; but even poor families now-a-days imitate this arrangement even admitting there is no acreage to grab, artlessly to ascertain themselves as equals in the system".
Individuals may be at serious risk from familial violence through any display of autonomy, particularly in the area of sexuality, reproduction and lifestyle choices. Particularly hazardous factors are: 1. Loss of virginity 2.Causing gossip
3. Refusing an arranged marriage 4. Non-approved relationships
5. Seeking divorce 6. Ideological conflicts
7. Homosexuality 8.Child custody issues
9. Running away from home 10. Coming home late
11. Dress or make-up deemed inappropriate 12. Rape
13. Fleeing/reporting domestic violence/forced marriage
14. Pregnancy (if suspected that the child may have been conceived outside a relationship approved by the family)

FACTORS THAT LEAD TO 'HONOR' KILLINGS AND THEIR PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS

The culturally ingrained attitudes and social factors toward the traditional roles of men and women, as well as the views of women’s virginity and fidelity, which I have explained previously, have and continue to lead people to commit ‘honor’ killings in certain societies. These values combined with the presence of the relatively condoned practice, depending on the region or country, leads to the perpetuation of its occurrence. There is often immense social pressure within a family or a community which leads people to continue to enforce these codes of behavior either through killing someone in the name of ‘honor’, acting as a compliant, or enforcing gender roles in symbolic or structural ways on an everyday basis. ‘Honor’ killings, however, act as the most pervasive deterrent for modes of behavior that are considered unacceptable. In any society, sometimes men and women who feel as though they don’t fit into the prescribed gender roles of their culture will use certain tools or means to ‘prove’ to society and themselves that they belong to these roles. Men who may feel unsure about their gender or ‘masculine’ identity in societies where ‘honor’ killings occur, may be more likely to commit ‘honor’ killings as a means of demonstrating their dominance and trying to show that they fit in. Most often, however, those who commit ‘honor’ killings are often the younger brothers or relatives of a woman, because minors receive lesser sentences, and this is usually something that is forced on them. The psychological effects of the occurrence of ‘honor’ killings are very detrimental. The presence of this violent practice induces a great deal of fear and many burdens on women, as they are most often the victims. It threatens the safety, physical, and mental health of women, as ‘honor’ killings not only work as a mode of social control, but a fear tactic, creating an environment of anxiety and risk. A four-year study at the University Psychiatry Department at Karachi, Pakistan, found that 66% of their psychiatric patients were female, of whom 70% had been victims of violence and 80% had struggled with domestic conflicts. (Children who have bore witness to or are aware of their mothers, sisters, or other relatives being victims of ‘honor’ killings, are often incredibly traumatized, and face an increased risk for behavioral issues, substance abuse, and/or repeating the cycle of ‘honor’ killings. This is an important example of how cultural values can construct a mindset. In this case, the effects of the mindset can be very serious indeed, and act to perpetuate very fearful notions
The experience and trauma of ‘honour’-related violence inevitably leaves psychological after-effects which may need to be addressed.
These include:
1. Internalising her second-class status 2. Living in constant fear
3. Hyper-vigilance 4. Post-traumatic shock disorder
5. Loss of self-esteem 6. Feelings of guilt and shame
7. Self-blame 8. Suicidal thoughts
9. Depression 10. Dependency
11. Isolation 12. Flashbacks
13. Nightmares

DOMESTIC AND ‘HONOUR’ RELATED VIOLENCE
Superficially, domestic and honour-related violence have many factors in common; however the risks of honour-violence are much more exacting in terms of support and domestic violence resources may not be adequate to address the needs of potential victims of honour-motivated violence.
1. Victims of HRV face many potential aggressors from the extended family, whereas a victim of DV more often has only one known aggressor
2. HRV are often premeditated and planned with the collusion of the entire family who may instigate elaborate stratagems to enact the crime.
3. Criminals committing murders in the name of ‘honour’ may receive a degree of community support (including from the family of the victim) which a domestic abuser would not enjoy
4. Families wishing to carry out an ‘honour’ related crime may resort to using professional agencies of bounty hunters and hit-men which is unusual in domestic violence casesFew statistics on HRV are available in Europe and this is due to its categorisation as a form of domestic violence which obscures the true extent of the phenomenon.

CASE STUDY
Nirupama Pathak case: 'She was bolted in bathroom by family members'

Nirupama Pathak – a name that has, of late, hit headlines in the national as well as international media. She was a 22-year-old journalist, reportedly three-month pregnant, who was found dead in the last week of April at her family home in Jharkhand. Nirupama’s family claims that she committed suicide, but the post-mortem report tells a different story altogether.
“The parents were frequently changing their statements. First, her mother said she died due to electrocution. Later, the family members produced a suicide note and said she killed herself by hanging from the ceiling fan. The post-mortem report says she was murdered by smothering. It also revealed that she was 10-12 weeks pregnant,” Koderma police superintendent Kranti Singh said.
Nirupama’s fault: she fell in love with a boy from another caste. The girl hails from the family of Brahmins, while her boyfriend, Priyabhanshu Ranjan, comes from different caste. “There are indications that family pride was the prime motive behind the murder,” a police spokesman told reporters. The case once again highlights how common `honour killings` are in India. However, there are no official figures for the number of caste-related murders, because most of these cases go unreported, the perpetrators unpunished, but occupy the columns and slots of print and broadcast media quite often.
Nirupama’s mother, Sudha Devi, has been arrested. And if the charge is proved against her, it will be a rare case in which an educated middle-class woman will face trial for killing her own daughter. There are many Nirupamas not only in India, but in many societies, who are burnt alive, strangulated, shot, tortured, all in the name of preserving honour of the family. What reputation does the family deserve after committing such a monstrous offence?

Husband cut off wife's ears, nose on Eid day

Qalat: A man named Mumtaz in southern Zabul province of Afghanistan first shaved wife, Nazia’s head and then cut off her ears, and nose and damaged her teeth on the first day of Eid ul Adha, an Islamic ritual of sacrifice.
Hospital sources in Qalat, center of Zabul, told this scribe by phone that Nazia, 17, was admitted on Wednesday (First day of Eid) evening and now she was in a critical condition due to the severe beating she has borne.
Provincial Police Chief of Zabul, Gen. Mohammad Yaqub Khan, when contacted, confirmed this brutal incident and confessed that the police were still unable to arrest the man. ‘The police are searching for him, he has disappeared’ Khan added.
Moreover, he told that a brother of the culprit was police officer who is currently under investigation. According to a resident of the area, the husband and wife were recently moved to Zabul from eastern Paktiya province for unknown reasons.
The abused woman Nazia, lying on her hospital bed and uncertain about her future, told that her husband, twice her age, had suspicions about her behavoir. She added 'I swore to him many times that I was faithful to him but he did not believed. He used to beat me. A few days before Eid, she shaved my head and beat me severely. On the first day of the Eid, he cut my ears, then my nose, then damaged my teeth and beat me until my hands and legs were broken.''I was second wife of Mumtaz. The first wife was already killed by him' she added with a flow of tears from her eyes.A report of BBC Pashto adds that many women in Zabul province has protested on Saturday against this brutal act and demanded immediate arrest of the beast. 'We condemn this and we declare it the worst violation against the women' said a protester.
Fauzia Younasi, the provincial director of the women department has visited the hospital and shown her concerns over the matter. She ordered the doctors to do their best to save her life. 'She has suffered so much, she is beaten severly, her ears and nose is cut off, her teeth are totally damaged so she cant speak' she told media.
Residents of the area told that Nadia was married to this man one year ago.
The war-torn country is being to lead on a slow pace to democracy and political stability but violations against human rights, especially in the southern and eastern provinces, are still common. 'Legal reforms designed to protect women are not implemented and women continued to be detained for breaching social mores. There was a rise in cases of "honour" killings of women and self-immolation by women' says Amnesty International 2007 Report on Afghanistan.

WARNING SIGNS
Women, girls and men at risk of ‘honour’ crime or ‘honour’ murder often understate the risk they are under. It is essential to take any suggestions of ‘honour’ crime or forced marriage with the utmost seriousness. The following warning signs are indicative of violent and patriarchal attitudes which may lead to forced marriage, extreme violence and murder. The hallmark of this form of crime is violent control. Any intensification in abusive and violent behaviour may well indicate that a planned attack is imminent.
1. History of violence within the family
2. Forced marriage; whether it is the complainant’s marriage or other instances of coerced marriage within the family circle
3. Restriction of movement; an intensification of restrictions or imprisonment may indicate that an attack is imminent
4. Restrictions of freedom; including free choices of friends and clothingn Threats of violence; insults and abuse
5. Constant surveillance by members of the family and extended family
6. Suicide attempts or suicidal behaviour
7. Sudden travel to the ‘home’ country
Families set on enacting an ‘honour’ murder will try to exploit police and other services to carry out their crime. They may, for example, register a person who has fled the risk of murder as a missing person or accuse them of committing a crime in order to use the police as accomplices to track down a family member for the purposes of murder. Be aware also, that one in nine ‘honour’ murders in the UK are performed by professional hitmen and that bounty hunters may also be used.

SUPPORT AND PROTECTION
The most important and dangerous time for victims is when they seek help from the services. Service providers may only have this one chance to provide effective support and potentially to save a life. IKWRO have a three point plan for public service providers to give advice in their production of protocols to assist potential victims of ‘honour’
1. BE AWARE
2. BE READY
3. BELIEVE
Be aware
1. Provide training for all frontline staff in the nature and reality of ‘honour’ killing
2. Raise awareness within the affected communities, amongst men and women, and particularly young people
3. Provide publicity materials translated into the appropriate languages
Be ready
Policies and protocols to deal with potential victims of ‘honour’ crime should be established in advance of any demands on the service: the danger and risk is too real to leave their development to the time when the need arises.
1. Create plans to deal with every contingency in advance
2. Build links with other agencies, including police and solicitors
3. Plan for the protection of a wide range of service users: old, young, male, female, with or without children, employed, unemployed, and with all levels of linguistic ability
4. Ensure the safety of all shelters and housing
5. Establish a specific unit to deal with survivors
6. Find ways to prosecute the perpetrators
Believe
1. Treat all potential victims with the utmost sensitivity and seriousness
2. Do not make assumptions based on perceptions of ‘cultural difference’.
3. Avoid racist attitudes
4. Do not pass judgement
5. NEVER send a potential victim back to their family
6. DO NOT attempt mediation with the family

INHIBITING FACTORS
Individuals at risk of ‘honour’-related violence may not seek help immediately. It is important to recognise and where possible address the factors which may inhibit a person from seeking help.
1. Lack of awareness of their human rights and their rights under British law and Lack of awareness of the services available to help them
2. Feelings of guilt and shame
3. Protective feelings towards family
4. Low self-esteem and lack of confidence
6. Poor perception of the police and other agencies
7. Fear of poor confidentiality
8. Fear of losing children
9. Fear of aggravating their situation
10. Language problems
11. Asylum status
12. Risk of deportation
13. No recourse to public funding

GUIDELINES FOR CONTINUED SUPPORT
1. Establish a means of continued contact immediately; you may only have one chance to make a difference
2. Consider using a codeword to establish that you are talking to the right person
3. Arrange meetings in neutral sites; be aware the victim may be followed
4. Never meet the victim at a sensitive location such as a hostel or safe-house
5. Always use official interpreters; never use family, friends, relations or community figures
6. Meetings must take place in absolute privacy, no-one must be able to overhear the conversations, even friends of the victim
7. Confidentiality is essential; particularly from the family, but also from other community members
8. Do not allow prejudices to colour your treatment of a victim; do not make comments about their culture. Restrict your intervention to the facts of the case
9. Make sure your victim has a contact that they feel comfortable with; this may be a member of the same or opposite sex, or their own, or another community. Some potential victims are very concerned with confidentiality and may feel more relaxed with a person of a different background.

Asylum, immigration and public funds

Women with insecure immigration status are very difficult to help due to the regulation stipulating that failed asylum seekers have ‘no recourse to public funding’. Their insecure status leaves them extremely vulnerable to abuse, where partners and others can treat them with extreme violence in relative impunity, in the knowledge that if they are reported to the police or other authorities, the woman faces deportation to a country where she faces ostracism or even murder as a divorced or separated woman. It can be impossible to find shelters that are able to accept women in need of them because of the restriction on public funds, and as asylum hearings can be very slow, often shelters are required for more than short term protection. Southall Black Sisters estimate that there are at least 500 victims of violence who are affected by these regulations and they are amongst the organisations spearheading the campaign for the abolition of this discriminatory regulation.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NATIONAL POLICY
1. Police to perform full risk assessments
2. National protection scheme, including the provision of new identities and histories
3. National advisory group for ‘honour’ related crime
4. Councils to provide secure accommodation to potential victims nationwide
5. Mandatory training in ‘honour’ related crime for all service providers
6. Dedicated ‘honour’ related crime team/officer within each police force and all London boroughs
7. Long-term, secured resources for all organizations providing support to survivors and help to potential victims
8. Abolition of ‘no recourse to public funding’ regulations for victims of violence

CONCLUSION

There are various misconceptions regarding the practice of honor killing. The first misconception about honor killing is that this is a practice that is limited to the rural areas. The truth is that it is spread over such a large geographical area that we cannot isolate honor killings to rural areas only, though one has to admit that majority of the killings take place in the rural areas. But it has also been seen recently that even the metropolitan cities like Delhi and Tamil Nadu are not safe from this crime because 5 honor killings were reported from Delhi and in Tamil Nadu.The second misconception regarding honor killing is that it has religious roots. Even if a woman commits adultery, there have to be four male witnesses with good behavior and reputation to validate the charge. Furthermore only the State can carry out judicial punishments, but never an individual vigilante. So, we can clearly see that there is no religious backing or religious roots for this heinous crime.What can we do to prevent such a thing from happening? Firstly, the mentality of the people has to change. And when we say that the mentality has to change, we mean to say that parents should accept their children’s wishes regarding marriage as it is they who have to lead a life with their life partners and if they are not satisfied with their life partner then they will lead a horrible married life which might even end in suicide. Secondly, we need to have stricter laws to tackle these kinds of killings as this is a crime which cannot be pardoned because. Humans do not have the right to write down death sentences of innocent fellow humans. Parents think that they are some manufacturing units and their children (of all ages) are their products
Parents think that their sons and daughters have no life of their own. And they have all rights to use and abuse their sons and daughters
The whole concept of human rights and child rights are alien to Indian parents
Indian parents are experts at emotional blackmailing
Parents think that they have done some favor to their wards by giving birth to them (which is wrong as kids are born out of sex, a pleasant activity. and people give birth to kids because it gives pleasure to them)
Parents think that they have done some favor to their wards by bringing them up (which is wrong as parents bring kids up just for their self-interest of helping them in their old age)
Psychologically speaking, parents unconsciously abuse their wards to take revenge for the abuse they had themselves suffered at their own parents' hands (someone please stop this barbarity in the name of tradition and so-called family respect)

Are people who kill their sons and daughters in name of caste any better than terrorists who kill people in the name of religion?
Killing in the name of preserving honour only brings dishonor to the family……

BIBLOGRAPHY

Primary source: internet google.com(Wikipedia) www.stophonourkilling.com secondary source: newspaper articles and books on honour killing

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Bcom275

...2011 Cynthania Clark Demonstrative Communication Demonstrative Communication is best described as how we speak to someone with nonverbal communication. “Verbal Communication only makes up 7% of your message, the remainder is composed of 38% tone and 55% nonverbal cue’s”, according to College of Dupage’s management department.(Livestrong.com) There are many ways that we can affect how people perceive what we are saying or what we are trying to say. Whether written, verbal, or nonverbal we can all have an effect on how communication is demonstrated. When we talk to someone face to face nonverbal means of communication cannot be hidden. The nonverbal signals that we send are equally as important as the words that we speak and the tone of our voice. If we are having a conversation with someone in regards to their performance as an employee, it is good to keep a clear tone, speak clearly and keep our facial expressions to a minimum. When we are dealing with customers, you want to speak with an upbeat and friendly tone, speak clearly and have a happy, smiley expression. By having these positive behaviors when speaking with others you are more likely to get positive results and positive feedback. Our body language can have a huge impact on how the message we are sending is received. If our body language is not engaging, people may see it as we do not have interest and do not want to interact. How we use our body language as communication is always different......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Demonstrative Communication

...the world it is experiences, shared or knowledge gained from worldwide affairs that is exchange among people. Communication necessary for growth, and is essential in the workplace. Communication, is information that is exchange from the sender to receiver, and doesn’t happen until the entire process is completed. The art of communication happens when words are exchange and the message is clarified and understood. As an individual climb the ladder of success they’ll gain a better understanding the importance of communication and learn that communicating effectively is the most useful skill any individual can attribute to any organization. Understanding the power and influence communication has in our day to day lives, will make an individual aware of how it’s important to communicate effectively. Especially in the workplace, information in operations is always interchangeable among all departments involved in business operations. If miscommunications occur this causes employees to be ineffective because of issues that can occur such as mistakes that can cause the company money and even delays in operations. Communication isn’t always a simple process because there are various factors that can cause the communication process to become complex. An effective communicator understands that communication has many factors that play an integral part of the communication process that will determine the comprehension of a message to its receiver. Examining each elements of the......

Words: 823 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bonded

...Asa was purchased as a slave, through numerous twist and turns including Jack lusts for Lily whom only likes Sonny, and Asa being a rebellious which caused trouble for Sonny, the play was able to develop into something far more different than expected. We, as audiences were able to see the build up of tensions and suspense that would spring up during this short play. Bonded by Donald Jolly had a very clear message in this short play. The playwright wanted us to see the taboo of homosexuality during the old slavery days. From today you can relate that homosexuality is not quite as accepted even though we are more open minded than in the 1820s. We can assume that homosexuality was even more criticized and hated than today. At least homosexuality is more tolerated than today, so I can't really imagine what it would be like for homosexuals in the past. Sonny and Asa portrays that quarrel and hatreds can into mutual attraction which shows the hidden message that homosexuality shouldn't be despised as long as there is no harm to anyone else, people should be free to express their feelings which is ironic in a way because Jolly used slaves to portray this free feeling when slaves are anything but free. In a way this also relates to life because there will always be a sort of triangle relationship, someone will always be left out because there is no room for their love. It shows the fears and helplessness...

Words: 1133 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cross-Cultural Communication Essay

...culture. Hall (1976) suggested that one must put great efforts to understand the message from a context-dependent communication. It is essential that business people bear in mind that learning cultures and intercultural communication are vital. In the current increasingly diverse world, intercultural communication obviously plays an important role (Germaine, 2006). As a developing country with high-context culture, Vietnamese workers should be well prepared to overcome difficulties when dealing with other cultures in global business integration process. This essay will look at specific aspects of cultural elements of communication in Viet Nam and compare barriers in Viet Nam to those in the UK. Through these boundaries, the essay suggests several intercultural competencies that Vietnamese managers should train their employees in order to work well under multi-cultural environment. Communication in Viet Nam According to Das and Kumar (2010), Viet Nam’s culture, which is among Asian countries, is classified as high-context. In this system, communication style has many specific characteristics. The first element is that one should look deeply at not only non-verbal behavior of speaker but also the context in order to understand the message. It means the spoken words just represent half of the story. The main idea depends mostly on the environment. This may cause confusion to one who comes from low-context culture where everything is...

Words: 1899 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Hcs4

...society are known as [pic]A) ethics. [pic]B) laws. [pic]C) social guidelines. [pic]D) none of the above. Feedback: Ethical behavior goes beyond the question of legal or illegal. It may be legal to appropriate the idea of a colleague as your own, but it is not ethical. |Points Earned: |5.0/5.0 | | |Correct Answer(s): |A | [pic] 2. To make your communication more effective, [pic]A) send the same messages by multiple channels. [pic]B) include as much information as possible, even if you're not sure it's necessary. [pic]C) clearly address your audience's wants and needs-not yours. [pic]D) do all of the above. Feedback: Audiences tend to tune out when they receive "me" messages. To make sure a message is heard and understood, focus it on the other person, not yourself. |Points Earned: |5.0/5.0 | | |Correct Answer(s): |C | [pic] 3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of effective business messages? [pic]A) They present the writer's opinions as facts. [pic]B) They state precise audience responsibilities. [pic]C) They highlight and summarize essential information. [pic]D) They provide practical information. Feedback: When stated, opinions should always be identified as opinions, and they should be supported by facts and other forms of evidence. |Points Earned: |0.0/5.0 | | |Correct Answer(s): |A ......

Words: 3839 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Effective Communication

...different cultures, or in the privacy of our homes, can be used to tear people apart or hurt someone; it can be full of bitterness and hate; yet it can also be used to express love, admiration, offer hope, and inspire others. Communication and our relationships with others are completely connected. It is impossible to have a relationship with someone without speaking to them. It involves every aspect of our everyday contact with others. Communication involves both verbal and non-verbal expressions of our thoughts, feelings and ideas to others. Our verbal communication is done through words, sending messages on what we think or feel in certain situations. Our non-verbal communication also known as paralanguage is embedded through your gestures, in the clothes we wear, the posture you present, your attitudes or facial expressions. It may be your silence, or your gentle touch. Paralanguage is more universal than verbal communication. This is the part of our communication that helps prevent ineffective communication, unlike a telephone call or a letter in that; it is harder to tell a lie or to hide a facial expression when face-to-face. It has been suggested that nearly 70% of what we communicate with others is through our non-verbal/paralanguage messages (O’Neil, 2009). Therefore, non-verbal/paralanguage messages are often far more important in communication than what is actually being said. Emotions such as anger,...

Words: 2678 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Law of Inner Life

...Volume I - The Way of Illumination Section II - The Inner Life Chapter VI THE LAW OF THE INNER LIFE Those who live the inner life begin to see a law which is hidden from the average man. There is the law of nature which is known as science, and that of life which is called moral law; but beyond science and morals there is another law. It may be called occult law, or in other words inner law; a law which can be understood by an open heart and an awakened soul. This law manifests to the view of the seer in many and varied forms; sometimes it appears in a quite contrary form to the effect that it has later on in its manifestation. The eye of the seer becomes a sword which cuts open, so to speak, all things, including the hearts of men, and sees clearly through all they contain; but it is cutting open which is at the same time healing. In the Quran it is said, 'He who taught with the pen, taught man that which he knew not.' And what does that mean? It means that to the man who lives the inner life, everything that he sees becomes a written character and this whole visible world a book. He reads it as plainly as a letter written by his friend. And besides this, he hears a voice within which becomes to him a language. It is an inner language; its words are not the same as the words of the external language. It is a divine language. It is a language without words which can only be called a voice, and yet it serves as a language. It is like music which is as clear as a language...

Words: 1131 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Shah Abdul Latif

...a mystic, a great scholar, a poet and a keen observer. He drew his inspiration from the Quran. There are ample facts, which prove that he had remarkably extensive knowledge of the Sindh language, thus, considered as a greatest Muslim poet of Sindhi language. Shah Jo Risalo is a poetic compendium of famous Sindhi Sufi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai. His collected poems were assembled, which exists in numerous versions and has been translated to English, Urdu, and other languages. His work has been compared frequently to great Persian poets. The traditional compilations of Shah Jo Risalo include 30 Surs. These Surs contain Bayts which Shah Latif sang in state of ecstasy. These Bayts in the Surs concerning the life-stories of his heroines. Suhni, Sassui, Lila, Mumal, Marui, Nuri and Sorath. They are concerned with the moments of denouncements in life-stories, which he used as allegories to express his mystical experiences. Shah Jo Risalo, written in very pure and concise Sindhi verses, is great storehouse not only for Muslims but also for the Hindus. Shah Abdul Latif has hidden his mystical ideas under layers of symbols taken from all spheres of life as well as from the classical Sufi tradition. Shah Latif's poetry though difficult to be understood in the modern times has the depth of oceans in it. One has to strive a lot to understand the meaning and content in its true perspective. But the message of his poetry broadly speaking is, love, universality of the human race,......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

A Delay-Based Optimum Routing Protocol Scheme for Collision Avoidance Applications in Vanets

...Amrita School of Engineering, Amritapuri Campus Kollam – Kerala, India agayathrin@am.amrita.edu, bneethu91ammu@gmail.com, csruti.sanjiv_g@ymail.com Keywords: Broadcast, Multi-hop, VANETs, Delay, Routing Protocols, AODV, Cluster-based routing, OSPF. Abstract — Broadcast transmissions are currently finding extensive applications in vehicular ad-hoc networks, albeit primarily in the research phase. Given the importance of knowing the updated network details of each node in the network, and also considering the fact that the delay in transmission of messages is a crucial factor in collision avoidance, it is imperative to implement a broadcast network which will ensure minimum delay in transmission of messages between the nodes. In this paper, we primarily implement a multi-hop broadcast vehicular network for collision avoidance. We consider the mobility and traffic density of vehicles and simulate the end-to-end delay in message transmission for a sparse and dense network scenario. In order to ensure high reliability and get the optimum delay, we extend the scenario to include three different routing protocols – AODV, Cluster-based routing and OSPF – and perform a comparison based on the end-to-end transmission delay to determine the optimum routing algorithm. In order to account for all possibilities, the case of link failure as a consequence of sparse network scenario is also considered. Introduction Broadcasting is an integral communication technique that can be......

Words: 4169 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Education

...Active Listening Skills 1 Active Listening Skills in the Health Care Environment Teresa Soto-Gomez HHS307: Comm Skills for Health & Human Service Personnel Instructor Long February 2, 2013 Active Listening Skills 2 Introduction In the healthcare environment, professionals must use discretion in the matters concerning listening. This paper will provide a brief definition and description of active listening and how it is used in the therapeutic setting. Examples of how I utilize my active listening skills in my work situations will be included. The results of my active listening skills test will be presented, identifying my strengths and areas for improvement. Changes within my personal communication skills that would improve my active listening will also be discussed. Since active listening enhances the understanding of patients’ needs and improves patient problem-solving, especially in controversial issues needing special attendance, these skills should be a necessity for healthcare professionals to learn. Active listening refers to a sensitive, discerning use of the sense of hearing described by Theodor Reiks as “listening with the third ear”, (Servellen, G., 2009). It is a way of listening and responding to another individual that improves mutual understanding. It is a type of listening that focuses the attention on the speaker. Active listening, when done right, can not only reveal what the sender is saying but what the sender is thinking and......

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Diary Of A Part-Time Indian

...alcoholism as a theme the author explains the foolishness of drinking too much and the consequences. Clearly, the use of this theme not only warns the audience of the dangers of what happens when you drink but also to refrain from anger. This is shown when the Andruss Brothers bully Junior (the victim) but when Rowdy (person not to get angry) found out he went and “shaved off their eyebrows and cut off their bands” (pg.22) as a form of revenge. Therefore through the use of alcoholism as a theme the author is able to show that drinking irresponsible has the same dire consequences in reality as in the novel. More importantly, the use of the theme violence in this novel shows the author understands there are both good and bad things that come with a person. The connection between linking a violent person to the novel is to say there are things in life that violent people can’t control to any degree. This is displayed when Rowdy hits his face against the window of a minivan, without derogatory intent Junior laughs at his mishap and is subsequently pushed against the ground however instead of swinging lefts and right at Junior Rowdy he just “dented the doors and smashed the windows” (pg.20) of the minivan. Even if the reader is unaware of these subtle messages there is still weird comprehendible entertainment value that the author...

Words: 1012 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Communication Is the Key

...communication and how it is important in relationships. Communication involves how we express our thoughts, ideas, and feelings to others, including what we say and how we say it (Egan). When we communicate with others, we also communicate attitudes, values, priorities, and beliefs. No matter what we actually say to other people in words, we send messages about what we think of them, what we think of ourselves, and whether or not we're being sincere and genuine in what we say (Laurer). Our non-verbal communication are those things we don't say with words, but with our gestures, our facial expressions, and our attitude really tell what people are really thinking. What we say and do, and how we say and do it, directly shapes how people experience us (Rubin). In fact, many times, the opinions people form about us are based on the way we communicate. In other words, communication is a two way street. Ineffective communication is characterized by indirect actions in which we do not get to the point, never clearly states purpose or intention. When we communicate with people, were sometimes passive and tend to be a little reserved, which can give off many thoughts. We may seem to be antagonistic and give off the hostile or angry tone which really turns people away. There can be cryptic messages that require interpretation and takes time away from true communication. We all are guilty of having hidden agendas and using one way communication when talking to our......

Words: 778 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Music Identity

...inspiration and self-confidence. It helps express our feelings, and assist us to get through moments of sorrow. It also unshackles us from reality, and takes us into a euphoric state of mind where our problems become inexistent. Music can quickly change the mood into a romantic setting, or can completely change it into a blissful dance affair. It’s a bridge that connects our inner self with the outside world. Even though music can be portrayed as a form of art and entertainment it can also posses a much greater force that some tend to belittle. Music plays a vital role in pop culture, and has the clout of shaping ones identity. The development of self-identity is a vigorous process in both internal and external interfaces. One’s self-image is something that is crucial growing up, and our choice of musical preference inclines to influence that journey dramatically. To begin with, the personality trait that we all develop is a primary example of an internal type of self-image interface. As we grow older, we tend to be exposed to different types of music that influence our personality, and it tends to alter that internal self-image interface through their lyrics. The lyrics in all music have either negative or positive influences. As a result, they change and alter people’s perspectives with each generation forming a profoundly different opinion in society. It all varies depending on the person’s perception of the artist’s lyrics and the message they’re trying to get across.......

Words: 1624 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Eng 334 Paper

...Name: Mary Xicotencatl Prof: Chamutal Noimann ENG 334-004 Children’s Literature December 21st, 2014 Women in the 19th and 20th century Introduction Throughout the course of history, a wide variety of authors implemented hidden messages in their literature. Many of these messages were representations of what was happening in society, two texts, "the goblin market" written by Christina rosette and 'the sick rose" by William Blake focused on the theme of fallen women. This paper will prove that during the 19th and 20th century, women were considered to be inferior beings with no rights. They faced constant oppression in a society dominated by the male. The paper herein thus provides a full-scale discussion of the thematic relationships between the two texts through an insightful analysis by using secondary sources of the original texts. Discussion The Goblin Market Holt provides a profound analysis in her article about the content of the story in the poem, "Goblin Market." The poem was written in 1862 (in the 18th century) as a manifestation of the plight that women went through at that time. Holt notes that the author of the poem, Christina Rossetti made a an insightful presentation of two sisters, Lizzie and Laura who were forced to endure carnal lust just to embrace a higher and perceived purer realm of human sexuality, which is marriage (Holt 51). The poem is evidence of a strong thematic expression of renunciation that revolves around...

Words: 1425 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

1984

...George Orwell’s, Nineteen Eighty Four, a totalitarian society seeks “limitless” power throughout England over a poor population in which society has an isolated nature by the use of dictatorship. As the isolated nature of the characters may be the genesis of the party’s power, this is only one factor. Telescreens, CCTV, and hidden microphones are situated in the ‘1984’ society, to manipulate the minds and alter the thoughts of the general population. The undeveloped, urban life and land of ‘1984’ portrays the dangers of totalitarianism. Furthermore, the novel is set in the future, which exposes the Party, a totalitarian government, and their control on the past and thriving strength. Truly then, the setting of the novel (isolated nature) affects the development of various themes such as psychological manipulation, dangers of totalitarianism, the party’s subversiveness, historical control leading to power.  The party’s way of dealing with subversive people is to make them disappear, and eventually remove them from history, therefore giving the party absolute power to change the past and the future. In 1984, ‘people simply disappear’, their ‘name was removed from the register’ and their ‘one-time existence was denied and forgotten’. In a totalitarian society, Orwell illustrates that if citizens cast criticism or dissent, they are ‘abolished’ to conserve complete control and avoid a rebellion. Orwell’s view on this political concept was constructed through his experience of......

Words: 683 - Pages: 3