Free Essay

A Murderer by Any Other Name

In: Historical Events

Submitted By gfs6273
Words 1648
Pages 7
Brian Stoller
Ms. Baker
ENG1322-04
4 February 2013 A Murderer by any other name…. During my stay on the fabulous the Fort Hood Military Reservation I had the distinct pleasure to deploy with the 1st Cavalry Division to the desert paradise that is Iraq. I spent the majority of 2009 in the war-torn wasteland and was lucky enough to get my two week vacation near the end of October. While on vacation in the Chicago land area, I received a strange phone call from my boss. He asked me if I was on Fort Hood right now. Thinking it was a strange question, I said “no I’m not, why?” he said turn on CNN and he had to go and abruptly hung the phone up. Thinking how odd the whole thing was I turned on the TV and was shocked at what I was looking at. It was near real time coverage of a mass shooting on Fort Hood. Initial reports were sketchy but what they knew was that there were many dead and/or wounded, and the shooter was in uniform. Later it was revealed that the shooter was an Army psychologist by the name of MAJ Nadal Hassan, that he may or may not have acted alone, and he was a terrorist. This is a term in the US which is attached with a particular gravity, and extreme recourse, for terrorist are not mere criminals, but enemies of the state. There are a number of constitutional powers that are weapons against such an adversary. But is MAJ Nidal Hassan truly a terrorist, or is this just a workplace shooting? As the almighty political media spin machines power up, they were quick to label him terrorist; however it will stand out as a clear misuse of the term. MAJ Nidal Hassan is no more a terrorist than you or I, and his crime however tragic, is just a clear act of premeditated murder. I had the unique displeasure on meeting Nidal Hassan in the ladder months of 2008. Winter had nearly run its course and the north winds were starting to lose their icy bite. I was utilizing the Army’s overly complicated system that is Soldier Readiness Processing in the newly constructed Fort Hood SRP Complex. This process was an all-encompassing proofing process designed to screen soldiers for medical and social conditions that would exclude them from “deployable” status by Department of Defense (DOD) standards. The process was largely riddled with bureaucratic short comings common for military systems producing the usual byproducts such as civilian contracted oversight and very long lines. While waiting to clear station 13 known to all as clinical review I spotted the Major. He was a chubby soldier of Middle Eastern decent. He stood out among the other officers due to his ethnic background, which was an unfortunate byproduct of the current war (when Arabs are the enemy you tend to notice them). We didn’t speak but he looked very unhappy and disgruntled, but who wouldn’t working here? Dr. Michael Kelleher identified nine elements that directly impact the work environment: excessive workload, inadequate time to complete the assigned task, poor supervision, uncertain organizational climate, insufficient authority to meet job responsibilities, unclear responsibilities or job functions, philosophical differences between the organization and employee, unexpected or significant change at work or at home, and unanswered or unresolved frustrations (Kelleher 112). Working in the SRP process, Maj Hassan would have been subject to every single one of these elements, and mixed with his ideological ambitions, some would have been at their climax, and not likely to be resolved. He had all the possible ingredients for workplace violence you could possibly have. To exclude Maj Nidal Hassan from these criteria we must first look at what a Terrorist actually is. The exact definition of a terrorist is not a definite one by any stretch of the imagination. The definition largely changes from author to author much to the point that it is driven by politics rather than actual evidentiary basis. This concept has even found its way into American governing policy finding that the definition varies from one enforcement body to the next. For example the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) defines terrorism on its webpage as “Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against noncombat targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents”. Where the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines it on its website as “Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States or Puerto Rico without foreign direction committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives.”. When the Nidal Hassan shooting is applied to either of these paradigms, we find that under either definition it fails to meet the criteria outlined in the referenced laws, but admittedly just by a hair. As far as the CIA definition goes Hassan was/is hardly a member of a subnational group, or a clandestine agent thereof, where the FBI definition falls short in the realm of district social or political objectives. It could be easily argued that the Hassan shooting demonstrated both noted shortcomings, but in fact he did not publically declare either a Sub-national group membership, or that his actions were in fact to further a political agenda of any variety prior to said act. Definitions of terrorism do exist however that the attack would meet specified criteria. The United Nations General Assembly issued a resolution that stated terrorism is “Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public” (United Nations). However not even amongst member states is this definition universally accepted. A report posted on the Arizona Department of Emergency and Military Affairs webpage cites an often stated point on the subject; “one state's ‘terrorist’ is another state's ‘freedom fighter’”. This very common break in ideals only further perpetuates the thought that terrorism itself is more political agenda rather than a specific crime, and more and more often there fails to be a cohesive agreement on whether it should separate on criminal terms. Most arguments currently being levied towards the “terrorism” argument in relation to the Fort Hood shooting are not being argued on the grounds of assailant, but rather the victims it seems. The current and most prominent outrage seems to be on the behalf of survivors and victims’ families citing that all victims deserve purple hearts and the benefits that accompany the medal. Former Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta stated that “The Department of Defense is committed to the integrity of the ongoing court martial proceedings of Major Nidal Hassan and for that reason will not further characterize, at this time, the incident that occurred at Fort Hood on November 5, 2009,” (Crabtree). Many Terror law experts are quick to chime in thought for the Victims and their families citing grave injustice and attacking current administration political agendas. Jeffery Addicott who is the director Center for Terrorism Law at St. Mary’s University School stated that “To say that Hassan was not motivated by radical Islamic extremism is absurd.” (Crabtree). Truth be told he is most likely correct, but the fact that his convictions were not stated publically or that prior to the incident that he failed to claim a Para-military faction to act on the behalf of completely contradict nearly every accepted definition of the term terrorism. Fact of the matter is that you cannot hope to coerce any government by force or by any other means for that matter if you do not tell anybody you have an agenda and how your actions shall make it a reality. Nidal Hassan is a murderer and his charge list clearly reflects that it is an undertaking of massive scale, but terrorist is not a term he lives up too. It is a shame that the families do not get the full war time benefits that most soldiers who die during a time of war receive, but fact of the matter is they did not die in a combat zone, nor did they die by enemy action. Maj Nidal Hassan fails to meet the profile of the terrorist by not going through the usual motions of picking an outright political agenda, or aligning with any group or faction that has a political movement to die and/or kill for, and if he did he sure didn’t tell anyone about it at all. Any hint of political ambitions did not come to light tell after his trial was set to begin, and any statement at this point would be hard to take at face value due to the nature of what a defense strategy produces on a public stage. Do not overlook that terrorism itself is more agenda itself than crime in the first place either. In the end three facts remain apparent through all the fanfare: Maj Nidal Hassan did participate in an egregious act of workplace violence, 13 people lay dead by his hand, and this is a terrible tragedy that will remain as blight upon Fort Hood for many years to come.

Central Inteeligence Agency. CIA Terrorism FAQs. 13 July 2012. Web. 04 February 2013.
Crabtree, Susan. "Pentagon will not label Fort Hood shootings as terrorist attack." The Washington Times 22 October 2012: 2. Web.
FBI. "Terrorism 2002-2005." 1 October 2005. FBI Website. PDF File. 4 February 2013.
Kelleher, Michael D. New arenas for violence: Homicide in the American workplace. Westport: Prareger Pub, 1996. Print.
The Department of Emergency and Military Affairs. "Various Definitions of Terrorism." 28 September 2007. Arizona Department of Emergency and Military Affairs . PDF File. 04 February 2013.
United Nations. "United Nation General Assembly Resolution 49/60." 84th plenary meeting. New York: UN, 1994. 4. Web.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Minds of Mass Murders

...Abstract Many serial killers and mass murderers have been interviewed and tested to reveal why they killed and raped large groups of people. There are several factors as to why they perform such acts. My findings in this paper show that there is a logically explanation as to why they do what they do. In no way is killing or violence justified, but people have been through things we couldn’t imagine being put through. Many of these killers were put through harsh abuse physically, mentally, and emotionally which haunted them in their futures. This caused them to resolve their issues through inhumane ways. One who was put through sexual abuse became lust serial killers by wanting to rape the victims or sexually punish them. They want their victims to go through what they went through. Also, this paper shows that there are factors that deal with genes and the chromosomal make up that affects a person’s attitude causing them to be more aggressive than the average person. These killers have neurodevelopmental problems, troubled pasts, and mutations which lead to their motives to kill. “Young girls and mass murderers are tender hearted creatures”. This quote was stated by the author Pierre Lemaitre in his novel “Alex”. This line extracted from one of his crime based novels opens a lot of questions to an open mind with the focus on “tender hearted creatures”. One would assume any person can find a motive to kill. We watch television shows such as CSI or Criminal Minds thinking......

Words: 2096 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

There's a Man in the Habit of Hitting Me on the Head with an Umbrella

...in this town, and the people were too scared to go outside of their homes. Based on detailed cases analysis, the detective Richard, who was well known in Police Department, judged that these cases were more likely to be done by a certain person or a same group, because these series of cases were stupendously similar to each other. All the decedents were surgeons from many hospitals in this town. And all the surgeons were killed through some sharp tools like scalpels, and their corpses were abandoned in the wild field by the murderer. These incidents caused a impact on all the surgeons in this town, and they felt frightened. They did not know if these nightmares would fall upon their heads. The only one point that confused Richard was that all the crime scenes were left in a undisturbed wild field. He wondered if the surgeons who had been killed had appeared obediently followed the murderer to the wild field without a struggle. The more surprising thing was that policemen could not find any trace of wrestling in the crime scenes. Why surgeons did not try any possible way to resist with the murderer? Were they are bewitched by the murderer? Multitudinous questions plagued Richard. When it came to the surgeons, Richard did not have good feeling for them. One year ago, on a cold night, Richard’s wife Vivien suddenly felt great pain that from her stomach. At that time, Richard was chasing several criminals in the wild field. She had to come alone to the......

Words: 2050 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Capital Punishment

...legal system. Capital punishment was reestablished in 1976 by the Supreme Court as an appropriate measure for murder cases. Since then, many murderers have been convicted and put to death for their awful crimes. With each execution of a murderer, society is a safer place. When a human makes the ultimate decision to commit a crime of murder, rape, child rape, and torture, would a life in prison term be fair. Prison's are for much less acts of crime and people who do the acts against fellow humans should be punished by capital punishment. Prisons and jails are used as a deterrent so that people in today’s' society will not perform an act against another human. If they do, they know the repercussions of the acts they are performing. Some people are clearly not mentally capable of knowing the difference between right and wrong and they are put into hospitals because of their sickness. The majority of society know the difference of right and wrong. Another form of a deterrent that our county has is the speed limits. Without having speed limits, people would be driving at very high speeds with no care for their life or others. The death penalty has the same deterrent in that people who kill others, rape others, or torture others in a cruel and unusual punishment would be taken of this earth. Do people speed? Yes. Do people murder other humans? Yes. There is...

Words: 1741 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Narrative Modes Within Perfume: the Story of a Murderer

...Kyle Schultz Topics in Literature I Professor Murdock 25 April 2012 Narrative Modes Within Perfume: The Story of a Murderer In his novel Perfume: The Story of a Murderer, Patrick Süskind chooses third person narration to tell the story of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille. And though Grenouille is the character at which the story is based upon, we are also taken through the minds and actions of other characters through the unlimited knowledge of an omniscient narrative voice. By seeing and smelling the world through Grenouille’s eyes and nose while at the same time having it told through several characters instead of him alone, we are somewhat left detached from Grenouille from the very beginning, which only enhances the lack of sympathy and makes one’s feeling of horror towards him even more extreme. In other words, by choosing an omniscient third person narrative mode, Süskind’s main goal was to purposefully leave a distance between the reader and main character. Though there are many other reasons for choosing a third person point of view and an omniscient voice to narrate a story like this, nothing is more important than distancing the audience from a character if that character is meant to be evil. This (for the most part) avoids sympathy towards the character and allows readers to see who he is from the outside as well as the inside. Even reading the first line of the novel, “there lived a man who was one of the most gifted and abominable personages” (3: Ch. 1), we are......

Words: 828 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

And Then There Were Nonr Summary

...And Then There Were None Agatha Christie ← Plot Overview → Eight people, all strangers to each other, are invited to Indian Island, off the English coast. Vera Claythorne, a former governess, thinks she has been hired as a secretary; Philip Lombard, an adventurer, and William Blore, an ex-detective, think they have been hired to look out for trouble over the weekend; Dr. Armstrong thinks he has been hired to look after the wife of the island’s owner. Emily Brent, General Macarthur, Tony Marston, and Judge Wargrave think they are going to visit old friends. When they arrive on the island, the guests are greeted by Mr. and Mrs. Rogers, the butler and housekeeper, who report that the host, someone they call Mr. Owen, will not arrive until the next day. That evening, as all the guests gather in the drawing room after an excellent dinner, they hear a recorded voice accusing each of them of a specific murder committed in the past and never uncovered. They compare notes and realize that none of them, including the servants, knows “Mr. Owen,” which suggests that they were brought here according to someone’s strange plan. As they discuss what to do, Tony Marston chokes on poisoned whiskey and dies. Frightened, the party retreats to bed, where almost everyone is plagued by guilt and memories of their crimes. Vera Claythorne notices the similarity between the death of Marston and the first verse of a nursery rhyme, “Ten Little Indians,” that hangs in each bedroom. The next......

Words: 4161 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Death Penalty?

...Matt Russo Criminology Paper The Death Penalty Throughout history mankind has had a way to deal with crimes. The idea of punishment and retribution has been around since the first set of written laws, the code of Hammurabi. Since then citizens worldwide have committed crimes and have paid for their actions, whether it be an eye for an eye, or paying a one hundred dollar ticket, punishment is still relevant today. In our world today there is a massive scale on which crime can be committed and the worst of the worst can be put to death. For centuries humans have killed humans when they fell justified. Should we have that power, should we be able to take the lives of others? The death penalty might be the most controversial penalty in existence. The penalty of death was used for over twenty five different offenses for the code of Hammurabi, ancient Greece and Rome also killed civilians for crime. Every civilization in history with a set of laws has been using the death penalty, and there are only a few differences today. Instead of crucifixion, drowning, burning or burying someone alive we think that we kill in a more humane way. In the last fifty years we’ve been avoiding using the electric chair, hangings and firing squads. Now we use the lethal injection, a mix of toxic chemicals injected into the bloodstream to kill the person from the inside out. Now this strikes a debate with most people should we do it? Are we doing it the right way? And who deserves......

Words: 2445 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

A Study in Scarlet and Pink

...remain the same. There is a higher importance for an adaption to have more excitement and interesting twist, makes a more successful mystery than the original text. Any movie or show should have the effect of people having a connection. The effects have being so embedded to the film that the audience feels a part of the mystery. In movies and shows, there are basic needs for a good director, good actors or actresses, and a good setting like any other normal movie to make a successful adaption.   In the short story, A Study in Scarlet by Sir Conan Doyle, the mystery has almost linear storyline with an episode of flashback. The story is in first narrative person, through the eyes of Dr. Watson. It first talks about Dr. John Watson in Afghanistan war as an army doctor. He gets shot in the shoulder. He is discharged from the war efforts, returning to London. In London, he meets his friend Stamford who shows him to his acquaintance, Sherlock Holmes.  They then become roommates and solve mysteries together. For the first mystery, they receive details of an unsolved murder of Mr. Enoch Drebber. They both to the crime scene and they investigate it. When they are close to solving the mystery, another man, Mr. Strangerson, is murdered in similar fashion to Mr. Drebber. With a few red herring, they eventually find the murderer to be Mr. Jefferson Hope. Then Mr. Jefferson Hope describes his motive for murder with a long flashback in third person omniscient. In Utah, he was not...

Words: 1823 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Serial Killers, the Media and America’s Fascination

...Serial Killers, The Media and America’s Fascination Turn on the television in any given evening and you can catch an episode or 20 of any number of crime shows (and all of their spin-offs) that showcases an intricate plot and horrific crimes. It is not uncommon for the viewer to get “sucked” into the storyline and then become personally invested in the outcome of the story. I often wonder what it is about theses crime shows and psychological thriller series that keep the viewer’s tuning in. What’s s the draw? Not only do we become drawn in, but at some point we even become infatuated with the subject matter and long to see more. Have was as a society completely lost all sense of right and wrong or has the media desensitized us to the realities of serial murderers? Defining the Serial Killer. In order to pinpoint the progression of fascination with serial killers, it is important to first establish a working definition of the term. The FBI’s Behavioral Science Unit defines serial killings as “the unlawful killing of two or more victims by the same offender(s), in separate (Morton). Generally the classification of serial murder is accompanied by the length of time between kills, or the “cooling off period.” In addition, the killer is usually a stranger to the victim and the murders appear to be unconnected or random. The FBI is credited with establishing this term, and by doing so, achieved a position of unquestioned authority in defining serial murders. Serial......

Words: 1853 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Soc 203 Final Paper

...Final: Capital Punishment a just social problem SOC 203 Intro to Social Problems The debate of capital punishment will always generate passion, it is one of the most debated issues in the Criminal Justice system. The absence of capital punishment would prove a greater problem for the sake of society. Many opponents will argue the death penalty should be abolished, they fail to offer up any comparable alternatives for the crime for murder. It is a harsh punishment but, in all fairness, the punishment fits the crime. Capital punishment does what the name suggests: it punishes and it removes the notion that one can kill and get away with it. It serves as a deterrent for those contemplating murder and in the end, it brings justice. Capital punishment defends the sanctity of life and until we evolve to the place where murders are no longer a part of our society, we must punish this crime fairly. To know we have removed a murdering criminal from the street is a relief thankful to deterrence of violent crime, retribution, Christianity, and innocence. One argument for the death penalty is the fact that it deters crime. Those enticed by killing someone might think twice if they know their life will be taken as a consequence. Joanna Shepherd explores the history of capital punishment and explains that while many studies produced mixed results, modern economic studies reveal executions “significantly deter murders” (Shepherd). In addition, Wesley Lowe reports when the death......

Words: 1896 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Researched Character Analysis Better

...Name Instructor Course Institution Date Oedipus Oedipus is the protagonist of the play “Oedipus the King ”. Before the play commences, Oedipus is given the kingship of Thebes. He is acknowledged for been intelligent and possessing the capacity to solve puzzles. Most of his subjects at this scene appear to be optimistic in the future of the king (Griffith 95). His intelligence was influential in saving Thebes city. Consequently, he was made the king of Thebes after resolving the riddles from the supernatural being called Sphinx that had captured that city (Sophocles and Gilbert 56). The name of Oedipus means swollen root that generally offers some important information about his personal characters. Additionally, as a baby, Oedipus was drugged from Laius’s house to the mountains and left with his two legs tied together. He was later rescued by shepherds, took him to the house of the king. In the King’s house, he grew into powerful boy (Chase 54). When Oedipus commenced his journey to Thebes he came across his father but killed him unknowingly. He later proceeded to engage in marriage with Jocasta his biological mother without knowing. This paper will describe Oedipus and reveal how he interacts with the other characters in the play. Additionally, it will reflect the speeches and actions of Oedipus while analyzing how he changes throughout the play. Moreover, the paper will offer conclusion based on these discussion. Interactions with characters Oedipus is the main......

Words: 1839 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Analysis

...Analysis. The author of this text is Jerome K. Jerome. He is a popular English writer. The most famous works are Three Men in a Boat, The Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow, Novel Notes and Three Men on the Bummel which belong to the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century. He is famous for his art of story-telling and his humour which is based on misunderstanding. He is good at revealing the weak sides of human nature. This extract is about three men who decided to cook an Irish stew. They began cooking from peeling the potatoes. They threw another products which they wished to get rid of and mixed all carefully. At the end Montmorency bought fresh caught water-rat. After some discussions these three men decided to try something new and added the rat. Eventually, they were very happy by their cook masterpiece. By this text the author wanted to tell us that it had better to try something new than to be indifferent and do everything as usual. People ought to develop in this case world progress would go ahead. Jerome presents his story as 1st-person narration with descriptive passages. This extract may be divided into the following parts. The first one is a description of Sonning. The second is decision of cooking an Irish stew. The third is Montmorency’s contribution to the dinner. The last one is about great success of Irish stew. This text is written with the cheerful, humorous, emotional and optimistic prevailing mod. ......

Words: 5187 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...punishment available to deter murder, and that is the death penalty. If murderers are sentenced to death and executed, potential murderers will think twice before killing for fear of losing their own life. For years, criminologists analyzed murder rates to see if they fluctuated with the likelihood of convicted murderers being executed, but the results were inconclusive. Then in 1973 Isaac Ehrlich employed a new kind of analysis which produced results showing that for every inmate who was executed, 7 lives were spared because others were deterred from committing murder. Similar results have been produced by disciples of Ehrlich in follow-up studies. Moreover, even if some studies regarding deterrence are inconclusive, that is only because the death penalty is rarely used and takes years before an execution is actually carried out. Punishments which are swift and sure are the best deterrent. The fact that some states or countries which do not use the death penalty have lower murder rates than jurisdictions which do is not evidence of the failure of deterrence. States with high murder rates would have even higher rates if they did not use the death penalty. Ernest van den Haag, a Professor of Jurisprudence at Fordham University who has studied the question of deterrence closely, wrote: "Even though statistical demonstrations are not conclusive, and perhaps cannot be, capital punishment is likely to deter more than other punishments because people fear death more than anything......

Words: 6130 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Sjsj

...available to deter murder, and that is the death penalty. If murderers are sentenced to death and executed, potential murderers will think twice before killing for fear of losing their own life. For years, criminologists analyzed murder rates to see if they fluctuated with the likelihood of convicted murderers being executed, but the results were inconclusive. Then in 1973 Isaac Ehrlich employed a new kind of analysis which produced results showing that for every inmate who was executed, 7 lives were spared because others were deterred from committing murder. Similar results have been produced by disciples of Ehrlich in follow-up studies. Moreover, even if some studies regarding deterrence are inconclusive, that is only because the death penalty is rarely used and takes years before an execution is actually carried out. Punishments which are swift and sure are the best deterrent. The fact that some states or countries which do not use the death penalty have lower murder rates than jurisdictions which do is not evidence of the failure of deterrence. States with high murder rates would have even higher rates if they did not use the death penalty. Ernest van den Haag, a Professor of Jurisprudence at Fordham University who has studied the question of deterrence closely, wrote: "Even though statistical demonstrations are not conclusive, and perhaps cannot be, capital punishment is likely to deter more than other punishments because people fear death more than......

Words: 6130 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

The Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty?

...for the sinister criminals, provides justice for the family, and deters future criminals from committing felonies, and has a natural deterrent effect which pushes away future convicts from committing violent acts. however others fear innocent lives are being taken. One of the most popular counter arguments from the non-supporters of the death penalty is the notion that innocent lives through the use of capital punishment....

Words: 1085 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Serial Killers

...into a passion to kill. Otherwise a “typical” individual, serial killers turn to violence and death in search of power over others, and to explore their fatal addiction to their monstrous thrills. Most of society views serial killers as they are portrayed on television. There’s Dexter, the handsome serial killer who, while leading a normal life, takes it upon himself to rid all of the “bad guys” in the world in order to fulfill his need to kill. Then there’s Freddy Kruger, a disfigured dream stalker who uses a glove armed with razors to kill his victims in their dreams, causing their deaths in the waking world as well. Just to name a few others, there's also The Jigsaw Killer, Dr. Hannibal Lecter, Leatherface, Michael Meyers and the infamous Chucky. All of these characters are created to exaggerate something that is not only feared in movie theaters, but in real life as well. But what exactly makes a serial killer? While many of these movies and television programs try and make our minds believe that fiction is reality, there are no such things as ‘dream stalkers’ and talking dolls. A real-life serial killer can be distinguished (not by a scary masks) through the many distinctive patterns in their social and mental behavior, unusual childhood, murder periods, and Modus Operandi; all of which are fashioned in different ways to create a cold blooded murderer. Serial Killers are normally classified by their social and organizational skills. Their social behavior......

Words: 1565 - Pages: 7