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A Study of Pineapple Peelings as Vinegar

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Pineapple Peelings as Vinegar

II. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract…………………………………………………………... 1
Research Plan…………………………………………………….. 2 * Introduction………………………………………………….. 2 * Statement of the Problem…………………………………….. 2 * Significance of the Study…………………………………….. 2 * Scope,Delimitation and Limitations………………………….. 2 * Definition of Terms…………………………………………… 3
Review of Related Literature……………………………………… 4
Methodology……………………………………………………… 5 * Materials………………………………………………………. 5 * Procedures…………………………………………………….. 5
Result of Discussion………………………………………………. 6 * Tabular Presentation………………………………………….. 6 * Analysis………………………………………………………. 6 * Interpretation…………………………………………………. 6
Conclusion………………………………………………………... 7
Recommendation…………………………………………………. 7
References………………………………………………………… 7
Acknowledgement………………………………………………… 8

III. ABSTRACT

The pineapple is a tropical plant and fruit. It is an example of a multiple fruit: multiple, spirally-arranged flowers along the axis, each produce a fleshy fruit that becomes pressed against the fruits of adjacent flowers, forming what appears to be a single fleshy fruit. Pimeapples are the only eration fruit in widespread cultivation. It is one of the most commercially important plants which carry out Crassulacean acid metabolism or CAM photosynthesis. The pineapple has a peelings which we considered as waste but in just a simple and easiest way we can make it into another useful product which is vinegar. Vinegar is an inexpensive commodity, therefore economic considerations requires that a relatively low-cost raw material like pineapple peel be used in its production.
The product enables the utilization of pineapple peels which are usually discarded during the processing or consumption of the fruit.Fermentation microorganism are capable of degrading all organic substances present in fruits and vegetables.Vinegar can be made from any non-toxic material that has a sugar juice or can be made with vinegar juice.Acetobacter could be used to produced vinegar because their ability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid.The flavors in pineapple are due to the presence of small quantity of esters and essential oils distributed throughout the pulp.The presence of organic acids also contributes to the flavor.
This research is aimed at producing vinegar from fermented pineapple peel.The process was eratio out in fermentation with baker yeast.To enhance the flavor of the fruit, Pineapple peel needs to cook at first and allowed to ferment for a week for conversion of sugar to ethanol.Then a chanced approached was applied for the conversion of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria[Acetobacter Aceti] to vinegar with continous eration for another 3 weeks.The results indicated that the vinegar yield increased with an increasing acidity.The results also revealed that pineapple peel produced the desired and optimum yield of vinegar.The conversion of pineapple peels[waste] to vinegar[useful product] will reduced environmental pollution and in addition yield value added product.

IV. RESEARCH PLAN

A. Introduction
The high increase in food deterioration is due to the contamination of food microorganism since the microorganisms colonize the entire environment in where we live. These microorganisms include bacteria; yeast; and molds. Their beneficial aspect can be noted in the production of “vinegar” ,spirit, wines and some antibiotics. This product enables the utilization of pineapple peels, which are usually discarded during processing or consumption of the food (fruit).
Vinegars are made from a wide variety of fruits, pineapple peel and cereals. Over the past several decades there has been a growing trend toward adding value to raw agricultural by-products, the raw material used in the case is a pineapple peel which is relatively low-cost raw material. Vinegar was used earlier as a preservative for other fruits and vegetables.
Vinegar is an inexpensive commodity, therefore economic considerations requires that a relatively low-cost raw material like pineapple peel be used in its production. All commercial vinegars are used primary in the food processing industry. The researchers wanted to prove that nothing in this world is useless and peelings count as useful materials too, and can somehow help people to use their creative minds to make things possible out of such wastes.

B. Statement of the Problem

* How can pineapple peelings turned into vinegar? * What are the beneficial of vinegar from pineapple peelings? * Is the vinegar from pineapple peelings similar to what is vinegar readily available in the market?

C. Significance of the Study

This study aims to utilize pineapple peelings as a raw material to obtain vinegar, thereby significantly contributing to the reduction of Philippines total waste management.
The researchers also find this study significant in a way that it can be a key to help families earn extra income if the process is performed well. With this study, people will be able to make their own vinegar and save enough money from buying vinegar every now and then.

D. Scope, Delimitation and Limitation

This study was delimited to the preparation and implementation in a way that we only used specific fruit peelings namely the Pineapple peelings, we do not have any back up peelings for our study purposes. Production of vinegar from Ananas Comosus peelings was conducted to determine the peeling’s potential as a main ingredient for vinegar. This study was also delimited to evaluation because it was confined to the responses of the student and the teachers. This study covers the use of Pineapple peelings that can be useful in both livelihood and environment-friendly aspects. E. Definition of Terms

* Acetic Acid- produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. * Acetobacter Aceti – is a Gram negative bacterium that moves using its peritrichous flagella. * Antibiotics- are medixations that destroy bacteria or slow down their growth; use to treat infections cause by bacteria. * Crassulacean acid metabolism or CAM photosynthesis- is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaption to arid condtions. * Detorioration- term now commonly use in healthcare; to describe worsening of patients condition. * Ethanol- is an alcohol-based fuel made by fermenting and distilling starch crops; such as corn. * Fermentation- is a metabolic process converting sugar to acids, gasses and/or alcohol using yeast or bacteria * Glucose- is a carbohydrate; is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism. * Pineapple- ( Ananas Comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries and the most economically significant plant in the family. * Preservatives- is a naturally occurring or synthetically produce substance that is added to products such as food, pharmaceutical, paints, biological samples, etc. * Refractive Index- is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in a given medium. * Vinegar- is a liquid consisting mainly of Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) and water * Yeast- are eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom fungi.

V. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Vinegars are very important. In a households, it must be readily available for use . It is used in many cuisines. The term "vinegar" can be applied to solutions derived from the fermentation of a wide range of bases, including apple juice, other fruit juices, wine, beer, barley and rice. Besides its distilled form, which has acetic acid as its main ingredient, vinegar finds its way into our kitchens in salad dressings, pickles, ketchup, and mayonnaise. The health benefits of vinegar are ancient and wide-ranging.
Among other things, vinegar has been brought to bear on wounds, ulcers, arthritis, high blood sugar, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, urinary tract and yeast infections, sunburn, jellyfish stings, insect bites, headaches, warts and hiccups. It is also said to aid in dieting by creating a feeling of fullness that results in less food intake. In today's kitchens, vinegar is used mainly as a condiment. Fishes and chips are traditionally flavored with vinegar, as well.

Pineapple is a fruit which is readily available in the market. It is a fruit wherein you have to peel off the peelings to eat it, having green peeling turned orange when ripe and its flesh is yellow in color, taste so sweet with a twist of sour and has a dark spot to be removed. It is a source of Vitamin C that can help cure common cold. It can also be preserved and use as an ingredient to some dishes and desserts.

For all we know, the skin of Pineapple is already a waste but through experimentation, we can give a second life to it. These pineapple skin uses are really simple and frugal. Other than vinegar, it can be made into sun tea, by simply combining all the scraps of pineapple fruit into one jar with water and leave out under the sun for hours. It can be drink sweetened or as it is. Pineapple peelings can also be made into a foot scrub because the fruit itself contains bromelain which often use to tenderized meat. Little surprise, then that they are great for softening the tough skin on our feet. To make a foot scrub, put the peelings of the pineapple into a blender and blend it until it became coarse paste. Apply the paste into the feet for 20 minutes while relaxing. For a simpler version, use the entire pineapple peelings or skins without chopping them up. Simply rub the inside, fleshy part of the peels over the skin.

Often homemade, pineapple peelings as vinegar is a type of vinegar made with pineapple. This vinegar is a popular addition to a variety of dishes, including sauces, salsas, and vegetable toppings. In addition to its fruity flavor, pineapple vinegar is a favorite among cooks because it uses the skin of the pineapple rather than the actual fruit. Although the fruit can be used as well, generally only the pineapple skin is included when creating this vinegar. Dark brown sugar, as well as water, are often the only other ingredients in pineapple vinegar. Chili peppers, garlic, and other seasonings may be added to create spicier versions. Usually the ingredients need to ferment to create vinegar. In order to ensure no unwanted pesticides or chemicals mix with the fermenting liquid, organic pineapple is generally the preferred choice for pineapple vinegar. Additionally, it is important that all containers and utensils used in the process are extremely clean. Using items of questionable cleanliness may allow unwanted bacteria to develop in the vinegar. Vinegar derived from Pineapple peelings is competitive to vinegar which is commercially available in the market.

VI. METHODOLOGY

A. Materials

1. Pineapple peelings ( 3 pcs. Pineapple) 2. Water 3. Brown Sugar 4. Yeast 5. Knife 6. Bottels 7. Cheese cloth or tissue paper. 8. Strainer

B. Procedure:

1. Wash peels before chopping finely. 2. Add 4 cups of water to cover and boil. 3. Let cool to luke warm. 4. Add 1 cup of sugar and ¼ teaspoon yeast. 5. Fill into bottles and cover with cheese cloth or tissue paper. 6. Ferment for 1 week. 7. After a week, remove the peelings. 8. Ferment for another 3 weeks, strain and the product is available.

VII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Tabular Presentation:
Table 1

TRIALS | Amount of Peelings (no. of pineapple) | NO. OF WEEKS FERMENTED | Amount of Sugar | Amount of Yeast | RESULT | 1 | 1 | 4 | 1 cup | ¼ teaspoon | FAILED | 2 | 2 | 4 | 1 cup | ¼ teaspoon | FAILED | 3 | 3 | 4 | 1 cup | ¼ teaspoon | SUCCESS |

B. Analysis
After many trials and errors, a product became a vinegar. The scent of pineapple was still present and the taste was very similar to the vinegar that can be sold from the market. The researcher tried three times until it became successful. The duration of fermentation process and the amount of sugar and yeast was exactly the same but they only differ on the amount of peelings. At the first week, the yeast started to settle at the bottom of the bottle. The researcher did not mind it because it is part of the experimentation.

C. Interpretation
The researcher observed that in just a simple way with a low-cost raw material can produce a very significant product. The vinegar resulting from the trial 3 is the same in the vinegar we often use rather than the vinegar from trial 1 and 2.
The researcher also observed that producing vinegar from pineapple peelings is very helpful to our environment in reducing waste problem and yet an additional income for those who wanted to sell it .

VIII. CONCLUSION

The results of this investigatory project have revealed that it is possible to produce vinegar from pineapple peels. This was done via the use of baker yeast as an aerobic degration of sugar to ethanol and Acebacter Aceti oxidizers ethanol to acetic acid (vinegar). The project also revealed that while cleaning the environment, an added value can be achieved through reycle or conversion of supposed wastes into useful products.

IX. RECOMMENDATION

I recommend to all vendors as well as to the consumers to collect all the peelings instead of putting it into a garbage because it can be useful when it process and turned into vinegar. It can also help in decreasng the waste problem of the country. It can also be another source of income when it became vinegar. Since vinegar is one of the important thing in our household and restaurants.

X. REFERENCES http://www.academia.edu http://www.yummly.com http://www.researchgate.net http://www.wikipedia.org/definition of terms http://www.versatilevinegar.org http://www.nutritiondata.self.com http://www.pineapple.uk.com http://www.pineapple-vinegar.metasearch.com http://www.foodnetwork.com http://www.teaandfood.com http://www.food.com XI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I, the researchers extended my deepest gratitude and heartfelt appreciation to the people who contributed much for my product “ Pineapple peeling as Vinegar” made possible.

First of all, I am thanking God for giving enough knowledge, strength and guidance in doing this project.

Second, to my Chemistry Teacher, Mrs. Corazon Bariuan for giving me an opportunity in making this project because it is one way of enhancing different skills and knowledge.

Third, to my parents for their financial support, encouragement and strengthen my determination to make this product very possible.

And lastly, to my friends and classmates for giving us some ideas that helped a lot in making this product successful.

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...日常生活词汇 日常购物词汇 to do some shopping; to go shopping 买东西 shopping centre 商业中心区 department store 百货商店 children's goods store 儿童用品商店 antique shop 古玩店 second-hand store 旧货店 counter 柜台 stall, stand 售货摊 show window 橱窗 show case 玻璃柜台 shelf 货架 cash desk, cashier's desk 收银处 price tag 标价签 prices are fixed, fixed prices 有定价 discount 打折扣 change 零钱 to keep the bill 留发票 to wrap up 包装 free of charge 不收费 to deliver 送 be al sold out, out of stock 售空 shop assistant, salesman 售货员 saleswoman 女售货员 glassware counter 玻璃器皿部 enamel ware 搪瓷器皿 haberdashery 男子服饰用品 confectionery 糖果糕点 cosmetics 化妆用品 stationery 文具 fabrics 纺织品 dry goods 服装 ready-made clothes, off-the-peg, ready-to-wear 成衣,现成服装 men's wear 男服 women's wear 女服 underwear 内衣裤 sports goods, athletic equipment 体育用品 sundries 零星小物 toilet articles 盥洗用品 towel 毛巾 handkerchief 手帕 toilet soap 香皂 shampoo 洗发香波 soap 肥皂 laundry soap 洗衣皂 soap powder 肥皂粉 soap flakes 皂片 medicated soap 药皂 detergent 洗衣粉 cleanser 去污粉 tooth paste 牙膏 tooth brush 牙刷 toilet mirror 梳妆镜 hair brush 发刷 hair vaseline 发蜡 cosmetics 化妆品 lipstic 口红, 唇膏 face powder 粉 compact 粉盒 powder puff 粉扑 cold cream 香脂 vanishing cream 雪花膏 perfume, scent 香水 perfume spray 香水喷子 coat hanger 挂衣架 clothes-peg, clothes pin 晒衣夹 string bag, net bag 网兜 thermos bottle 热水瓶 cap, cork 热水瓶瓶盖 travellers' water bottle, water flask, canteen 旅行水壶 lunch box, canteen 饭盒 thread 线 needle 针 button 钮扣 zipper 拉链 key-ring 钥匙圈 torch, flashlight 手电 bulb......

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...T H E S I M P L E PAT H T O C O O K I N G L I K E A P R O , L E A R NING ANY THING, AND LIVING THE GOOD LIFE TIMOTHY FERRIS S Published by Houghton Mi in Harcourt Boston | New York 2012 Produced by 49316_CH00_FM_p001t015_092012_NB.indd 3 9/25/12 10:27 AM 49316_CH00_FM_p001t015_092012_NB.indd 4 9/25/12 10:27 AM PUBLISHER’S DISCLAIMER The material in this book is for informational purposes only. Since each individual situation is unique, you should use proper discretion, in consultation with a health-care practitioner, before undertaking the diet and exercise techniques described in this book. The author and publisher expressly disclaim responsibility for any adverse e ects that may result from the use or application of the information contained in this book. NOTICE ON FOOD HANDLING This book is about cooking; it’s not a food processing and handling manual. I strongly encourage you to read and follow the established safe food processing and handling guidelines available through the USDA, FDA, and Department of Health and Human Services, including: foodsafety.gov fsis.usda.gov fda.gov/food/foodsafety NOTICE ON INTERNET RESOURCES My full curriculum is within the covers of this book. For those of you who want to “go beyond” in your research, I have provided links to Internet resources. My team and I have worked to check that these links are accurate and point to resources available when this book was released for publication. But Internet......

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...[pic] ББК 81.2.1. Англ. М41 Рецензенты: кафедра английского языка Новгородского государственного университета им. Ярослава Мудрого (зав. кафедрой, доцент, кандидат филологических наук Е. Ф. Жукова) доцент кафедры английской филологии № 2 Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета М. В. Сорокина Меркулова Е. М., Филимонова О. Е., Костыгина С. И., Иванова Ю. А., Папанова Л. В. М41 Английский язык для студентов университетов. Чтение, письменная и устная практика. Серия «Изучаем иностранные языки».— СПб.: Издательство Союз, 2000.— 384 с. ISBN 5-87852-114-8 Настоящая книга представляет собой вторую часть учебного комплекса "English For University Students". Учебник включает текстовый материал и комплексную систему упражнений для отработки навыков устной и письменной речи на продвинутом этапе обучения. Материал отредактирован профессором кафедры современных языков и литератур Оклевдского университета Н. Ф. Лонганом. Все права защищены. ( «Издательство Союз», 2000 ( Меркулова Е. М.. Филимонова О. Е., Костыгина С. И., Иванова Ю. А., Папанова Л.В., 2000 ( В.А. Гореликов, художественное оформление, 2000 ISBN 5-87852-114-8 CONTENTS Lesson 1 FAMILY LIFE 3 Lesson 2 HOME 16 Lesson 3 DAILY ROUTINE 29 Lesson 4 DOMESTIC CHORES 41 Lesson 5 SHOPPING FOR FOOD 54 Lesson 6 SHOPPING FOR CONSUMER GOODS 68 Lesson 7 MEALS AND COOKING 81 Lesson 8 COLLEGE......

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