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A Summary of the Key Thought Leaders of the Classical School of Management

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A Summary of the Key Thought Leaders of the
Classical School of Management
Beth J. Beal
Mary Baldwin College
BUAD200L WA SP2014
Principles of Management

A Summary of the Key Thought Leaders of the
Classical School of Management
Introduction
According to Daft (2009) "Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources." The classical school of management often referred to as the "Classical School of Thought" was born in the early 1900s out of a need to run organizations efficiently, and it is so named because it comprises the first works and contributions that make up the core of modern management theory. Classical theorists viewed workers as a production instrument and were interested in finding ways to use people efficiently or in "one best way" through the application of science (Lindsey, 1998). It was also during this period of development that the five basic functions of management were identified: planning, organizing, command, coordination, and controlling (Wren, 1994). These five functions are often referred to as "the management process" (Wren, 1994).
The classical viewpoint sought to find ways to manage work and run the organization in the most efficient manner, and is made up of the following three major approaches. The scientific management approach represented by the work of Frederick W. Taylor and supporting efforts of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and Henry Gantt was the first of the approaches and it focuses on improving worker efficiency through the scientific study of work methods. The second approach is the bureaucratic management approach pioneered by Max Weber and it centers on the need for organizations to operate rationally, rather than relying on the whims of owners and managers. The third and final approach of the

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