Free Essay

Aaaaaaaaaaaa

In: Business and Management

Submitted By charlene01
Words 3256
Pages 14
Example of the research design part of a thesis (Education)

Example 2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In the previous chapter, the effects of IGI promoting discovery-learning, procedure of IGI, and the effectiveness of IGI on SLA and motivation are discussed. From the insights, parameters for designing materials, tests, and questionnaire are drawn out. Chapter Three is divided into five sections. Research design and subjects and program description sections provide general information about the study. The next three parts, materials, instruments, and procedures of the research are described in details.

3.1. Research Design

This study is carried out with a one group pre-test and post-test design. In this experimental research, the implementation of discovery-learning through IGI (independent variable) will be monitored, and acquisition about English tenses and learners’ motivation (dependent variables) will be measured.

The grammar points in this research are English tenses. A pre-test and a post-test are designed to be the same. An anonymous questionnaire on motivation is delivered after the treatment instruction.

3.2. Subjects and Program Description

The researcher, who is also the teacher, carries out the study in six classes in Course 28 and Course 29 at CFL in 2006. The experimental course, Level-Seven Grammar Course, is the first of three courses for Level C (low-advanced-English level). The grammar course is offered to the students for three 45-minute periods on each occasion during nine weeks.

The students are randomly chosen and can be the representatives for the research. The total number of the students was 227, but the authentic number of participants for the present study was 133 because some students did not satisfy the conditions of data analysis (see part 3.4 of this thesis). The participants were from 14 to 26 years old, including 71 female and 62 male non-English majors. Most of them were undergraduate students of Cantho University; some were high school and junior high school students in Cantho city. The students in the course came from three sources. Some of them have passed the exam of Level B (intermediate-English level) at CTU; some have gotten the Certificate of Level B at other centers of foreign languages; some have just taken the placement test of CFL. Their educational background of general knowledge and English was varied. This is also the primary reason why the research had only one experimental group.

3.3. Materials

Based on the parameters concluded from the part Procedure of Implicit Grammar Instruction (part 2.3 of this thesis), and the first four chapters of the main course book Mosaic One: A Content-Based Grammar (Werner, 1996), the detailed lesson plans have been designed (see Appendix one). To promote discovery-learning in the treatment, three stages of tasks must be concentrated. First, noticing and awareness of form are designed in Setting the Context. Next, exercises in Thinking about Meaning and Use are discovery-based, and they encourage learners to use their grammatical knowledge and English skills to express their remarks and finish the tasks. Finally, the three parts Practicing, Using What You’ve Learned, and Taking a Step Beyond are production tasks that move from controlled to free language activities. Besides, Review Exercises is a consolidation part of the materials. It gives students a chance to practice test-designed exercises.

The texts serve as the handouts for the learners in the treatment course of the research. The materials consist of seven topics and three review exercises (see Appendix 1). Beside Mosaic One: A Content-Based Grammar (Werner, 1996), some activities and exercises in the materials are collected and adapted from the following books:

1) Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students (Walker & Elsworth, 2000)

2) Grammar Sense 3 (Bland, 2003)

3) Grammar Sense 3 – Workbook (Blackwell & Davy, 2003)

4) Nitty Gritty Grammar - Sentence Essentials for Writers (Young & Strauch, 1998)

5) Oxford Practice Grammar (Eastwood, J., 1999)

6) The Anti-Grammar Grammar Book - A Teacher’s Resource Book Of Discovery Activities For Grammar Teaching (Hall and Stepheard, 1991)

7) Understanding and Using English Grammar – Workbook (Azar & Azar, 1990)

The students receive the handout of each lesson at the beginning of the class meeting. In general, each topic discusses in one class meeting (three 45-minute periods). There are five sections in each topic. Here are the detailed descriptions of each part.

Setting the Context presents a brief passage that highlights specific structures covered in that section. “The text is used not only for comprehension and for setting up a topic for use later in the unit, but also to make the students familiar with the new language before teaching it later” (Harmer, 1987, p.30). It can be used to introduce key vocabulary and to make sure the students have a general understanding of the content. This part is very necessary to cover in class because it provides the context for students to notice and raise awareness of the language form, and a tool for them to discover the “rules” underlined. In Stern’s (1992) opinion, “put whatever grammatical feature is being taught into a meaningful context of practical use so that the meaning is never in doubt” (p. 144). Besides, “they see the language in its proper (authentic) context and are then led to understand how it works” (Harmer, 1987, p.36).

Thinking about Meaning and Use is the main section that conveys the discovery-based approach. This part serves not only as language input for students to expose but also as opportunities for them to activate their own grammatical knowledge of language. All tasks encourage students to analyze how we use the target structure and consolidate students’ understanding of all aspects of the structure. Students are helped to involve and use their reasoning processes to discuss about the target structure in order to find out rules. This part will be “a good reinforcement to what the students have been learning” (Harmer, 1987, p. 37) and encourage them to be actively involved in the acquisition of grammatical knowledge about of English verb tenses.

Practicing includes two controlled kinds of exercises of the target structures that are selected from a variety source of grammar practice books. One is supplying the correct verb tenses in a passage or a dialogue, and the other is error analysis. Both kinds of exercises are aimed for recognition and reproduction. Specially, in the later type of exercises students are asked not only to judge but also to correct the language while in Mosaic One: A Content-Based Grammar these exercises are only for error judgment. Most exercises can be used for either oral or written work; they can be done as a class, in pairs, in small groups, or as homework.

Using What You’ve Learned activities are chosen from Mosaic One: A Content-Based Grammar. In this textbook, there are many activities. From our empirical experience, however, we cannot cover all because of time limitation. Moreover, we have to adapt them to meet students’ needs and to suit Vietnamese situations. Thus, our adapted activities of realistic and motivating contexts offers students more time and opportunities to use target structures and vocabulary in more natural, personalized communication, to apply their skills to relevant, real-world situations. This kind of communicative activities engages students in active learning and appeals to a wide range of students’ abilities and interests, allowing them to adjust their perceptions of the language input they have received.

Taking A Step Beyond is a new section in A Content-Based Grammar Course - Level 7. The activities in this part provide students with suggestions of looking for the target structures in authentic materials from magazines, newspapers, Internet, or other sources. Sharing and discussing these materials with other students will help to reinforce and contextualize the linguistic items covered. They become a bridge between the controlled, structured language of the classroom and real-life language outside the classroom.

Review Exercises appear after two topics. These exercises are carefully selected from a rich source of grammar books. They highlight structures covered in the two topics, recycle previously studied material, and integrate it with newly practiced material. There are three kinds of exercises in this part: 15 multiple-choice questions, a passage or a dialogue to supply the correct form or (modal) verbs, and 10 sentences for error analysis. These review sections can be used in class, for homework, or as the basic for quizzes. This part serves as preparation for students to take grammar tests in the Certificate Level C exam at the Center of Foreign Languages, Cantho University. Through repeated exposure to and practice with this standardized test format, students will gain more confidence and experience less anxiety in actual test-taking situations.

To ensure these lessons comprehensible to the subjects, a pilot study was randomly conducted with 36 students in Course 27 at CFL in 2006. All of the tasks have been fully tried and tested. The results of this pilot study shows that all texts are appropriate to the level, fully comprehensible for the students, and suitable to the current study.

3.4. Research Instruments

The present research applies both qualitative and quantitative approaches. There are two research instruments: the scores from the pre-test and the post-test and the learners’ responses to the questionnaire. The first instrument will measure learners’ acquisition on English tenses. The second is designed to explore learners’ motivation in learning grammar after implicit grammar instruction with the implementation of the discovery technique.

3.4.1. Tests on Acquisition About English Tenses

Designing Tests: From the discussion in the above part about Implicit Grammar Instruction and Second Language Acquisition (part 2.4 of this thesis), the achievement test on English tenses will be recognition and judgment tasks. The task types selected for this project are the most popular kinds of grammar tests. Some parts of the test follow the format of the test for Level C certificate at CFL. Furthermore, these frames exert a very high degree of control over the specific form of the limited production responses. The test questions are efficient at measuring the learning of the objectives in the course program.

The pre-test and the post-test of the study are the same, but the part order in the two tests is changed to distract wise-test students. The tests are a kind of discrete point test types focused on only the uses of English verb tenses. They include five parts. Here is the description of the test parts in the pre-test (see Appendix 2).

The first and the second part are multiple-choice recognition tasks that are similar to the CFL test format. The first task consists of 26 incomplete sentence stems followed by four multiple-choice options for completing the sentences. The questions are selected and adapted from three sources:

1) Mosaic One: A Content-Based Grammar (Werner, 1996)

2) Understanding and Using English Grammar – Workbook (Azar & Azar, 1990)

3) Teaching Outline and Supplementary Activities (2005)

The test type in the second section is the same as the first task, but it is presented in an incomplete passage with 14 blanks. This part is adapted from the Review Exercise 4 on page 141 of Mosaic One: A Content-Based Grammar (Werner, 1996). The test takers must understand the context, then complete it with the correct answers from the four given multiple-choice options for each blank. Test takers’ ability of recognizing the correct uses of verb tenses is evaluated in these two sections although some items in this part test only verb forms (see Table 3.1).

Part 3 and Part 4 of the pre-test are designed to check learners’ recognition of tense meanings in discrete sentences. Students have to fully understand the meanings of English tenses to fulfill the tasks effectively. Part 3 consists of ten sentences that ask learners whether the paraphrase sentences are true or false. In Part 4, there are two options for each of ten sentences, and test takers have to choose one. The two parts examine learners’ understanding the meanings of English tenses. They are selected from exercises in Grammar Express – For Self-Study and Classroom Use (Fuchs & Bonner, 2002).

The last part is an error analysis exercise – a kind of judgment task as a means of measuring learners’ internalized knowledge (Coppieters 1987, Masny & d’Anglejan 1985, Schachter 1989 cited in Renou, 2001). In this part, test takers are asked to identify what is wrong with the use of verb tenses in ten discrete sentences. The sentences are selected for two books: Mosaic One: A Content-Based Grammar (Werner, 1996) and TOEFL Grammar Workbook (Lim, et al., 1992). This is an open-ended task with no indication of which words or phrases are potentially incorrect. Then they have to find and correct typical mistakes that students make when they use English tenses. Not only test takers’ ability of recognition and judgment of the right structures but also their capacity of reproduction are required in this task. Thus, students need to use their grammatical knowledge to analyze and then apply in the task. However, some sentences just aim to learners’ attention to verb forms.

Table 3.1: Grammatical Dimensions Tested in the Pre-Test

|Grammatical Dimensions |Items in the Pre-test |
|Form |1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 25, 61, 63, 66, 67, 69 |
|Meaning |41 – 60 |
|Use |Remaining items |

Scoring Tests: The perfect score on the tests is 80 points. For the recognition production task (Parts 1-4), one point is awarded to each correct answer, and no point for incorrect answers, for a total of 60 points. For the judgment task, the maximum score for each sentence is two points. One point is given for correctly identifying the error. Two points are given for identifying and correcting the error. This part has 20 points in total.

Scorer reliability is built into the test by having responses scored objectively with scoring key. The answer key in parts 1-4 is carefully checked, so test takers have only one choice, and there is high reliability. In part 5, if test takers recognize the errors correctly and produce grammatical correct responses that are acceptable and are not included in the scoring key, the key might need to be revised after trailing.

Piloting Tests: After designing the tests, we have to “test the test” (Harmer, 1987, p. 59). The test draft was shown to two English teachers at CFL. They carefully read and gave suggestions for improvements. Then the revised draft was piloted in a class at CFL of over thirty students with the same level. After that, some students taking the piloting test were interviewed to identify any unclear or ambiguous instructions. The test length, allotted time (60 minutes), and test instructions were appropriate and clear for all students. Finally, the results from the try-out in class were analyzed. The results were good. There was no problem of the input. Shortly, the test procedure and the test content seem appropriate to the purpose of the present study: measuring learners’ acquisition of English tenses. We have the authentic tests for the study (see Appendix 2).

3.4.2. Questionnaire on Motivation

As mentioned in the part Implicit Grammar Instruction and Learners’ Motivation (part 2.5 of this thesis), Watanabe’s motivation questionnaire focusing on value and expectancy components is adapted to use in the current study. However, Watanabe’s questionnaire aims to general language learning, so it was modified to focus on only grammar learning motivation. The adapted questionnaire is composed of three factors: value components (intrinsic motivation and task value), motivational strength, and expectancy components (expectancy and language aptitude).

A draft of adapted questionnaire was designed with 20 closed-item questions in five rating points (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree). One of the reasons for the choice of this kind of instrument is that the instrument may offer a high reliability and it may be easy to be quantified and analyzed and cost the least time to collect and analyze (Mackey & Gass, 2005). This draft has been piloted in two classes of 57 students with the same setting and background. The Cronbach’s Alpha of the pilot is .59. Five questions have been deleted to improve the total reliability of the inventory slightly to α = .74. With the alpha, there is no need to reconstruct the items in the inventory. The questionnaire used for the authentic study has 15 questions relating to motivation in learning grammar, especially with IGI promoting discovery-learning.

Table 3.2: Items in authentic questionnaire on motivation in learning grammar through IGI

|Clusters |Sub-clusters |Items |
|Value components |Intrinsic motivation |1, 7, 11 (R), 4 |
| |Task value |8, 2, 5, 9, 15 |
|Motivational strength | |14 (R), 12 |
|Expectancy components |Expectancy |3, 10, 6 (R) |
| |Language aptitude |13 |

For the detailed questionnaire and description of the adapted questionnaire, see Appendix 3.

3.5. Procedures

This section presents three procedures of this empirical research: treatment instruction procedure, test administration procedure, and questionnaire administration procedure.

Treatment Instruction Procedure: The study is conducted during regular class time. The students are not informed about the research. All students receive an equal amount of IGI on English verb tenses from the same instructor, who is also the researcher.

The Level-Seven Grammar Course has nine class meetings. Each meeting per week lasts for 135 minutes. The pre-test, seven topics about English tenses and three review exercises are discussed during eight weeks. The post-test, the questionnaire, and some remarks and feedback of the course occur in the last meeting occasion. Moreover, three review exercises are set as homework; first because the time in class is limited and because students need time to absorb the knowledge they recieve. In class, students have to check answers together and exchange opinions. The teacher only takes part in the discussion whenever the students ask for an explanation or when they cannot come to a final conclusion.

Test Administration Procedure: The participants complete a pretest at the beginning of the course. The teacher gives some explanation about the purpose of the test as a diagnostic test before the course and does not say about the purpose of the research. Post-testing occurs after the instructional treatments. The two tests take place during the timetabled class hours. During the testing time, students do not permit to use dictionaries, exchange information to each other, or ask for help from anyone. All the tests are collected and kept well. The researcher is the first rater, and another teacher is asked to check for the second time to avoid any missed answer. The pre-test do not give back to the students until the end of the course. The photocopy of the two tests is given to the students at the tenth week – an extra meeting of the course. Students might check their scores and give any feedback.

Questionnaire Administration Procedure: The questionnaire is administered to students for about 20 minutes after the post-test. This questionnaire is anonymous, but the students’ code is written on the top of the page before it is delivered to them. Students are first given a brief verbal explanation of the purpose of the survey, followed by specific clarification of the each question. All of the completed questionnaires are collected immediately at the end of the class. The students fill out the questionnaire without a time limit. None of the students denies participating. The responses of the questionnaire keep confidential. All the items are checked carefully for the missing items. Therefore, there is no missing item in the questionnaire data.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Aaaaaaaaaaaa

...Individual Assignment | | Name: Vu Thi Ngoc MinhID: FB00293Class: FB0606 | | | | | | Table of Contents I. Executive summary 3 II. Introduction 3 1) A Short story of Warwick Castle 3 2) Warwick Castle today 4 III. An overall look at Warwick Castle 4 1) Audit 4 2) Core competences: 7 3) New special events: 8 IV. SOSTAC 8 1) Situation (S.W.O.T model) 8 2) Objective (S.M.A.R.T model) 9 3) Strategic 11 4) Tactics: 12 5) Control: 12 V. The Detailed Budget for “Family Togetherness” event 12 1) ‘Salute’ 12 2) ‘Discover castle’: Visit castle with guider. 13 3) ‘United night’: It is the evening that all members in the family have comfortable time in castle to talk, to share and enjoy royal banquet. 13 4) ‘Competition among families’: it is a gift from sponsorship Coca-Cola. 13 5) ‘Child menus in the restaurant’ (sponsorship with Coca-Cola) 14 VI. Marketing and operation 14 VII. Management risk 15 VIII. References 15 I. Executive summary The purpose is to develop a new business strategy for Special Events in 2013 for 1 month. In this plan, we provide the background of Warwick Castle where happens the event. Moreover, we conduct some analysis about audit, core competences of Warwick Castle, and list 8 events happened at the same time in season. In addition, it is the plan to develop service, analysis of special event ‘Family togetherness (SOSTAC, marketing and operation, management risk). II.......

Words: 3141 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Aaaaaaaaaaaa

...Corporate Social Responsibility At the core of the AmBank Group’s responsibilities, priority is placed on the development and sustainability of the four main pillars of the larger business ‘ecosystem’ within which we operate: the marketplace, the community, our staff and the environment. We aspire to contribute to a better society, concurrently contributing to the nation’s growth, development and prosperity. Continuously adding value to the marketplace and contributing to the development of the industry are considerations that are given priority in the AmBank Group’s products, services and market initiatives. Annual Report 2012 Leading Innovation, Stimulating Market Participation The AmBank Group has closely aligned itself with the country’s efforts at entrenching Malaysia as the world’s leading international hub for Islamic finance. AmInvestment Bank was appointed as one of the Joint Principal Advisers/Joint Lead Arrangers/Joint Lead Managers for the 20-year Sukuk Musharakah Programme of up to RM2.0 billion in nominal value by Westports Malaysia Sdn Bhd on 2 June 2012. It was structured under the widely accepted principle of Musharakah to a wide investor base. AmInvestment Bank was also the Sole Lead Manager for Gulf Investment Corporation GSC, Kuwait’s RM750 million (USD253 million) issuance under its existing 20-year RM3.5 billion (USD1.18 billion) Sukuk Wakalah bi Istithmar Medium Term Notes programme, where AmIslamic Bank was Transaction Agent to facilitate the......

Words: 5436 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Aaaaaaaaaaaa

...Yue Tian F533 W.A. #1 7/9/2015 Prof. Raymond H. Berndt Chapters 1 and 3 #1-16 (a) At the beginning, he doesn’t explain the total meaning clearly, because he uses four sentences to show the subject. So the subject is blurry. He uses negative tone and shows he doesn’t care about his employees’ opinion. According to the the message, “It is too bad that a few bad apples always have to spoil things for everyone.” He is a dictator and likes to make pressure air. In other words, he doesn’t make his employees actively. At the end of this message, he also doesn’t want his employees connect with him and show their opinions. This message is like a judgement. (b) Hi, Team Members. I want to say that we need to make our time rule more accurate to insure high-efficient work. At morning and afternoon, work begin at 8:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. From next Monday, we will use electronic key cards to record enter or leave time. Please do not ask others help, because we also have video cameras in our building. I give you three times late for work or late coming back from lunch. But if you are late for more than three times, please talk to me immediately and show me the reason. I want we will work more effectively and fairly. So, fighting! Work for ourselves! If you have any questions, please ask me soon. Thank you. Yue Tian Email: yuejoyfulday@foxmail.com #1-24 I use Email to......

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

A a a a a a a a a a a a a a

...A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid dkhfiegvh A a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa gh ghg dsjfeoi eraisgcx dfvfdh kjoihx dklhfehv dwfeugvid...

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Aa Asdasd a Sda Ad Asd Ad

...Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaaaaa Aa......

Words: 297 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Computer

...Aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaa a aaaaa aaaaa aaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa a aaaa aaaa aaaaaa aaaa a aaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaa a aa aaaaaaaa aaaa aa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaa aaaaaaa aaa aaaa aaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaa aaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaa aa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaa a a aaaa a aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaa aaa aaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaa aaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaa aa a aaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaa aaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa Aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaa a aaaaa aaaaa aaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa a aaaa aaaa aaaaaa aaaa a aaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaa a aa aaaaaaaa aaaa aa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaa aaaaaaa aaa aaaa aaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaa aaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaa aaaaaa aaaaaa...

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Jhgkjh

...Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials Third Edition David R. Gaskell Preliminaries ‡ Settings Off@General::spellD ‡ Physical Constants Needed for Problems ü Heat Capacities The generic heat capcity c 105 bT Å Cp = a + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ; T2 103 The heat capacities of various elements and compounds are CpAgs = Cp ê. 8a Ø 21.30, b Ø 8.54, c Ø 1.51 8.3144 , Rla -> 0.082057 < ; The number of moles can be calculated from the starting state: P 1 V1 nmols = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ê. nums ; Å Rla T1 subs = Append@nums, n -> nmolsD 8V1 Ø 10, T1 Ø 298, P1 Ø 10, P2 Ø 1, R Ø 8.3144, Rla Ø 0.082057, n Ø 4.08948< Finally, this constant will convert liter-atm energy units to Joule energy units. All results are given in Joules: laToJ = 101.325 ; ü 1. Reversible, Isothermal Process In an isothermal process for an ideal gas, DU = 0 ; DH = 0 ; thus heat and work are equal and given by: P2 q = w = n R T1 LogA ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ E J ê. subs P1 -23330.9 J 16 Notes on Gaskell Text ü 2. Reversible Adiabatic Expansion In an adiabatic expansion q = 0; and P V g is a constant. Thus the final state has 1êg g P2 V2 i P1 V1 y Å ; T2 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ê. g -> 5 ê 3 Å V2 = j ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z j z n Rla k P2 { P1 V 1 P2 I ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ M P ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ2 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Å n Rla 5ê3 3ê5 For an ideal gas cv = 3R/2; thus 3 DU = ÅÅÅÅ n R HT2 - T1 L ê. subs 2 -9147.99 or we can use 3 DU = ÅÅÅÅ HP2 V2 - P1 V1 L laToJ ê. Append@subs, g -> 5 ê 3D 2 -9148.02 For some numeric results,......

Words: 8379 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

W3Ws

...jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjj iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiii oooooooooooooo ooooooooooo ppppppppppp ppppppppppp [[[[[[[ ooooooooooooooo iiiiiiiiiiiii ujjjjjjjjjjjj ggggggggggggg aqaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa naaaaaaaaaa a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a r s d d d d d d d d ew ee rere er re er re ere r re r r fg gf fg fg fg fg fgf gf fg fg gf fg gf gf gf gf fg fg fg fg g gf fg fg fg yu yu yu uy yu yu yu uy u y uy yuu y uy uyuy uy uy uy yu yu uy uy yu uy yu uy yu yu uy uy yu er rer r r r r r tr t t g h h h h h h j jk jg gg gg n n n nv v v v v d d d d c c c c d e e e e e d d d d d d gf g g g g g g g g r r r rr e e e e e e e e e e r tr t t t t tt t yt rf aaaaaaaaaaaa.... tytyyttytytytytytytyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyahhhhhhhhhhklffffffffffff faaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa awwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaawwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwf...

Words: 257 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Social Studies Problems

...SECTION 7A HEATING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM CAUTION: Disconnect the negative battery cable before removing or installing any electrical unit or when a tool or equipment could easily come in contact with exposed electrical terminals. Disconnecting this cable will help prevent personal injury and damage to the vehicle. The ignition must also be in B unless otherwise noted. TABLE OF CONTENTS Description and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-2 Heating and Ventilation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-2 Component Locator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-3 Control Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-3 Blower Module Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-4 Air Distributor and Heater Module Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-5 Diagnostic Informatin and Procedures . . . . . . . 7A-6 Heater System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-6 Insufficient Heating or Defrosting . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-6 Blower Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-10 Improper Air Delivery or No Mode Shift . . . . . . 7A-11 Too Much Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-13 Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-15 Blower Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-16 Repair Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......

Words: 18314 - Pages: 74

Free Essay

Business Management

...Sample Problems - Chapter 7 1. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. Bond prices and interest rates move in the same direction, i.e., if interest rates rise, so will bond prices. b. The market price of a discount bond will approach the bond's par value as the maturity date approaches. Barring changes in the probability of default, there is no way the value of the bond can fail to increase each year as the time to maturity approaches. c. The "current yield" on a noncallable discount bond will normally exceed the bond's yield to maturity. d. The "current yield" on a noncallable discount bond will normally exceed the bond's coupon interest rate. e. All of the statements above are false.   2. If the yield to maturity decreased 1 percentage point, which of the following bonds would have the largest percentage increase in value?   a. A 1-year bond with an 8 percent coupon. b. A 1-year zero-coupon bond. c. A 10-year zero-coupon bond. d. A 10-year bond with an 8 percent coupon. e. A 10-year bond with a 12 percent coupon.   3. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The discount or premium on a bond can be expressed as the difference between the coupon payment on an old bond, which originally sold at par, and the coupon payment on a new bond, selling at par, where the difference in payments is discounted at the new market rate. b. The price of a coupon bond is determined primarily by the number of years to maturity. c. On a......

Words: 3871 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Sadaii

...Kur ta fut shoqeria | nje cun rreth 15-16 vjeç qe e kishte shum mire me babin e tij i thote se te nesermen di ikte te bente sex per here te pare dhe i ati gjith gezim i jep ca keshilla... Te nesermen kur djali kthen i ati e pyet: Hé MOR BIR SI TU DUK??? djali:- SHUM BUKUR babai:- PO KUR E LATE TAKIMIN PER HEREN TJETER?? djali:- ME THANE SHOKET KUR TE TE SHEROHET B*THA... | | -Shpirtgjeresia | Djali ishte ne moshe per tu martuar por ishte shume i turpshem,dhe se kishte idene se si behej sex athere babai i thote qe duhet ta shikonte ate kur bente sex me mamane qe te mesonte. pasi i shikon djali i thote babait: sa bukur babi po ta provoj edhe njere une me mamin? babai e shan. djali shume shpejt martohet dhe i thote shokut te tij: do te te mesoj une se si behet sex dhe e merr ne shtepi ta shikoje kur ai bente sex me gruan. kur mbarojne shoku i thote: ta provoj njere edhe une me gruan tende? provoje i thote djali, une nuk jam kurnac si babi. | -Edhe 30 here | Niset burri per ne shtepi dhe ne dere e pret gruaja e shqetesuar. -He si vajti puna? C’te tha doktori? -Me tha qe me kane mbetur vetem 30 here te tjera per te bere sex dhe ateher je i djegur. -Oh, atehere u dashkan perdorur me kujdes prandaj duhet te bejme nje liste. -Une rruges e bera listen dhe me vjen keq te them qe emri yt nuk eshte aty  | | -Dy doktora | Dy doktora: nje mashkull dhe nje femer ishin duke bere seks. PAsi mbaruan ai filloi ta pyeste. - Ve bast se ti je......

Words: 3938 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Data Modeling

...2. The Entity-Relationship Model 2. The Entity-Relationship Model This section’s goal: After completing this chapter, you should be able to explain the three phases of database design, Why are multiple phases useful? evaluate the significance of the Entity-Relationship Model (ER model) for DB design, enumerate the basic constructs of the ER model, develop ER diagrams (schemas in the ER model) for a given application, translate ER models into equivalent (as far as possible) relational models. Marc H. Scholl (DBIS, Uni KN) Information Management Winter 2007/08 48 2. The Entity-Relationship Model Introduction Database design (1) Overall goal of DBMS usage: Efficiently develop programs to support given real-world tasks. These programs need to store data persistently. To develop these programs, apply proven methods of software engineering—specialized to support data-intensive programs. Definition (Database Design) Database Design is the process of developing a database schema for a given application. DB design is a subtask of the overall software engineering effort. Marc H. Scholl (DBIS, Uni KN) Information Management Winter 2007/08 49 2. The Entity-Relationship Model Introduction Database design (2) The specification of programs and data is intertwined: The schema should contain the data needed by the programs. Programs are often easy to develop once the structure of the data to be manipulated has been specified. Data, however, is an......

Words: 7024 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

Hacking the Art of Exploitation

...2nd Edition Hacking the art of exploitation jon erickson PRAISE FOR THE FIRST EDITION OF HACKING: THE ART OF EXPLOITATION “Most complete tutorial on hacking techniques. Finally a book that does not just show how to use the exploits but how to develop them.” —PHRACK “From all the books I’ve read so far, I would consider this the seminal hackers handbook.” —SECURITY FORUMS “I recommend this book for the programming section alone.” —UNIX REVIEW “I highly recommend this book. It is written by someone who knows of what he speaks, with usable code, tools and examples.” —IEEE CIPHER “Erickson’s book, a compact and no-nonsense guide for novice hackers, is filled with real code and hacking techniques and explanations of how they work.” —COMPUTER POWER USER (CPU) MAGAZINE “This is an excellent book. Those who are ready to move on to [the next level] should pick this book up and read it thoroughly.” —ABOUT.COM INTERNET/NETWORK SECURITY ® San Francisco HACKING: THE ART OF EXPLOITATION, 2ND EDITION. Copyright © 2008 by Jon Erickson. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher. Printed on recycled paper in the United States of America 11 10 09 08 07 123456789 ISBN-10: 1-59327-144-1 ISBN-13: 978-1-59327-144-2 Publisher:...

Words: 139438 - Pages: 558