English and Literature
Submitted By Myela
JAMES JOYCE -AN IRISH MODERNIST MODERN FICTION GROUP NUMBER 4 GROUP MEMBERS : HAFSA SHAHID R
Introduction to James Joyce
Modernism and James Joyce
A portrait of an Artist as aYoung Man
Themes and Style of Joyce's two Works
a) Mythological Allusions
c)Stream of conciousness
c)Focus on inner time rather than outer time
d)Search for identity
e)Treatment of religion
f)Treatment of sexuality
James Joyce (from February 2, 1882 to January 13, 1941) was one of the most preeminent Irish authors of the 20th century. He is known for his literary innovation strictly focused narrative and indirect style.
James Joyce matriculated from University College of Dublin in 1903. After moving to Paris, Joyce planned on studying medicine. The lectures were conducted in a technical French but Joyce’s education had not prepared him for it. Despite his mother’s attempts to get him to return to Catholic Church, Joyce remained unmoved even after her death.
Joyce studied at Clongowes Wood College from 1888 until 1892. When the family’s financial state devolved, Joyce had to leave the school. After a brief time at Christian Brothers School, Joyce was enrolled at Belvedere College in 1893. In 1898, Joyce began studying Italian, English and French at University College Dublin. At this time, Joyce also began his entry into the artistic life of Dublin. His literary reviews appeared in Fortnightly Review. His review of Henrik Ibsen received a positive personal response from Ibsen himself. In addition to his reviews, he also wrote some pieces of drama that have since been lost.
The writings of James Joyce include Chamber Music, Dubliners, The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses, Exiles, Finnegan’s Wake.
1914 was also the year that Joyce began the writing process for Ulysses. This novel relates the events of Dublin on the sixteenth of June nineteen-hundred and four. This date was personally significant since it was the date Joyce first took his wife. An element of chance pervades the book as the point of view shifts between hundreds of citizens of Dublin. However, this chance is an illusion. Joyce has orchestrated the many desperate voices in his book. At times, Joyce even talked of the complicated plan as the only way of ensuring one’s immortality.When Ulysses was published in Paris in 1922, many immediately hailed the work as genius. With his inventive narrative style and engagement with multiple philosophical themes, Joyce had established himself as a leading Modernist. The novel charts the passage of one day?June, 16 1904?as depicted in the life of an Irish Jew named Leopold Bloom, who plays the role of a Ulysses by wandering through the streets of Dublin. Despite the fact that Joyce was writing in self-imposed exile, living in Paris, Zurich and Trieste while writing Ulysses, the novel is noted for the incredible amount of accuracy and detail regarding the physical and geographical features of Dublin.
Thematically similar to Joyce's previous works, Ulysses examines the relationship between the modern man and his myth and history, focusing on contemporary questions of Irish political and cultural independence, the eﬀects of organized religion on the soul, and the cultural and moral decay produced economic development .While Ulysses was hailed by some, the novel was banned from both the United Kingdom as well as the United States on obscenity charges
1916 was the year that A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. This book which relied heavily on Joyce’s autobiographical experience was written with complexity and objectivity. This novel did very poorly financially; however, many avant-garde writers admired this book.A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man was ﬁrst published in serial form in the Egoist in the years 1914-15. Chronicling the life of Stephen Dedalus from early childhood to young adulthood and his life-changing decision to leave Ireland, the novel is profoundly autobiographical. Like Stephen, Joyce had early experiences with prostitutes during his teenage years and struggled with questions of faith. Like Stephen, Joyce was the son of a religious mother and a ﬁnancially inept father. Like Stephen, Joyce was the eldest of ten children and received his education at Jesuit schools. Like Stephen, Joyce left Ireland to pursue the life of a poet and writer. Joyce began working on the stories that formed the foundation of the novel as early as 1903, after the death of is mother. Previous to the publication of Portrait, Joyce had published several stories under the pseudonym "Stephen Dedalus."
Many aspects of modernism are depictable in Joyce work. The most relevant examples of plot ,the ―stream of consciousness‖ literary style, , individual v. universal themes, and unique language.
The novels are one of the most significant examples of a Kunstlerroman(an artist‘s
Bildungsroman) in English literature in which we see the development of an artist. A
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is cited as a coming of age novel as it shows the development of the main character through his experiences and his thoughts and can successfully replace the term Bildungsroman. To be more specific, the German terminology includes the term Kunstlerroman which is a subgenre of Buidungsroman and which is about the development of an artist, not just any young man. Owing to its story it is one of the most widely read and taught novels in English literature and has had a great influence on novelists all over the world.
The final pages of the novel represent Stephen‘s diary for the period before leaving for Paris and it is the reader who decides whether Stephen will succeed. Like Icarus, the son of Daedalus, he may fall into the sea with melted wings. There is a close identification between the author and hero and no distinct omniscient narrator to comment on the action. Stephen‘s diary announces Joyce‘s later experiments and the process of rendering Stephen‘s consciousness by representing his thoughts in a continuous flow makes A Portrait of the Artist a precursor of the stream of consciousness novel and Joyce believed that modern fiction needed to depart from previous conventions in order to express modern life properly in a subjective realism as opposed to the social and mimetic one.
The modernist novels of Joyce also derived from the focus on the subjective consciousness of the individual mind and the term comes from William James‘ description of mind‘s experiencing of thoughts, perceptions, memories, associations and sensations in their multitude. This is an essential technique of modernism as it creates a psychic reality which has little to do with the true reality .The ―stream of consciousness‖ technique was amply used by Modernist writers ,particularly by James Joyce who preferred to write about individuality rather than society. By using the interior monologue and the stream of consciousness , by his concern with the individual rather than the external reality, James Joyce foreshadows his later techniques in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
The universal themes developed in this novel: humanity, freedom, individualism and exile are modernist in the writer‘s attempt to focus on the development of the individual and not on the problems of society. Joyce‘s intellectualism is apparent in his mixture of mythology, history and literature used to create innovative symbols and narrative techniques. For example, the most obvious symbol in the novel is flight and birds, theme of identity, and the myth , the name of the hero evoking the myth of the hero.
All the characteristics of Modernism: the desire of breaking away from tradition; the quest for finding new ways to view man‘s position and function in the Universe and experiments in form and style are to be found in James Joyce‘s novels. Modernist novels were generally written in the first person and fragmentation was a device currently used, the chronological order of the events being sometimes rearranged to follow the inner life of the characters.
Any literary work is studied from different point of views like Marxist ,Psychoanalytic ,feminist . Perhaps it is more interesting to study from a mythological point of view .James Joyce both works Ulysses ana Aportrait of an artist as a Young Man have qualities to be studied from mythological point of view in relationship to its style.
Ulysses written by joyce is plotless novel, but it does not mean it is unstructured. This novel consist of eighteen episodes and each episode corespond to an adventure from Homer's narrative Odyssey. An analysis of the novel shows Joyce use of myth. It also explains the comparisan between Ulyysses and Homer's Odyssey. Homer's Odyssey and Illad have been mentioned as the most important icons of the western civilization,culture and literature.There are three main characters in the plot of Odysses ;the first focuses on Telemachus’ quest for his father Ulysses; the second one centers on the wanderings and adventures of Ulysses; the third part shows Ulysses’ return to his kingdom and wife. The story explains the struggle of king Ulysses to reach his island Ithaca after the war of Troy. As a prey to Poseidon’s hatred, he wanders at sea for ten years during which he undergoes several trials before finding his way back home. Joyce choose the main structure of Ulysses from that of the Odyssey: the three first episodes of the Ulysses, named the ‘Telmachia’ after Homer’s first part, represents Stephen Dedalus and his search for a subtitute father; the next twelve episodes named ‘Odyssey’, focus on Bloom’s ‘adventures’ in different parts of Dublin; the third part known as the ‘Nastos’,explains Bloom’s return to his home and to his wife Molly. The twelfth episode of Ulysses shows similarity with Odysseus’ adventure with his men inside the cave of the Cyclops. According to Greek mythology, the Cyclops is a one-eyed giant who inhabits caverns. They are also called savage and cannibalistic. Similarly In Homer’s narrative, Odysseus and his men are trapped on the island of the Cyclops, in Polyphemus’ cave. Odysseus tells the giant that his name is ‘No-man’ and succeeds in making him drunk to distract him and let his men run out of the cave. Meanwhile, Odysseus blinds Polyphemus by a burning pike in his sole eye. The blinded monster, running in pursuit of the evaders, cries for help to his fellow Cyclops telling them that ‘No-man’ injured him and they naturally mock and ignore him. While Odysseus and his men escape in their ship, Polyphemus succeeds in throwing a big boulder at the ship nearly causing it to sink and causing an earthquake.The dark cave that the Cyclops inhabits becomes in Ulysses Barney Kiernan’s tavern, a tavern in which Bloom finds himself surrounded by a group of hostile. The ‘I’ of the first person view through which the episode is narrated symbolizes the Cyclops’ single eye. Parody, Simon Dentith tells us, ‘includes any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice.’ (Dentith, Parody. London: Routledge, 2000, p9) The three main archetypal figures that can be distinguished in Ulysses are of course Odysseus (Bloom), Telemachus (Stephen) and Penelope (Molly). There is nothing divine about these three figures; they are just human characters with a mock heroic status.Odysseus rely on the assistance of the god Zeus and the goddess Athena to overcome the various difficulties he encounters. Odysseus is a god-like figure in so far as his deeds are heroic and his strength nearly super-natural.In the same way, Bloom is a substitute father to Stephen, husband to Molly and lover to Martha Clifford. He, as Odysseus, must go through several trials before he can make his way back home. As home usurped to Odysseus by Penelope's suitors, and usurped to Bloom by his wife's lover Blazes Boylan. Such symbolic situations represent what Jung terms the 'collective unconscious': a person can unconsciously repeat myth patterns in his everyday life through trivial, non-heroic situations.
In the first episode a parallel is made between Hamlet and Stephen through a re-writing of the ghost-scene of Shakespeare's play:
Stephen, an elbow rested on the jagged granite, leaned his palm against his brow and gazed at the fraying edge of his shiny black coatsleeve. Pain, that was not yet the pain of love, fretted his heart. Silently, in a dream she had come to him after her death, her wasted body within its loose brown graveclothes giving off an odour of wax and rosewood, her breath, that had bent upon him, mute, reproachful, a faint odour of wetted ashes. Across the threadbare cuffedge he saw the sea hailed as a great sweet mother by the wellfed voice beside him. The ring of bay and skyline held a dull green mass of liquid. A bowl of white china had stood beside her deathbed holding the green sluggish bile which she had torn up from her rotting liver by fits of loud groaning vomiting.(Ulysses,opcit,29) .The correspondence, while evident, is not exact, for while Hamlet is haunted by his father's ghost, Stephen is haunted by his mother's. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (referred to as Portrait from here on) is the story of a young man named Stephen Dedalus .Novel begins with his earliest childhood memories up to the point where he leaves for France to start a career as a literary theorist. Initialy the connection to Greek mythology seems very superficial, limited only to Stephen’s last name, Dedalus. In reality the connection goes much deeper then that, especially when you consider the fact that Joyce made such effective use of the Homeric epic, The Odyssey, in the sequel to Portrait and Ulysses .The story of Daedelus the artificer is an expansive and sordid tale. His story begins in Athens where he is already a famous artisan and craftsman. He is exiled after his attempted murder of his nephew Perdix, who he feared would surpass his ability. He flees to Crete were he becomes the architect, artist, and craftsman for King Minos. He is the one responsible for creating the wooden bull for the Queen Pasiphae so she can slake her lust for the divine white bull who was a gift from the god Poseidon to King Minos. It is he who builds the Labyrinth to imprison the unholy offspring of that union, the Minotaur. It is he who finally overcomes the labyrinth by creating wings of wax for his son Icarus and himself. After he escapes, he lives a long and fruitful life in the land of Sicily. (Cotterell 36)
The proof of the Daedelus myth in Portrait is on the very first page. The story of Stephen Dedalus starts with a fairy tale that his father told him when he was a child, with a clean mind ready for teaching. The fist line of Portrait is:
"Once upon a time and a very good time it was there was a moocow coming down along the road and this moocow coming down along the road met a nicens little boy named ". In the opening line of the book we are introduced to three images that explain us that we are dealing with a story that borrows explicitly from the Daedelus myth. The first indication that shows we are in the realm of myth; is the use of phrase “Once upon a time,” the stereotypical opening line for fairy tales and myth. This is a deliberate choice on the part of Joyce.
There are many passages throughout the story that make the world around Stephen seem very much like the labyrinth in which Daedelus becomes trapped. These passages are often accompanied by major turning points or decisions that Stephen faces. For example, the first time Stephen walks down the street lined with prostitutes, the surroundings are described as “a maze of narrow and dirty streets.” (Joyce 98). The same type of description (though a bit more subtle) can be found in the description of the streets of Cork (Joyce ,87), the description of Stephens school as a child (Joyce, 64), and the streets that he walks through with his friend Lynch while explaining his aesthetic theory (Joyce ,183). Though the literal labyrinths found throughout the novel are important, their primary role is to underscore and offer support to the idea of the figurative labyrinth from which Stephen is trying to escape.
He had sinned mortally not once but many times and he knew that, while he stood in danger of eternal damnation for the first sin alone, by every succeeding sin he multiplied his guilt and his punishment. His days and works and thoughts could make not atonement for him, the fountains of sanctifying grace have ceased to refresh his soul. (Joyce 100)
The final aspect of Portrait that look at is the escape itself is when Daedelus and his son Icarus escape from the labyrinth they use wings made of wax. Daedelus warned his son not to fly too close to the sun because it would melt his wings and he would fall. These wings are represented throughout the novel by the bird imagery. On the one hand Stephen did make it to Paris to make it in the literary world. On the other hand the pattern set up throughout the novel of Stephen escaping one labyrinth only to find himself in another. At the end of Portrait, Joyce really does leave it for the reader to decide whether Stephen is Daedelus or Icarus.
Inner time rather than outer time:
There are two different types of time in modern literary work : the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other. Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to when they happened in time. It is what history is made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and centuries are all indicators of clock time. 8 The other type of time is the temporal experience in the human mind: it is flexible; it is constantly in flux and can be compressed or extended. A period that is compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in comparison to clock time: an event took more clock time than the human mind perceived. When time is extended, the actual time span of an event was much shorter that experienced. Time on the mind is also referred to as psychological time by thinkers such as the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to discover what influence of psychological time has had on Modernist and contemporary literature and how it is represented by selected authors from those periods.
The work produced by Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and explains how Modernists viewed it:7
Time was not a series of chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an occasional deliberate retrospect (“this reminded him of,” “she recalled that”), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the individual, with the ‘already’ continuously merging into the ‘not yet’ and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688)
The image of time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on the present and the coexistence of past, present and future in the mind are features of psychological time.
In 1920 fiction such as joyce’s Ulysses 1922 it concentrate on one day of present experience with characters , memories use to stich in past1 . ulysess seems to time it self menticoulously by the clock in many ways to place its characters ‘ actions, at intersection of two contrasting orders of literary times. The action of Ulysses takes place at the confluence of two orders of literary times : Dramatic time and Epic time, As Aristotle defines them in poetics :”tragedy(drama) evdeavours, as far as possible to combine it self to single revolution of sun;.. where as epic actions has no limits of time”. A modern translator might b incline to render this passage as applying not to the action imitated but to the time of performance: over a period of several days, but earlier translators such as butchers(a copy of whose translation was in joyce’s library) assumed Aristotle to mean that drama was to :imitate the events of a single day as Ulysses does from 8:AM 16th june 1940 until some time during the long summer dawn of 17th june 1940(sun rise was at 3:33AM) and it also enjoys other unities Aristotle recommended for drama: it has unity of place (Dublin and environs): unity of action (all the action takes place in a single day)and as good sophoclean drama , Ulysses has three central characters (Stephen, dedalus,molly bloom and leoprd bloom). Where as chorus of Dubliners that as Aristotle said it should functions collectively as a fourth character but the novel’s title announces an epic and Aristotle defines an epic action not as the whole cause of a hero’s life. In Ulysses it is stephen’s coming age , Bloom’s home coming , molly’s affirmation for her husband and Dublin (aslthaca) once more or for once properly governed there is no assurance in Ulysses that any of these epic actions are being or will be lived through to completion , but by novel’s end we as readers should know that conditions the central characters and the chorus will have to meet if the epic destiny that is “impossible” on 16-17 june 1904 is to become “actuality” (Ulysses 2.67)(25:35-36).
In Dramatic time in contrast to the epic’s slow development of a phase –in – life ,the action we anticipated is peripeteria , an abrubt or un expected change that is both revelatory and conclusive. As in good epic , Ulysses begins in mediares and fills us in on stephen’s life since the end of A portrait of the Artist as a young man by flash back: and by flash back memory we are given the story of Molly’s life “ . But as in drama the action of Ulysses stay in Mediasres , in the present tense of one day rather than in a succession of days to the characters , this is only a day in –the-life, exceptional in more or less trivial ways as all days are but not all that different from yesterday and tomorrow. only we know that the characters are both acting in the dramatic time of a play , complete with peripeteria and by implications rather than by actions, completing a major phase of their lives in the narrative medium of epic time, the characters more in what might be called mimetic time various imitations of time a rich mix of clock time psychological time and mnemonic time. As for the clock time Ulysses implies throughout that we ought to be able to clock this daily with some precision but that turns out not to be consistently the case nor did Joyce help matters when he suggested differing time tables in the two schemas, and the one he send to carlo Lilinati in 1920and one he provided (Jacques Benoist-mechin) in 1921 (publishes by stuart Gilbert in 1931)6.for example Joyce told linati that Lotus-eaters episode begains at 9:AM: the other schema gives the time as 10:AM. In either case all of blooms activities from the beginning of the hour on sir John Rogersons quay until he exists from the church 5.1-46[p.71-84] (pg-71-84) take place in 15 minutes . Blooms reflects its “Quarter past” 5.462[84;2] and that he still has time for a bath before the funeral at 11:00AM Blooms circuitous route from quay side to chemist shop. In the Ithaca episode begins at 2:00 am as the Ithaca episode begins at 2:00 am plus bloom alone is aware of “the incipient intimations of proxy dawn (17.1247-48)[704:30].
If we elaborate efforts to establish accurate time tables tend to falter, they also tend to mislead our attention as readers and distract us from the variety of ways joyce imitates time. we are all aware, for example that we can think and perceive more in course of a few minutes of multi leaded consciousness than we could spell out in words as many hours .joyce variously explore that disparity at 8:481(164:23) bloom reflects that it is “five minutes” since he fed birds. There are even more radical experiments with the disparities between clock time and the imitation of time in the circle Penelope episodes which is the eighteenth chapter of Ulysses the third and final episode of the nonstops section of the book itself the time in which the action begins is determinate, because the Circle episode is cast in form of a play with speeches and stage directions,3 we assume that reading time is approximately equal to playing time but the reverse is the case , there is a radical disparity between reading time and playing time. The Penelope episode 3(p-176) the prose seems to imitate the way Molly might moulter to herself. The duration of the episode is three hours is that the order of time Joyce is imitating the foreshortened time and kaleidoscopic scatter of image we experience in brief spell of insomnia an hour less by the clock.
We suspect that the Penelope episodes time is more like the time of hallucination and drama in circle than it is like the time of a voice over heard and therefore that molly’s soliloquy belongs at once in dramatic and the epic dimensions of space and time .5 whereas portrait of an artist which is a brief sketch commissioned by the irish magazine 9 (pg- 5) Dana and completed by Joyce on 7th jan 1904. Which was an autobiographical novel of joyce as Stephen dedalus who was his fictional figure for his early years of his life. Its was based on outer time because it shows different time periods from the child hood till he grow young. Through the ambiguity of novel when it come to precise dates and events in “A Portrait of the artist as a Young man” covers the period from roughly 1890 through the end of century .and throughout this time period country was torn apart and take their crown from British due to political and religious differences .Dublin is the setting for all his literary work even though he is living in Europe while most of it was written. These formative years which are detailed in “a portrait of the artist as a young man “ which was the only time he spend in Ireland. where his this novel get a critical response or feedback till the publication of Ulysses which is more radical in its formal departures from literary conventions.
Stream of conciousness is a literary technique in modernism .The Plot lines weaves in and out of time and place because of use of this technique in literary work.In a literary sense it is a special type of interior monologue.It is a mode of narration that includes the full spectrum and continous flow of a characters's mental process. Modernist authors often have decided to take the reader directly into their characters' minds, allowing that reader 'listen in' on the character's thoughts and feelings as those thoughts and feelings occur. When this start to happen in a book, it is named as stream of consciousness narration, and while it carries some risk often what a character thinks or feels might not be beautiful, or even comprehensible. One of the earliest, famous and best known practitioners of stream of consciousness narration was the modernist writer James Joyce (1882 - 1941). One of the most prominant examples of stream of consciousness narration appeares in the last chapter of his novel Ulysses, in which Molly Bloom delivers a 4,391-word sentence, all of which is internal monologue. It ends like this:
"....I was a Flower of the mountain yes when I put the rose in my hair like the Andalusian girls used or shall I wear a red yes and how he kissed me under the Moorish wall and I thought well as well him as another and then I asked him with my eyes to ask again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes."
The narrative attempts to jump around, foregoing standard syntax, in order to depict something closer to the thoughts that occur in brains. Also significantly, Joyce uses no punctuation in this chapter, except for the final period. In this way, he is able to portray the 'stream' that William James talked about, the excerpted passage may be difficult to understand at first, the effect of the internal thought process shines through.
" quarter after what an unearthly hour I suppose theyre just getting up in China now combing out their pigtails for the day well soon have the nuns ringing the angelus theyve nobody coming in to spoil their sleep except an odd priest or two for his night office or the alarmlock next door at cockshout clattering the brain out of itself let me see if I can doze off 1 2 3 4 5 what kind of flowers are those they invented like the stars the wallpaper in Lombard street was much nicer the apron he gave me was like that something only I only wore it twice better lower this lamp and try again so that I can get up early.” (1922, rpt. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986, p. 642).
In the above mentioned quote has been taken from Ulysses in which, the narrator appears to be restless in his attempt to find slumber, as his mind is running from one thought to the next. He starts to ponder the fact that people far away from him in China are waking up from their night of sleep while he still hasn’t found any. He then drifts off into thought regarding priests and their sleep patterns, and then he starts counting 1 to 5 in his head seeing if he can fall asleep. This pattern of random thought continues on, as his thoughts ramble.
Bowling was the first one who suggested that stream of consciousness includes all conscious mental process, including such non-language phenomena as images and sensation and he even suggested a third term which would be internal analysis, where the author stands as an interpreter between us and the characters mind and gives us his interpretation of what the character thinks. The interior monologue assumes the unrestricted and uncensored portrayal of the totality of interior experience on the level or levels being represente.
There are main three types of interior monologue in novel Ulysses : Stephen’s intellectual interior monologue in Proteus, Leopold’s postcoital interior monologue in Nausicaa and Molly’s monologue, the female’s monologue which aroused so much criticism when the book was published. Proteus offers the first sample of a chapter written almost entirely in interior monologue and it seems a logical climax to the innovatory tactic of characterizing Stephen Dedalus largely by interior monologue. The nature of the device, and the presumed richness of interiority of the chapter in question, demanded that it be given space to extend itself. In this way the logic of narrativity in the first three chapters offers the reader a satisfying fulfillment.
The narrative method used in Ulysses is an attempt to represent Stephen’s and Bloom’s minds as perpetually renewing their thoughts. In spite of some recurring elements in the consciousness of Stephen and Bloom: whereas for instance the former is obsessed with the guilt of not having knelt near his mother’s bed while she was dying, the latter’s mind constantly revolves round thoughts of his wife’s lover, Blazes Boylan, his deceased son, Rudy and what they would have done together in case he had lived, an undelivered letter to Martha Clifford, Dignam’s funeral, etc., such moments recur in completely different circumstances. They acquire each time different significances.
In this second example below, we notice the young hero of Joyce's novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man wandering in the streets of Dublin's red light district in a state of lusty confusion:
the wasting fires of lust sprang up again?his blood was in revolt. He wandered up and the dark slimy streets peering into the gloom of lanes and doorways, listening eagerly for any sound. He moaned to himself like some baffled prowling beast. He wanted to sin with another of his kind, to force another being to sin with him and to exult with her in sin. He felt some dark presence moving irresistibly upon him from the darkness, a presence subtle and murmurous as a flood filling him wholly with itself.(James joyce,chp 2,pg71)
Obviously, one can think another way of writing this. Joyce might simply have showed the character walking down the street. Or he might've explained some paraphrase of the character's thoughts (something like, 'he looked around for someone to sleep with'). But by using this technique of stream of consciousness, he takes the reader into close proximity with the character's actual thoughts as they're occurring, and explains an intimate (perhaps even uncomfortably intimate) knowledge of that character's struggle.
However, the method that Joyce uses, “the stream of consciousness,” records simultaneously to a certain extent external reality and internal psychological reality, or rather, a certain action or object and the latent order of its reflection in the psyche. …
In Proust’s words,if the author does not intervene the novel materializes, but in Joyce, as long as the author is not located in the works, the works do not materialize. The complicated expressions of the psychology of the modern person cannot be measured from the outside, and those detailed expressions are only possible in the interior. Perhaps today’s realism should be advanced once again, this time instead starting from
Joyce.Essentially, Joyce’s works including and following Ulysses, if focusing on the story or theme, are not perfect as novels.
Then at the door of the castle the rector had shaken hands with his father and mother, his soutane fluttering in the breeze, and the car had driven off with his father and mother on it. They had cried to him from the car, waving their hands:
—Goodbye, Stephen, goodbye!
—Goodbye, Stephen, goodbye!
He was caught in the whirl of a scrimmage and, fearful of the flashing eyes and muddy boots, bent down to look through the legs. The fellows were struggling and groaning and their legs were rubbing and kicking and stamping. Then Jack Lawton's yellow boots dodged out the ball and all the other boots and legs ran after. He ran after them a little way and then stopped. It was useless to run on. Soon they would be going home for the holidays. After supper in the study hall he would change the number pasted up inside his desk from seventy-seven to seventy-six. (James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man)
many good examples of stream of consciousness appear at the very beginning of the novel; the above example is one of these. Stream of consciousness is a type of the older technique of interior monologue, which showes a character’s inner conversation with themself. The stream of consciousness narration may exhibit a loose style with fragmentation of expression and without standard grammar, syntax, and punctuation.
As in above example there is no use of punctuation ,that shows character's inner feelings and thought process.
Conscious experience in William James‘s view, expressed in his Principles of Psychology (1890) is described as continuous and unbroken, referring to the never-ending associative flow of thoughts, perceptions and feelings. In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Joyce‘s style is uninhibited and freeflowing , following Stephen‘s unrestrained conscious thought. This is an essential technique of modernism as it creates a psychic reality which has little to do with the true reality
Portrait of a artist as a young man is a developmental process in itself and this development is known as Knüstlerroman which is the development of an artist and Joyce traces this development in this novel. The narrative structure of Portrait is like a revolutionary process a “fluid succession of presents” (Joyce 257) , development of Stephen’s identity as an artist. There is a chronological and stylistic progression in each chapter and each chapter ends with each phase of Stephen’s life and artistic development being completed. Joyce’s Portrait is a symbol of Knüstlerroman. Stephen is the protagonist in Joyce first novel but in A Portrait he creates more than a fictional hero. He creates the artist-hero, who walk in the streets of Dublin in Ulysses, and later in Finnegans Wake. Stephen is a deeply intelligent, sensible young man but he is also posses the feelings of urgent sexuality and insecurity, all universal emotions which are experienced during the development of the average adolescent male. Joyce reveals it through stream of consciousness by showing subjective and objective realities of situation. Using Stephen Dedalus he explores the depths of the human heart. In the first part of Portrait Stephen was a school boy of good heart and learn in school run by Jesuit priests. In second part he goes to Belvedere college where he get indulge in body lust that eventually derive him to prostitute. In third part Stephen get involve in serious Catholic sins but he feels guilty after a series of sermons delivered at a religious retreat at his school. In forth part Stephen turns around and devotes himself to God, he attracts the attention of the director of the school. In the fifth and last part Stephen goes to university where teachers and students treat him as if he is a developing poet and the novel ends with Stephen’s ambition to become an artist.
James Joyce's novel A Portrait (1916) is entirely concerned with the development of its main character, Stephen Dedalus. By comparison with Joyce's earlier version, we see that he has cut out all extraneous material concerning other characters, and presented a close and detailed account of the development of Stephen's character from infancy to young manhood.
In Ulysses Stephen's sense of abstraction of distance forces him to turn inward for answers and it is through Joyce's presentation of Stephen's vexed psyche and soul, especially in "Proteus," that we see his young man's bewilderment over the changing, "protean," nature of reality. Divested of his former stringent religious beliefs, wishing to become a famous writer though sometimes doubting his ability to do so, Stephen, in "Proteus," is searching for his origins. He imagines that the two old women that he sees on the beach are midwives; he projects an image of navel cords linking all humanity and ending with Eve, "belly without blemish." He wonders who his real father is: Simon, whose part in Stephen's conception was physiological; or God Himself, Who may have planned the event from all eternity.Stephen's ruminations lead him to feel a great sense of guilt, which is augmented by his tender conscience, one that focuses upon blemishes and ignores virtues. Stephen feels guilty for many things: he refused to pray at his dying mother's bedside; he smokes Haines's tobacco, yet he treats him with disdain; he borrowed a pound from the theosophist George Russell (A. E.) and spent it on a prostitute; as the eldest Dedalus child, he abandoned his starving sisters to a poverty which was worsened by an alcoholic father who spends his time in bars while the family barely survives; he led a false existence when he was a youth, pretending so well that he was deeply pious that he was singled out for training in the priesthood, yet all the time, he was thinking of naked women.Yet, despite the pathos of his situation (which Joyce "controls" by undercutting it with many acerbic statements by Stephen), the ultimate picture of Stephen in Ulysses is heroic. Mulligan may be the sure doer, but Stephen is the sensitive thinker: Stephen dwells upon the implications of sin; Buck hides any possible guilt beneath blasphemies. Stephen did indeed suffer because of his mother's death: he "wept alone." Stephen is the complex Prince Hamlet; Mulligan is more a Rosencrantz than a true Horatio. Stephen, throughout Ulysses, is courageously pursuing the goal which he set for himself in A Portrait: to break free of society's nets — that is, to break free from all the forces which inhibit the growth of the soul and, by implication, the growth of the artist. For example, he refuses to join the national movement which was developing in Ireland in 1904: Political aspirations, as Stephen knows from the fall of Charles Stewart Parnell, lead only to dismal failure. Stephen feels that the Irish Renaissance is simply insular — a cultural suicide, through which Ireland will cut itself off from the wellsprings of European thought. Despite all of their posturings, Irishmen, to Stephen, are still bound to the double tyrants of Britain and Rome.
Stephen is going through a difficult period in Ulysses — but Joyce's tone is optimistic. We feel when we end the novel that Stephen will probably find solutions to his problems.
The problem of religion in Dublin (most of the western european societies) during the mid nineteenth century was visible. The modern era and different notion of "isims" in society produced challenge againt the institution of religion .Religion broke down the political and social lines between the people which results in the loss or modification of the identity. For Joyce Catholic church provided a guidance to the socio-political life of the people. Most of the Irish novelist along James Joyce were Catholics but they favoured for the union with Protestants ,as Stephen desires to marry Eileen ,a protestant. Religion has been portrayed by James Joyce both the subject of obsession and mania.
In A Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man , Stephen Dedalus is shown extremely religious and is also considered as becoming a priest. But in the end he seperates himself from his religious identity and continues with the artistic identity. "I left the Catholic Church, hating it most fervently. I found it impossible for me to remain in it on account of the impulses of my nature." (Joyce, cited in Ellmann, 1984: 1) . Mentioned by the argument of Simon Dedalus that Catholic church had betrayed them and is seemed that they have too much gods in Ireland . Joyce has used Stephen as a mouthpiece to construct the idea of religion before us . In the begining of A Portrait ,Stephen's emotional and spiritual identity are build up by the religion .In his childhood he claims the intelectual authority of the church "Father Arnall knew more than Dante because he was a priest” (A Portrait 6). His first development is seen through the disclosing of downfall of Parnell by the Catholic clergy ,but still he is unable to bring relationship between religion and politics .Next the losing of confidence in the priesthood is developed by the punishment he recieved from Father Dollan .Afterwards his physical desire seperate him from the life around and from the the religion which shaped his identity. Stephen says to Cranly that he believed in religion in school but he has lost faith in it now “This race and this country and this life produced me ….. I shall express myself as I am” (A Portrait ,156) .
In Ulysses, there is no portraying of religious values and there is only the "exhibitionism" of religion ,as term used by Edward J.Ahearn . This work of Joyce degraded all the human values . Ironically Molly and Gertie are compared to Marry Virgin .In the case of Gertie " if there was one thing of all the things that Gertie knew it was the man who lifts his hand to a woman save in the way of kindness deserve to be branded as the lowest of the low " (Ulysses). She thinks of herself as many men aspire her as they aspire Marry Virgin .Gertie ironically presents her religious being as she is called as "spiritual" woman of modern world . She demaralizes the true spirituality "The waxen parlor of her face .............ivory like purity........her hands were as white as lemon juice ........." (ulysses) , she also admired the wax like hands of the priest .Gertie flushes the colour of rose when she thinks Bloom is around her ,on the other hand Bloom compares Molly to the Rose and calls "flower of mountain" .Virgin Marry is called as the "mystical Rose" which is the symbol of pure physical beauty . The characterization of Bloom by the citizens " a woolf in sheeps clothing" creats a satire on the judiac religion which shows that not only christianty comes under the attack of writer but the idea of religion over all .It is also seen with the characterization of Leopold Bloom an Irish Jew who has converted to Christianity without fully disavowing his Judaism. This idea of religion contributes towards the enimity and prejudice againts Bloom and in the chapter "cyclopes" Bloom is set as an alienated figure by the society .
Both A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses, states Joyce feelings about religious orthodoxy with a famous phrase: “I will not serve.”But these words, like so much of Joyce's best imagery, take their force from theological tradition—“I will not serve” refers to the Biblical incident of Satan's rejection of God. Notably, when Stephen makes this statement near the end of Portrait of the Artist, he speaks in English rather than Latin .Beyond the textual influence of religious implications in Ulysses Joyce also engages religious identities and beliefs as a social and political problem in modern Ireland. Joyce uses the experience of Bloom to identify an alternative to the nativist ideas of Irish identity, which tend to emphasize racial purity that bears little resemblance to the problems besetting Ireland.
"The treatment of sexuality was of the utmost importance to Joyce’s creativity and at the heart of what his fiction might be trying to investigate" (Brown, 1985, p. 1). Through his work ,Joyce defines his attiotude towards love ,marriage ,modern science of sexuality and women . A prtrait of an artist as a young man describes Stephens falling in and out of love and teeange messing around with prostitiutes .And on the other hand same is the case with Ulysses as it deals with the extramarital attaractions and aldultrous dallinces .for this very reason he is called as new "womanly" man by richard rowan .he was very sensitive to human emotions than the traditional males are .
The omnipresence of sexuality leads the reader through the novel as a central theme. In ulysses the character of Gerty MacDowell and Molly Bloom in James Joyce represent largely his treatment of sexuality. these two characters are sterteotype in female sexuality .from the title it is also suggested the odyesseus journey to penelope : a quest symbolising idealization of woman ."Homeric parallels in Ulysses establish its central theme as the human sexual relationship and its ramification for man's place in reality "(Edward J.Ahearn,1961,pp139). In Ulysses women are reffered as "prime sausage" "beef to the heel" and man is presented as animal "well cocks and lions do the same and stags" .All the animalistic qualities of sexual behaviour are present due to loss of religion in them .The concept of women has given way to the animality of sexual intrigue in men .Stephen parody the language of Genesis "unclean lions, of man's flesh made not in god's likness ,the serpents prey". The two central woman characters in the novel Molly and Gertie are presented as stereotypes of female sexuality.
Molly Bloom’s four-ò-clock date with Hugh Boylan gives Leopold Bloom’s day a certain structure, “Funny my watch stopped at half past four” 1 (U 353) and “He’s coming in the afternoon” (U 89) refer towards Molly’s date with Boylan and therefore her affair with another man. Molly is shown as animalistic and perform sexual acts "like the dogs do it " ,her sexuality is compared to that of animal .Molly Bloom’s sexuality is very different from Gerty’s but is similarly vulnerable . "Molly is an unashamedly sexual character and is not in danger of being labeled frivolously romantic or trampled and male-identified the way Gerty can be, but her sexuality is prone to judgmental dismissal as crude, wanton, and immoral."(Sondergard ,p5)
Leopold Bloom has not slept with his wife Molly Bloom since the death of their son Rudy, which is more than a decade ago. Therefore Bloom is unsure of himself and unsuccessful in having sex with his wife. As an alternative he seeks for little ‘erotic adventures’ in his everyday life. At the butcher’s shop he hopes to get a glance at a woman’s bottom: “To catch up and walk behind her if she went slowly, behind her moving hams. Pleasant to see first thing in the morning” (Ulysses, 57). In another passage Bloom watches a good-looking lady on the street while he is talking to McCoy (“Watch! Watch! Silk flash rich stockings white. Watch!”, Ulysses, 71), until suddenly a tramcar passes by and blocks his view. The story is full of those little incidents, which are an alternative to Bloom’s former sex-life with Molly. Remembering an intimate moment with his wife Leopold Bloom notices a difference between himself 10 years ago and himself then: “Me. And me now.” (Ulysses, 168). He in a way pities himself and longs for physical affection, which he compensates with masturbation. Gerty MacDowell suffers from male sexual dominance ,over romanticism which makes her to demoralize the true meaning of "physical beauty" .
Young Stephen first romantic interest in the opposite sex in A Portrait comes in the form of his playmate, Eileen, whom he plans to marry when they are older. This assertion is nonetheless the first suggestion that sexual and romantic relationships with women will be important to Stephen as he matures. The appearance of romance and inspiration at such an early point in the novel creates a sense of the interconnected effect they will have on Stephen and his art. Throughout his childhood sexual intrigue contribute to Stephen's development as an artist. Eileen, for example, indirectly leads Stephen to the conclusion that "by thinking of things you could understand them" ( A Portrait,287). She represents a new step in his relationship with women, in that her physical presence is not required to inspire Stephen's imagination. Her image alone has a profound effect on him .The female image comes to have a deeper significance for him, as does the sexual act to which it is tied .Stephen receives the sexual experience he so desires and confirms his premonition that women can transfer experience to him through sex.The key to understanding the relationship between women, sex, experience, and creation lies in Stephen's association of himself with his mythological namesake, Daedalus. By establishing a link between himself and the ancient inventor, he makes apparent the parallel elements of their two stories -- punishment, falling, women -- and their relationship to his own artistic creation.
Women and sexuality in Joyce's mind are the channels through which strength, boldness and experience can be obtained. Joyce cannot create art without the inspiration of a real-life incident. He would prefered that his experiences have fruitful, rather than frustrating, outcomes however, he is unable to actively obtain such a goal. , he is emasculate, lacking both the strength and boldness to initiate a sexual encounter .
It is clear from the title of the novel “Portrait of a artist as a young man” that it is a journey of a man to become an artist but still there is some confusion and uncertainty so ultimately it is a search for a true identity. The hero of the novel somehow believes that the good destiny is waiting for him but he faces many difficulties to find that where this exist. It was the time of revolution and when he think of the society a question regarding value of Irish national identity in the country always come in his mind. “When a man is born...there are nets flung at it to hold it back from flight. You talk to me of nationality, language, religion. I shall try to fly by those nets.”(Portrait of an artist as a young man) In “Ulysses” there is also national identity problem with the protagonist Leopold Bloom, his position is very uncertain in the novel as a Irish Hungarian Jew. Because of his multi-faced identity and especially due to his jewishness he was considered as an outsider. Dubliner his fellow also doubts that is he even an Irish. There is a scene when citizen through empty tin of biscuits on Bloom then he say to them “Mendelssohn was a jew and Karl Marx and Mercadante and Spinoza. And the Saviour was a jew and his father was a jew. Your God". (Ulysses p. 444-5 - Chapter Two Episode Twelve 'The Cyclops') In portrait of an artist as a young man when Stephen was not an independent adult he had to struggle for his identity. When he decides to become an artist he has to make his identity over there also and he has to transform his artistic skills and has to transform his intellect as well. For Stephen it has been a journey of identity because he moves from child to sinner, sinner to Catholic, Catholic to artist. On the other hand in “Ulysses” Bloom also has multi-identity face because he do many jobs like he works as an ad canvasser for the newspaper The Freeman’s Journal, but he’s had other odd jobs throughout his life. He spends the day of June 16 wandering around Dublin: going to a funeral, checking in at the office, visiting the National Library, walking on the beach. He’s a deeply human and compassionate character. Stephen in Portrait of an artist as a young man think that it is Catholicism in an attempt to impose an external system of order on his life, and thus hopes to resolve the confusion of his home life, identity, and lack of purpose. Stephen’s identity in “Ulysses” is not a religious one. But the truth is that he was actually more under attack by religious questions than most of the Dubliners that line up for Church every Sunday. The problem of religion was even more complex in 1904 Dublin because different religions sometimes broke down along political lines most of the Irish nationalists were Catholics, and most of those who favored union with England were Protestants. Religion, like patriotism, is both an obsession and a danger in the novel; it has enormous value. In “Portrait of an artist as a young man” Joyce sees and represents the complex sense of historical forces, social institutions, culture, religion and politics as influencing obviously the behavior and perception of individual in society. He observes culture, politics and religion as irrational and brutal organisms, which crush and destroy the qualities of the private world such as love, sympathy, warm relations and art. Through the views of Stephen, therefore, joyce criticizes the “nets” of the late nineteenth-century Irish society since these “nets” produces not only human identity, but they also prevent individuals from expressing themselves freely. Stephen thus rejects what shape and limit his perception and life in the traditional Irish society, so that he moves constantly from one perception to another for “a new sense” or “a new wild life” in the process of re-constructing and re-working his own identity. In a Portrait Joyce may be suggested as a modernist writer explores the arbitrary representation of reality and life, the conflict between social values and human desire for transcendence and the tension between fix identity and the unstable self.
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