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Running Head: JAMES REASON'S SWISS CHEESE THEORY









James Reason's Swiss Cheese Theory
[Name of the Writer]
[Name of the Institution]
James Reason's Swiss Cheese Theory

Introduction
The model of Swiss cheese is a model of accident causation which is used risk management and its analysis in system of healthcare, aviation, and engineering. Swiss Cheeses Model compares human system to Swiss cheese slices. The slices are piled together with one another. Basically it was founded in 1990, by James T. Reason, a British psychologist of University of Manchester. The model gained wide acceptance and has been used by healthcare industry, emergency services organizations, aviation industry, and safety industry since it was developed. It is also known as cumulative act effect.
According to a survey, in most of the cases, there can be four levels of failure for an accident: unsafe supervision, unsafe act of themselves, organizational influence, and preconditions for unsafe acts. James T. Reason, in his Swiss Cheese Model developed defenses of organization against the failure and represented barriers as slices of Swiss cheese. And individual weaknesses are shown by the holes in the slices as part of the system, and all holes are different in position and sizes in those slices. The failure of the system occurs when holes in slices simultaneously align in aggregate, giving permission, as James Reason's said “a trajectory of accident opportunity", so that in all the defenses, jeopardy passes through all holes, which causes failure.

Discussion
The theory of James T. Reason involves mathematical analysis and is complicated and also involves underlying and active failures. Swiss cheese model applies here in the way that I can do to prevent the Swiss cheese presenting on training floor. It means as a healthcare administrator I have to prevent…...

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