Aboriginal

In: Other Topics

Submitted By faaaagotme
Words 758
Pages 4
THE IMPACTS ON ABORIGINAL PEOPLE AFTER THE FIRST FLEET ARRIVED

European settlement had a severe and devastating impact on Indigenous people. Their dispossession of the land, exposure to new diseases and involvement in violent conflict, resulted in the death of a vast number of the Aboriginal peoples. The small percentage of Aboriginal people who did not die during these early decades of the colony, were not unaffected. The impact of the white settlers changed their lives, and the lives of future generations, forever.

It is believed that at least 750 000 Aboriginal people were living in Australia at the time of Captain Cook's arrival. These people were divided into around 600 different tribes and had hundreds of different languages. Archaeological evidence suggests that the ancestors of the modern Indigenous people of Australia migrated to the continent more than 50 000 years ago. Isolated from external influences, the Aboriginal peoples developed their own way of life, in accordance with their religious and spiritual beliefs of the Dreamtime.

Despite knowing of the existence of these peoples, the British considered the Australian continent to be a terra nullius under English law. Terra nullius is a Latin term meaning 'land belonging to no one.' Eight years later, the British went ahead with their plans to establish a penal colony in New South Wales. On 26 January 1788, the First Fleet, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in Sydney Cove.

The dispossession of Aboriginal peoples from their land resulted in a drastic decline in their population. While many Aboriginal people were killed in violent clashes over the rights to settle on the land, a vast number also died from malnourishment. Since they were unable to access clean water or an adequate and nutritious supply of food, this made them more susceptible to fatal diseases.

The repercussions of Aboriginal…...

Similar Documents

Aboriginal

...Being different isn’t what any one wants. Being different was a life of hard work, emotional stress, and sadness. Being different seemed to make you feel lesser a human than the man across the street. Between the period of federation to 1965, Australia, experienced an event that to some is inhuman. To be different ladies and gentlemen was to be Aboriginal. Whether you were full-blood or half-caste, there was no difference. You were still different from everybody else. Everybody else seemed to have different privileges to you. They were allowed to do things you weren’t allowed to. They were allowed to boss you around and tell you what to do. They made your decisions for your own good. Why, because you were different. Throughout the early 1900, protectionism and paternalism was enforced in hope of helping the aboriginal race from hurting themselves. However the consequences of these actions were disastrous. Children taken away from homes, aboriginals used as domestic servants, and the right to live their lives the way they want, was no where to be seen. The aboriginals lived in terrible conditions; they were given insufficient water and food rations and not enough sanitation facilities. Not only that the accesses to facilities like pubs, cafes and swimming pools were all denied to aboriginal people. Charles Perkins was an organiser for the freedom rides. He got university students on a bus trip to see if they could help. They named them selves the SAFA, the student...

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Aboriginal Art

...Question Aboriginal music (which includes song, dance and design) is uniquely connected to the creative life-force of the dreaming and according to Magowan (2011, p.43) ‘stories are often told in song as a means of making sense of the world and everything in it. Consider the role of music, story, art and ceremony and discuss their significance for social knowledge’s and education within Aboriginal communities. Aboriginal people have a deep spiritual connection to their country and to the creative life force of the Dreaming. Aboriginal people maintain their system of beliefs, law and culture through a variety of forms including music, stories, art and ceremony. Each of these forms enables Aboriginal people to make sense of the world and everything in it. Throughout this essay the role of music, story, art and ceremony will be discussed with reference to their significance for social knowledge and education for aboriginal communities. However, to understand the variety of forms that Aboriginal people engage in it is vital to have an understanding of the Dreaming which permeates through song, dance, stories, panting and social systems and is central to the existence of Aboriginal people, their lifestyle and culture. The Dreaming The Dreaming is a creative time in which spirit beings emerged from a pre-existent but lifeless substance for example water or land and travelled across the earth in a variety of forms including animals, plants and humans (Edwards 1998, p.17...

Words: 2305 - Pages: 10

Aboriginal Essay

... educated and trained, so that they could be sent into white communities to work. The children who were sent away were often exploited for their labour, getting paid almost nothing and being fed scraps (Lavarch, 1997). The children had no choice but to work and when their terms of employment were up, they were made to return. Lavarch (1997) states that the physical infrastructures of missions and institutions were often kept in very poor standards. Children slept in filthy confinements, they were not given fresh clothing or food and there was never any sense of love. The majority of the forcibly removed children often suffered long term physical and psychological effects. The settlements intended to provide a long term benefit to the Indigenous community, however, their actions toward Indigenous Australians have caused a majority of the population to have long term physical and psychological problems. Children that were forcibly removed were confined to institutions such as Moore River. The children were often never allowed see family or speak their native language and in many cases were punished for doing so (Lavarch, 1997). Beresford (2006) states that such practices “produce life long struggles with identity, and lead to deep uncertainty about...bonds with...natural family”(p.34). Lavarch (1997) suggests that the effects of being forcibly removed and institutionalized as children has persisted into adulthood, appearing to be life long in most individuals. In......

Words: 546 - Pages: 3

Aboriginal

... THE IMPACTS ON ABORIGINAL PEOPLE AFTER THE FIRST FLEET ARRIVED European settlement had a severe and devastating impact on Indigenous people. Their dispossession of the land, exposure to new diseases and involvement in violent conflict, resulted in the death of a vast number of the Aboriginal peoples. The small percentage of Aboriginal people who did not die during these early decades of the colony, were not unaffected. The impact of the white settlers changed their lives, and the lives of future generations, forever. It is believed that at least 750 000 Aboriginal people were living in Australia at the time of Captain Cook's arrival. These people were divided into around 600 different tribes and had hundreds of different languages. Archaeological evidence suggests that the ancestors of the modern Indigenous people of Australia migrated to the continent more than 50 000 years ago. Isolated from external influences, the Aboriginal peoples developed their own way of life, in accordance with their religious and spiritual beliefs of the Dreamtime. Despite knowing of the existence of these peoples, the British considered the Australian continent to be a terra nullius under English law. Terra nullius is a Latin term meaning 'land belonging to no one.' Eight years later, the British went ahead with their plans to establish a penal colony in New South Wales. On 26 January 1788, the First Fleet, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in Sydney Cove. The dispossession of...

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Aboriginal People

...Aboriginal people • Aboriginal people are four times more likely to be living in crowded housing than non-Aboriginal Canadians. • Life expectancies of Aboriginal peoples are five to 14 years less than the Canadian population, with Inuit men and women showing the shortest lives. • Infant mortality rates are 1.5 to four times greater among Aboriginal Canadians than the overall Canadian rate. • Rate of numerous infectious and chronic diseases are much higher in the Aboriginal population than the non-Aboriginal Canadian population. • Suicide rate are 5 to 6 times higher. • Aboriginal peoples have high rates of major depression, 18% of the total Aboriginal peoples • 27% of them have problems with alcohol • 34% of them have sexual abuse during childhood. • Canada was one of four nations to vote against the adoption of the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which include the improving economic and social conditions, the right to attain the highest levels of health, and the right to protect and conserve their environments. Policy Implications • In 1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples made a number of recommendations, virtually all of which have not been implemented. 1. Recognition of an Aboriginal order of government with authority over matters related to the good government and welfare of Aboriginal people and their territories. 2. Replacement of the federal Department of Indian Affairs with two departments, one to implement a new......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Aboriginal

...Life expectancy is not consistent across populations within Australia. An issue of particular public interest is that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have a much lower life expectancy than the general Australian population. Indigenous Australians born in the period 1996-2001 are estimated to have a life expectancy at birth of 59.4 years for males, and 64.8 years for females. This is approximately 16-17 years less than the overall Australian population born over the same period. (AIWH, 2011) The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011) has identified narrowing this differential in life expectancy as a priority in health policy. Primary health care is based on the central premise that prevention is better than cure. The primary health care sector is the most vital in early detection of disease and its risk factors, and preventing disease complications, thus minimizing the cost of health care provisions downstream. (Couzos & Murray, 2008, p29) Sutherland and St George Hospitals are working hard with the local Aboriginal community to promote and improve the health of Indigenous people. The Aboriginal Early Childhood Service – operating out of Menai – is available to mothers (Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal) of Aboriginal children from birth to five years of age. The service announced, by Maxine Brennan (2011) is called Narrangy-Booris, meaning ‘Little Children’ in the local Dharawal language. Since the commencement of the service 12 months ago...

Words: 2403 - Pages: 10

Aboriginal

...Museum Visit Paper Through the visit of The First Peoples Collection of the McCord Museum, many Indigenous clothing, ornaments and pictures serve as elements to complete class lectures. For instance, the Raven Rattle is a good example showing the respect that Aboriginal people have toward the spirit of the animals. In their culture, animals contributed to the world creation and ensured the survival of human (Aboriginal Worldviews). Another concept which enhance class lecture is the symbol of circle. Many pieces of art feature the inclusion of the circle. In fact, the circle is a sacred symbol of the cycle of life. It suggests connection and interdependence of all form of life. Moreover, the concept of renewal and revitalization can be found in many Indigenous clothing. After being exposed to Western culture, the Aboriginal people combined their tradition clothing forms with the Western techniques and styles. This combination shows the respect and recognition that Aboriginal people have for Western culture. During the visit of The First Peoples Collection, one of the most interesting elements would be that each items have a unique function and spiritual signification. The questions arising after the visit are: What happens if an Aboriginal individual do not respect the spirit world? Does hierarchy exists within Aboriginal society? In the exhibition, the equipments for hunting, fishing, and travelling seem to be missing. Moreover, war equipments are absent as well...

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Aboriginal Rights

...Changing rights and freedoms and human wellbeing By Yasmin Hayward On Australia Day’s 150th anniversary, in 1938, William Cooper, a member of the Aboriginal Progressive Association, declared the day a “Day of Mourning”, alluding to the annual re-enactment of Phillip’s landing. Aboriginal people call it ‘Invasion Day’, ‘Day of Mourning’, ‘Survival Day’ or, since 2006, ‘Aboriginal Sovereignty Day’. The latter name reflects that all Aboriginal nations are sovereign and should be united in the continuous fight for their rights. Aboriginal people refused to participate in the re-enactment because it included chasing away a party of Aboriginal people. “I refuse to celebrate, and every Australia Day my heart is broken as I am reminded that in the eyes of many, I am not welcome on my own land.” —Nakkiah Lui, Aboriginal woman “We won't stop, we won't go away / We won't celebrate Invasion Day!”—Chant during protests on Australia Day 2012 “January 26th marked the beginning of the murders, the rapes and the dispossession. It is no date to celebrate”—Michael Mansell, National Aboriginal The Day of Mourning Speech. The Aboriginal perspective of Australia day was that is was not a celebration Aboriginal people but in fact a commemoration of a deep loss. The issues outlined in the Day of Mourning speeches in 1937 led by three Aboriginal men were for the Aboriginal people to be able to access the same citizenship rights as those of white-Australians. This included their land being...

Words: 1467 - Pages: 6

Aboriginal Review

...Copyright © eContent Management Pty Ltd. Contemporary Nurse (2007) 24: 33–44. Telling stories: Nurses, politics and Aboriginal Australians, circa 1900–1980s ABSTRACT The focus of this paper is stories by, and about (mainly non-Aboriginal) Registered Nurses working in hospitals and clinics in remote areas of Australia from the early 1900s to the 1980s as they came into contact with, or cared for, Aboriginal people. Government policies that controlled and regulated Aboriginal Australians provide the context for these stories. Memoirs and other contemporary sources reveal the ways in which government policies in different eras influenced nurse’s attitudes and clinical practice in relation to Aboriginal people, and helped institutionalise racism in health care. Up until the 1970s, most nurses in this study unquestioningly accepted firstly segregation, then assimilation policies and their underlying paternalistic ideologies, and incorporated them into their practice. The quite marked politicisation of Aboriginal issues in the 1970s in Australia and the move towards selfdetermination for Aboriginal people politicised many – but not all – nurses. For the first time, many nurses engaged in a robust critique of government policies and what this meant for their practice and for Aboriginal health. Other nurses, however, continued as they had before – neither questioning prevailing policy nor its effects on their practice. It is argued that only by understanding and confronting...

Words: 7343 - Pages: 30

Aboriginal Issues

...Aboriginal Issues Essay As I read the articles about the aboriginal people what stood out to me and impressed me the most was the over representation of Aboriginal people in our Canadian prison system. A shocking statistic that I read was that 2.8% of the Canadian population is Aboriginal but they account for 18% of our federal prison inmates. Aboriginal people have been faced with so many historic inequities such as being forced to move to reserves with almost none of the basic infrastructures needed to run a functioning society. Having their children taken from their families and put in abusive residential schools, being forced to learn and live by a foreign culture and beliefs as well as being faced with racial discrimination and having their rights ignored. Due to the history of injustice and discrimination aboriginal people have experienced higher unemployment rates and lower incomes leading to lives of poverty, substance abuse, and family violence. I think that the residential schools play a big role in the problems some of the Aboriginal people faced because when they took young children who had learned only a small amount of their families cultures and tried to teach them western cultures and beliefs. As well some of the children were sexually traumatized and beaten, which likely caused a lot of confusion and difficulties growing up. In my opinion because of all the injustice in the past there is a huge lack of trust that the aboriginal people have with the...

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Aboriginal Resistance

...The years 1788-1850 saw the much debated Aboriginal resistance to white settlement most commonly known as the ‘Australian Frontier Warfare’. It is important not to imply the traditional definitions of warfare in the western world to that of the Aboriginal warfare. Aborigines were not resisting white settlement for economic or political reasons and their non-hierarchical society meant it impossible to unite against the British invasion. It has been documented that initial encounters between these two groups were relatively peaceful. The Aborigines viewed the British as enemies with whom accommodation was possible. It is clearly apparent now to understand the inevitability of these two vastly different cultures trying to live together as one ending in violence. With such different beliefs as to the use of land, water, animals and women and the declaration of terra nullis we can start to explore the events that led up to and continuing through the Aboriginal resistance. The more significant events that occurred were that of The Hawkesbury-Nepean River 1795-1816, The Cape Grim Massacre, Van Diemen’s Land and the Hornet Creek Massacre in 1857. The declaration of Terra Nullis being ordered in Australia caused a rippling affect although not felt straight away. ” A land that until its settlement in 1788 lacked human habitation, law, government or history.” The British saw the land as theirs for the taking as it had not been subject to houses, villages, crops, domesticated...

Words: 1466 - Pages: 6

Aboriginal People

... these issues, they are directly affected by all the inequitable events happening in their territories. Large mining corporations and pipeline construction companies are also stakeholders in some of these issues because they are reasons why many Indigenous people are forced to relocate. They are businesses that work towards making profit rather than looking out for the well being of the residents of the places they take over. The government is also a stakeholder. The laws, which were constitutionalized by the government, encourage inequitable treatment of Indigenous people. Although many of these laws and restrictions were passed down from several years before, there are not many amendments to the law that give the Indigenous people equal rights. References 8 key issues for Aboriginal people in Canada. (2012, September 10). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.ictinc.ca/blog/8-key-issues-for-aboriginal-people-in-canada Access to Health as a Social Determinant of First Nations, Inuit and Métis Health. (2011, January 1). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.nccah-ccnsa.ca/docs/fact sheets/social determinates/Access to Health Services_Eng 2010.pdf Duenas, E. (2014, January 27). 5 Problems Facing the Aboriginal People of Canada. Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.care2.com/causes/5-problems-facing-the-aboriginal-people-of-canada.html No More Stolen Sisters. (2014, January 1). Retrieved November 28, 2014, from......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Aboriginal Spirituality

...The Arctic Aboriginal Culture Group in Canada The Arctic Aboriginals are also known as the Inuit peoples. Originally they were referred to as the Eskimos, which is the Native American word for “eater of raw meat.” The Inuit were the last of the native peoples to arrive in North America. They were unable to settle in the south where the land was fertile, because it was inhabited by hostile peoples and were therefore forced to settle in the Arctic. The land in the Arctic was left inhabited because the climate there is extremely harsh and the winters are hard to survive in. Fortunately, the Inuit were able to adapt to the cold winters and harsh conditions. The Inuit have a unique culture from other First Nations peoples in Canada. The Canadian Inuit were split up into eight main groups: Labrador Inuit, Ungava, Baffin Island, Igloolik, Caribou, Netsilik, Copper and Western Arctic Inuit. The Inuits believed in animism, which is the belief that all living and non-living things have a spirit and a soul. They believed that when a spirit died it continued to live in a different world- the spirit world. The only people who had the power to control the spirits were powerful religious leaders called the Shamans. To communicate with those in the spirit world Shamans used charms and dances. Masks were thought to have powers that allowed the Shamans to communicate with the spirits and the Shamans wore them while performing rituals. To please the spirits the Shamans would offer gifts...

Words: 813 - Pages: 4

Aboriginal Resistance

...The European invasion of Australia in 1770 was the beginning of a series of events and imposed policies that would change the way of life for Aboriginal people forever. When settlers first arrived on the shores of what is now called Botany Bay, they failed to see a people of rich culture, with an intricate kinship system and highly developed system of customary law. Instead they set out to degrade Aboriginal cultures and deny the existence of custodial ownership of the land (Newbury, 1999, p. 25). Over the next two hundred years, the government would introduce a number of policies that would continue this destructive ideal and aim to control Indigenous people, including their culture, beliefs and movements across the country. Although these policies had a major effect on Indigenous people there are many stories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people resisting the European invasion. Captain James Cook landed on the east coast of Australia, specifically in Botany Bay, home of the Eora people and claimed possession under the doctrine of ‘terra nullius’. British law at the time stated that Britain could only take possession of another country if it was not inhabited or through negotiation or war. The British ignored these laws, invading and settling on Aboriginal land (NSW Education and Communities, 2013, para. 1). British settlers went about removing trees, reducing availability of food and other resources, brought in livestock which contaminated the waterways...

Words: 1662 - Pages: 7

Aboriginal Artwork

...Aboriginal artwork is one of the oldest forms of artwork. Ancient pictographs and rock drawings dating back to 40,000 - 60,000 years have been uncovered at ancient campsites belonging to First Nation tribes. People of the Aboriginal community have relied on elders and pictures for millenniums as a method of storytelling in replacement of writing, however artwork was, and still is, integrated into ancient and modern day First Nation Tribes. Body painting has a very spiritual meaning for Indigenous peoples. In the past, when First Nation individuals created body art, it represented their social position and their relations to their family and friend groups. During their ceremonial dances, many Aboriginal people’s appearance would completely change in efforts to transform and ‘become’ the spirit ancestor they are portraying in their dance. In many clans, young boys’ and men's bodies are painted on the arms, chest and torso in tones similar to those of the earth, including beige, brown, yellow, rusty red, and black. The main reason for the more-so earthy tones is to showcase the strong relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the environment. A lot of the Aboriginal artwork that we see in our area is artwork from First Nations people of the Northwest Coast region. The artwork is characterized by the oval shapes used - such as ‘S’ and ‘U’. The colours are fairly consistent with those of other artwork in different areas, using black, red, white and sometimes yellow to......

Words: 348 - Pages: 2