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About Dam

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Submitted By mifna
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Pendahuluan Sebagai mahasiswa fakultas teknik sipil dan lingkungan, semua yang telah kita pelajari selama di kampus, akan diterapkan pengaplikasiannya secara langsung di lapangan. Kita dituntut untuk tidak hanya bisa dalam teorinya saja, tapi diharapkan mengerti juga dalam pengaplikasiannya. Dalam kegiatan di lapangan kita akan melihat langsung keadaan alam yang akan kita survey nantinya. Kegiatan Ekskursi Lapangan ini merupakan serangkaian kegiatan dari semua yang telah kita pelajari beberapa bulan dari mata kuliah pengantar rekayasa dan desain. Dari mulai kami belajar bagaimana cara menghitung bendungan hingga dampaknya terhadap lingkungan. Di lapangan, tepatnya di bendungan Jatigede kami akan melakukan kegiatan-kegiatan tersebut, melakukan observasi/survey, serta pengambilan data-data di lapangan yang nantinya akan kami olah data tersebut. Maksud dan Tujuan Kegiatan Ekskursi Lapangan yang telah kami lakukan ini dimaksudkan agar seluruh mahasiswa dapat mengetahui dan merasakan bagaimana keadaan di lapangan. Selain itu diharapkan dapat memberikan wawasan dan pengetahuan mengenai seluruh kegiatan di lapangan. Adapun beberapa tujuan dari ekskursi lapangan ini diantaranya : * Dapat mengetahui apa saja aspek yang harus diperhatikan dalam pembangunan bendungan * Mendapatkan gambaran teknis bagaimana kondisi lapangan

Lokasi

Pada kegiatan ekskursi lapangan dilakukan di proyek pembangunan Jatigede,Kabupaten Sumedang, Propinsi Jawa Barat, dilaksanakan pada Sabtu, 9 November 2013. Untuk mencapai lokasi, kami menggunakan bis selama + 4jam perjalanan.

Data Laporan
Selama kami di Jatigede kami mendapatkan banyak informasi dari bapak pemandu yang bertugas disana. Berikut adalah informasi yang kami dapatkan dari bapak pemandu.

SPILLWAY
Saat meninjau spillway, sungai berada dibawah spillway yang tingginya kurang lebih 155m dari sungai. 37 m dipergunakan untuk pondasi dasar bendungan. Di samping spillway, terdapat timbunan yang terbuat dari batu, tanah liat dan pasir yang dipergunakan untuk penyaringan permeabilitas air sungai. Pada mulanya , air sungai berasal dari kiri, namun karena akan dibangun bendungan, air sungai dibelokkan ke tunnel tetapi tetap diarahkan ke sungai yang lama. Ada cara lain selain menggunakan tunnel pada saat pengalihan air sungai , yaitu menggunakan open channel. Namun biaya yang diperlukan sangat tinggi apabila menggunakan open channel. Terlebih lagi bukit disekitar sungai tidak terlalu tinggi sehingga memakai tunnelpun sudah cukup. Spillway dipergunakan untuk melimpahkan air pada elevasi tertentu karena apabila ditahan seluruhnya air akan meluap . apabila ait pada bendungan sudah tertimbun penuh maka dapat menyebabkan collapsenya bendungan. Spillway sangat berguna.pada saat kemarau karena dapat menahan air.pada bendungan tersebut terdapat deep storage yang berguna untuk menyimpan sedimen. Sedimen mulai terendapkan di deep storage sejak awal sehingga umurnya sama dengan umur bendungan. Fungsi bendungan Jatigede ini dibuat untuk menyeimbangkan debitt air yang selama ini tidak merata di sekitar daerah dan desa dekat proyek pembangunan Jatigede. Air disekitar bendungan Jatigede ini sangat berpotensi karena 2,5 miliar debit air biasa mengalir . untuk memanfaatkannya, bendungan disini menahan 1 miliar debit air. Karena akan ada 1,5 miliar debit air yang akan terbuang, maka dibangun bendungan lagi disekitar bendungan tersebut agar dapat menampung jumlah debit air se maksimal mungkin. Seperti bendungan kadumalik yaitu bendungan kecil yang membantu bendungan ber-spillway ini dengan menampung. 400 jt meter kubik air yang mengalir. Untuk setiap sungai di Indonesia, seharusnya ada masterplan dengan jangka waktu tiap 20 tahunan seperti rencana kerja untuk memenuhi kebutuhan penduduk. Kementrian pekerjaan umum membuat masterplan sungai Jatigede untuk air dan irigasi. PT PLN pun turut bekerjasama dengan kementrian pekerjaan umum untuk memanfaatkan sungai tersebut tetapi untuk orientasi yang berbeda yaitu untuk pembangkit listrik. Sebetulnya, selama membuat masterplan dan mengikuti masterplan kebutuhan air di Indonesia dapat dipenuhi, tetapi karena kurangnya kesadaran maka masih banyak daerah di Indonesia yang mengalami kekeringan. Masterplan untuk bendungan Jatiede ini adalah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air masyarakat sekitar karena disekitar Jatigede sangat sulit untuk mencari air pada musim kemarau. Pintu spillway dibagi empat agar lebih mudah dalam pengoperasiannya. Sebetulnya hanya 3 pintu yang dibutuhkan, tetapi dibuat satu pintu lagi untuk emergency fungsi utama tiga pintu tersebut adalah untuk pengendalian banjir.terdapat pintu terowongan kecil dibawah pintu utama yang berguna untuk pemenuhan air masyarakat dan untuk irigasi. KONDISI TEROWONGAN KECIL YANG BERGUNA UNTUK ALIRAN IRIGASI
Untuk mengurangi daya tekan air yang sangat besar sehingga dapat menyebabkan collapsenya bendungan, maka dibuat drainase tunnel untuk mengurangi tekanan,serta dibuat sumur resapan. Terdapat bronjong yaitu bongkahan batu batu besar yang dibungkus dengan kawat dan berguna untuk menahan longsoran. Apabila bendungan ini telah terisi air, maka bendungan ini akan menggenangi 5000 hektar, yaitu kurang lebih 5 kecamatan. Pada 1 Mei 2014 rencanaya air akan ditahan dan akan dilakukan penggenangan.

KONDISI TUNNEL
Pada saat melaksanakan pembangunan, tidak semua berjalan lurus. Banyak problem yang terjadi pada saat pembangungan. Problem diantaranya adalah problem terhadap lingkungan seperti erosi, dan problem terhadap masyarakat. Contoh problem masyarakat adalah ketika ingin membeli lahan atau tanah masyarakat untuk pembangunan, banyak masyarakat yang tidak mengizinkan serta karena perencanaan pembangunan waduk ini sudah berlangsung lebih dari 30 tahun, maka kepemilikan tanah masyarakat berubah sehingga ketika sudah membayar tanah pada pemilik tanah yang dahulu, ketika penggantian kepemilikan tanah, pemilik yang baru juga meminta uang penggantian tanah. Selain itu, tidak mudah untuk memindahkan banyak orang (yaitu berasal dari lima kecamatan). Pembangunan bendungan ini memotong satu sungai yaitu sungai Cimanuk hulunya di Garut dan berakhir di Indramayu. Panjang sungai ini adalah + 60km. selain untuk membuat irigasi, serta mencegah banjir, bendungan ini juga berguna untuk meningkatkan pendapatan sector pariwisata dan tempat untuk mengembangkan bibit ikan. Perencanaan pembangunan bendungan ini berlangsung sejak 1972 hingga 2007 . lamanya perencanaan pembangunan bendungan ini disebabkan oleh factor masyarakat serta sosial. Tunnel dibangun tidak terlalu tinggi karena tidak boleh melebihii lebar air sungai untuk menghasilkan energy maksimum. Didekat tunnel sedang digali tanah dengan bor untuk nantinya tanah yang telah dibolongi oleh bor akan ditanam semacam penahan untuk mencegah longsor.
Jenis batu yang terdapat di dasar waduk adalah batu lempung dan batu pasir. Batu batu tersebut terbukti water resistant. Maksudnya adalah batu batu tersebut tidak menyerap air sehingga bagus untuk dasar waduk.selain itu, didalam tubuh tunnel yang berbentuk terowongan pada dasarnya juga mengandung batu kuat sehingga dapat memperkecil erosi. Tunnel dibangun di palung sungai atau ditempat terdalam dari sungai.apabila telah terisi air, luas waduk adalah 4280 hektar dan besar bendungan adalah 2km kali 4km. Untuk mengoperasikan water way harus lewat dari elevasi 260 agar hasil maksimum. Terrdapat turbin sekitar 3,7 km dari tunnel.

DAERAH YANG AKAN DIGENANGI AIR

SUNGAI CIMANUK YANG AKAN MENGISI WADUK

KESIMPULAN
Bendungan Jatigede merupakan bendungan yang memotong sungai Cimanuk yang menghubungkan Garut dengan Indramayu dengan panjang 60km.bendungan yang sudah dibangun sejak 1972 dan memiliki luas waduk 4280 hektar ini sangat banyak manfaatnya , seperti untuk menahan banjir, meratakan penyebaran air, untuk irigasi, sector pariwisata, dan tempat pengembangbiakkan ikan. Pada saat pembangunan tidak berjalan lancar , terdapat beberapa kendala di aspek sosial dan masyarakat. Meskipun begitu, pembangunan hamper selesai dan pada Mei 2014 waduk ini akan mulai diisi air. Ada beberapa bagian dalam waduk yaitu bendungan atau spillway, tunnel, dan turbin.

LAPORAN HASIL EKSKURSI
BENDUNGAN JATIGEDE

MIFNA AULIA MUTIANISA
16613092
FTSL

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