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About Mongolia

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Submitted By hulana
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Mongolians start voting at the age of 18 with the voting process a direct, free election. A new constitution was adopted in January 1992 that made some changes in the government, one being the legislative power of Mongolia. The Great Hural, which consists of 76 members, is the legislative power, with the delegates being elected every four years like the head of state's term. The head of state is the president, who is elected to a four-year run in office. state power
The People's Great Hural, with it's 430 members, had the of Mongolia and usually met two times each year. Until 1990, the only legal political party in Mongolia was the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), which was a Communist Party. Things changed when an amendment to the constitution allowed for oppositional political parties. Another part of the amendment allowed for a government run by a president and the institution of the Small Hural, which had 53 members.
Compulsory education is available from ages 8 to 16, with almost 90% of the primary school age children attending in 1996. The attendance rate for secondary school was much lower at a little over 50% of the population attending. Institutions of higher learning had almost 40,000 attendees.
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party. In 2010 the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. The prime minister and most cabinet members are MPP members.

. Most Russians left the country following the withdrawal of economic aid and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Since 1990, as liberalization began, Buddhism has enjoyed a resurgence. About 4 million ethnic Mongols live outside Mongolia; about 3.4 million live in China, mainly in the Inner Mongolia
Location Completely landlocked between two large neighbours - Russian Federation and China. It was immeasurably bigger during the period of Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan. Until the 20th century Mongolia was twice its present size and included a large chunk of Siberia and Inner Mongolia (now controlled by China). Boundaries Remarkably long frontiers with the Russian Federation and China: 4,673 km with China and 3,485 km with the Russian Federation. The total length of its borders is 7.678 km.
Area Lying in the centre of the Asian continent, Mongolia covers an area of 1,566,5 sq.km. Vast country - nearly 3 times the size of France and more than 4 times the United Kingdom. Mongolia is the 6th largest country in Asia and the 18th largest in the world.
Altitude One of the highest countries in the world with one of Eurasia's highest capitals. Average altitude: 1,580m above sea level. Ulaanbaatar: 1,350m above sea level. The highest point is the Huiten peak (4,653m) in the west and the lowest is the Khokh Nuur lake depression in the east - a more 532m above sea-level.
Climate The high central Asian mountain ranges surrounding Mongolia on practically all sides form a formidable barrier against the humid masses of air mov ing from the Atlantic and the Pacific, thus establishing the dominance of a continental climate in Mongolia. The typical climatic features are sharp temperature fluctuations with the maximum annual amplitudes reaching 90C in Ulaanbaatar.Even the daily temperature may fluctuate by 20C-30C. The coldest month is January.
Ethnic Groups 85% Mongol, mostly Khalkha Mongol. Also 7% Turkie (mainly Kazakh). 4.6% Tungusic and 3.4% other groups. Four million Mongols live outside Mongolia.
Languages Mongolian Language is the First Language. Over 90% Khalkha Mongol (‘Mongolian Language’). The script is Cyrillic due to Russian influence but a switch back to traditional script has begin in Schools.Second Language Russian is spoken by many graduates, with many Mongolians formerly educated in Russia. English is replacing Russian as the second Language. German is spoken by many graduates, and a little Spanish and Franche is spoken. Chinese not widely inderstood except in border areas
Religion 94% Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism, also elements of Shamanism. 6% Muslim (mainly in the south-west).
Government of Mongolia Parliamentary type of Government, with President second in authority to state Great Hural (Parliament).
Independence 1921 final independence from China. 1990 Democratic reform and shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union.
Constitution 1960 and 1992, some revision 1996.
Administrative subdivisions 21 aimags (provinces), the capital city (Ulaanbaatar), including 3 autonomous cities (Darkhan, Erdenet and Choir).The aimags are subdivided into somons, or district of which there are 298. The biggest aimag is Umnugov which occupies an area of 165,000sq.km but due to its rigorous climatic conditions has the smallest population (only 42,400 people).
Mineral Output & Reserves Mongolia produces 15% of the world’s fluorite, and is a major exporter of copper and molybdenum. Gold mining is now significant. Substantial reserves exits of copper, molybdenum, iron, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, tungsten, fluorspar and gold.
Energy Output & Reserves Mongolia produces 5 million tonnes of coal (both hard and brown) a year, supplying coal-fired power stations for electricity generation and district heating schemes. Some coal is exported to Russia by rail in exchange for additional electricity. Coal reserves are immense, even by world standard - at least 100 billion tonnes, 20% hard coal and 80% lignite (brown coal). Wind power and solar power are used locally on a small scale, but the potential is considerable. Oil and gas production is very small but prospective drilling is in progress.
Agriculture Agriculture accounts for more than a third of GDP and is the livelihood for half the population. Agricultural land is mainly permanent pasture for livestock and hay fogger. However, there is significant output of wheat , oats, barley and vegetables.
Vehicle Hire Most hotels and tour companies can provide cars or jeeps with a driver and guide/ interpreter.
Major Exports Copper and molybdenum concentrates, fluorspar, cashmere, wool, hides and skins.
Major Imports Petroleum products, industrial equipment, consumer goods.
Telecommunications Most hotels and quest houses have international direct dialing, as well as telex and fax facilities and Internet connection
Currency Currency is the Tugrug (MNT).

Mongolia is an ancient country. The history its statehood reaches back into the remote past. Recent archaeological findings show that the earlist traces of man's activity on the territory of Mongolia date from the lower paleolith ./ some 100,000-200,000 years ago/
At the beginning of the 13the century , a United Mongolian Empire was founded by Chinggis Khan. In 1691 Mongolia were subjugated by the Manchu Empire. More than 200 years later as the result of the Mongolian national movement for independence , the Mongol Monarchy was established in 1911. But China and Tsarist Russia didn't recognize Mongolian independence and in 1915 they insisted on the Mongolian authorities revoking the country's complete independence only allowing them limited rights as an autonomous state.
The people's revolution led by D.Sukhbaatar and his associates was won in 1921. Since then, July th of every year has been celebrated as the anniversary of the victory of the revolution.
The 1990 was historical year. In Mongolia as a result of democratization of political power a new government was formed and a new economic policy started to be pursued.

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