Free Essay

Absolutism vs Constitutional Monarchy

In: Historical Events

Submitted By kmcdowell
Words 709
Pages 3
Compare and contrast the theories and practice of absolutism and constitutional monarchy during the 17th century. The seventeenth century saw the evolution of two new types of government mainly because of the instability that was caused by religious wars. One type of government was a constitutional monarchy in which rulers were confined to the laws of the state, giving the people some liberties, best exemplified by William and Mary during the Stuart monarchial rule. Constitutional monarchy was successful in mainly in England because of the Magna Carta, which kept the king’s power in check. The other type was absolute monarchy, in which the king has power over everything, shown by the French under Louis XIV. Although these two different types of monarchies had some similarities, ultimately the constitutional monarchies were more successful because they allowed civilians to have more freedoms in everyday life and made the government less prone to rebellion. Though the systems of government differed in monarchial power, there were many similarities. Both constitutional and absolute monarchies were headed by single rulers, which allowed for some sort of corruption through their power. Since they usually ruled for life, rulers were able to spend large sums of money for personal gain as shown by Louis XIV with his palace of Versailles. To be effective, monarchs had to find ways to control the treasury, maintain a standing army, control religious protests, and expand a bureaucracy as shown by Louis XIV’s motto of “one king, one state, one God.” The two monarchies differed, however, in achieving their aims. Constitutional rulers believed that kings and nobles had to make a social contract and sacrifice some power to unite the country. The absolute monarchs believed that they acquired power from God. Bossuet said in his Treatise on Politics “Royal authority is sacred: God established kings as ministers and rules peoples by them,” The constitutional monarchies had evolved to give some power to the nobles, as well as the gentry and high middle class. Representative institutions such as Parliament evolved to allow for the citizens to dispose of the monarch and make sure that they followed the law. John Locke said in his Two Treatises on Government that Parliament was there to “…limit the power, and moderate the dominion of every part and member of the society.” This meant that kings of constitutional monarchies needed to be fairer towards the citizens in order to stay in power. Absolute rulers, on the other hand, could govern how they pleased because they did not have to worry about the nobility’s power to dispose of them.
Because the absolutists were the sole power, they thought of themselves as above the law. This meant that they could not get removed because they would never break a law. In order to control the nobles, absolute monarchs such as Louis XIV taxed only the peasants, only making them resist more. Absolute monarchies crushed religious pluralism; the nobles no longer had power over their kingdoms to practice their own religions. Constitutional monarchies, however, gave more power to the nobles, allowing much more toleration of differences such as religion, as seen in the English Bill of Rights. There was also a greater difficulty for constitutional monarchies to have a strong standing army, because the parliament had to give consent to the tax to train the soldiers. Absolute monarchs could tax at will, gathering many well trained soldiers.
Although on the surface the absolute monarchy had consolidated more power, a constitutional monarchy would overall be better suited for a country. The parliamentary system allowed kings to be more aware of the different regions and customs of the population, therefore allowing them to have more freedoms. Also, the gentry could advise the king on issues such as war and taxes so he would know what is unfair to the population, where if he was absolute, he could make whatever tax he wanted. Parliament also allowed for the separation of power into judicial and legislative branches, further strengthening the government because the two areas would not be headed solely by the monarch. Structures such as the Bill of Rights and the system of checks allowed constitutional monarchies to rule more efficiently at the end of the 17th century and on to the 18th.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Nation-State

...RISE OF THE NATION STATE State, Nation, and Nation-state The present-day layout of the world’s political map is a product of humanities endless politico-geographic accommodations and adjustments. A mosaic of more than 200 states and territories separated by boundaries makes the world looks like a jigsaw puzzle. Human territoriality refers to a country’s (or more local community’s) sense of property and attachment toward its territory, expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and defended. A state is a politically organized territory, administered by a government, and recognized by the international community. A state must also contain a permanent population, an organized economy, and a functioning internal circulation system (infrastructure). Since certain countries have internal divisions, the solution is to capitalize “State” (e.g. State of Florida, State of Uttar Pradesh India)). When used for the formally independent political units, the term country and state are interchangeable. A nation, by contrast, is a tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, religion, ethnicity, and/or other shared cultural attributes. Theoretically, a nation-state is a recognized country possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation. In only a handful of countries do state territories largely coincide with the distribution of people who feel they are part of one nation. Iceland, Portugal, Denmark, and Poland are...

Words: 2992 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Ap Euro Notes

...HISTORY NOTES- Filled with silliness and inside jokes, enjoy at your leisure :) If something is in [] brackets, it is only written in there for our pleasure, ignore it if you are looking for actual information. Key: • 7: The Renaissance and Reformation- 1350-1600 UMSUniversal o Georgio Vasari- Rinascita=rebirth (like Renaissance) painter/architect Male Suffrage o Individualism: People sought to receive personal credit for achievements, unlike medieval ideal of “all glory goes to god” Names Ideas o Renaissance: Began in Italian city-states, a cause de invention of the printing press, laid way for Protestant Reformation Events Books/Texts Italy: City states, under HRE (Holy Roman Empire) o For alliances:  old nobility vs. wealthy merchants FIGHT P-Prussia  Popolo: third class, “the people”, wanted own share of wealth/power R-Russia A-Austria  Ciompi Revolts: 1378 Florence, Popolo were revolting [eew], brief period of control over government B-Britain  Milan taken over by signor (which is a tyrant) • o Under control of the Condottiero (mercenary) Sforza- Significant because after this, a few wealthy families dominated Venice (e.g. Medici) Humanism: Francesco Petrarch (Sonnets), came up with term “Dark Ages”, began to study classical world of rhetoric and literature  Cicero: Important Roman, provided account of collapse of Roman Republic [like Edward Gibbon], invented Ciceronian style: Latin style of writing which......

Words: 17289 - Pages: 70

Premium Essay

Secularism

...MANU/SC/0241/2007 Equivalent Citation: 2007(2)ALT1(SC), JT2007(2)SC1, (2007)3SCC184, [2007]1SCR317 IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA Writ Petition (Civil) No. 1 of 2006, Transferred Case Nos. 82 to 90 of 2006 and Writ Petition (C) No. 129 of 2006 Decided On: 10.01.2007 Appellants: Raja Ram Pal Vs. Respondent: The Hon'ble Speaker, Lok Sabha and Ors. Parameter of judicial review in relation to exercise of parliamentary provisions Hon'ble Judges/Coram: Y.K. Sabharwal, C.J., K.G. Balakrishnan, C.K. Thakker, R.V. Raveendran and D.K. Jain, JJ. Counsels: For Appellant/Petitioner/Plaintiff: Ram Jethmalani, P.N. Lekihi, T.R. Andhyarujina, Sr. Advs., Krishan Singh Chauhan, Indra Pratap Singh, Gyan Mitra, Chand Kiran, P.K. Jayakrishnan, K.C. Lamba, Sudha Pal, V.K. Shukla, Nischal Kumar Neeraj, Ashish Tripathi, K.K. Mohan, Nawal Kishore Jha, M.P. Jha, Harshvardha Jha, Ram Ekbal Roy, Rani Jethmalani, Harish Pandey, Samar Bansal, Abhik Kumar, P.R. Mala, Rajiv Kumar Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar, Sanjai Tiwari, Lata Krishnamurthi, Sachin Jain, Mukesh Kumar Tripathi, Lokesh Kumar, M.K. Garg, Meenakshi Arora, S. K. Mehndiratta, Pranav Sen, S.W.A. Qadri, Mahra, R.M. Sharma, Sushma Suri, Advs., Gopal Subramanian, ASG., Dayan Krishnan, Gautam Narayan, Satyakam, T.S. Murthy, Raghenth Basant, Aman Ahluwalia, Arunav Patnaik, Abhishek Tiwari and D.S. Mahra, Advs. Subject: Constitution Acts/Rules/Orders: Constitution of India (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978 - Section 15, Constitution of India (Forty-fourth......

Words: 122434 - Pages: 490

Premium Essay

Robins & Robins Sues Casings, Inc.,

...This week's graded topics relate to the following Terminal Course Objectives (TCOs): A | Given an organizational requirement to conform business practices to both the law and best ethical practices, apply appropriate ethical theories to shape a business decision. | I | Given specified circumstances of a business decision to expand to international markets, determine what international legal requirements or regulatory controls apply. | Topics for This Week's Discussion * Introduce yourself to your professor and the rest of the class. (not graded) * Thread over TCO A/I (graded) * Ethics and Patent Rights Post 9/11 (graded) * Q & A Forum for your questions and comments (not graded) | | There is a drop down arrow next to the "Select a Topic" box.  Click on this arrow to select topics for discussion. | ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Select a Topic:       Bottom of Form The World Bank Situation (graded) | Class, please read Chapter 2, problem 5 from the Jennings text, p. 72. This week, we will discuss the Wolfowitz situation at the World Bank. Consider the questions at the end of the problem as you make comments in the threads this week. What are the ethics here? Was Wolfowitz trying to do the right thing? Does that make a difference ethically? Throughout the week, I will bring in further questions. Be sure to read the lecture and the international ethics article stated in your reading for the week as well.......

Words: 201281 - Pages: 806

Premium Essay

International Political Economy

...Socialism and Capitalism A Theory of Economics, Politics, and Ethics Hans-Hermann Hoppe The Ludwig von Mises Institute’s Studies in Austrian Economics Department of Economics University of Nevada, Las Vegas Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston/Dordrecht/London Distributors for North America: Kluwer Academic Publishers 101 Philip Drive Assinippi Park Norwell, Massachusetts 02061 USA Distributors for the UK and Ireland: Kluwer Academic Publishers Falcon House, Queen Square Lancaster LA1 1RN, UNITED KINGDOM Distributors for all other countries: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group Distribution Centre Post Office Box 322 3300 AH Dordrecht, THE NETHERLANDS Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hoppe, Hans-Hermann. A theory of socialism and capitalism : economics, politics, and ethics / by Hans-Hermann Hoppe. p. cm. Includes index. © 2010 by the Ludwig von Mises Institute and published under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Ludwig von Mises Institute 518 West Magnolia Avenue Auburn, Alabama 36832 mises.org ISBN: 978-1-933550-73-2 Socialism and Capitalism Hans-Hermann Hoppe A Theory of Acknowledgements Three institutions assisted me while I wrote this treatise. As a Heisenberg Scholar I enjoyed the most generous financial support from the German Science Foundation (DFG) from 1982 through 1986. The present study is the most recent work I completed during this period. Additional support came from......

Words: 92669 - Pages: 371

Free Essay

Tyranny of Guilt; an Essay on Western Masochism (2010)

...Th e T yranny of Gui lt • Pa s c a l B ru c k n e r Translated from the French by s t ev e n r e n da l l The tyranny of Guilt An Essay on Western Masochism • P r i n c e t o n u n i v e r si t y P r e s s Princeton and Oxford english translation copyright © 2010 by Princeton university Press First published as La tyrannie de la pénitence: essai sur le masochisme occidental by Pascal Bruckner, copyright © 2006 by Grasset & Fasquelle Published by Princeton university Press, 41 William street, Princeton, new Jersey 08540 in the united kingdom: Princeton university Press, 6 oxford street, Woodstock, oxfordshire OX20 1TW press.princeton.edu all rights reserved library of congress cataloging-in-Publication data Bruckner, Pascal. [tyrannie de la pénitence. english] The tyranny of guilt: an essay on Western masochism / Pascal Bruckner; translated from the French by steven rendall. p. cm. includes index. isBn 978-0-691-14376-7 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. civilization, Western— 20th century. 2. civilization, Western—21st century. 3. international relations—Moral and ethical aspects. 4. Western countries—Foreign relations. 5. Western countries—intellectual life. 6. Guilt 7. self-hate (Psychology) 8. World politics. i. title. CB245.B7613 2010 909’.09821--dc22 2009032666 British library cataloging-in-Publication data is available cet ouvrage, publié dans le cadre d’un programme d’aide à la publication, bénéficie du soutien du Ministère des affaires étrangères et du......

Words: 64873 - Pages: 260

Free Essay

Dale Carneigi

...1 CHAPTER I CHAPTER II CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V CHAPTER VI CHAPTER VII CHAPTER VIII CHAPTER IX CHAPTER X CHAPTER XI CHAPTER XII CHAPTER XIII CHAPTER XIV CHAPTER XV CHAPTER XVI Chapter XVIII CHAPTER XVII CHAPTER XVIII CHAPTER XIX CHAPTER XX CHAPTER XXI CHAPTER XXII CHAPTER XXIII CHAPTER XXIV CHAPTER XXV CHAPTER XXVI CHAPTER XXVII CHAPTER XXVIII CHAPTER XXIX CHAPTER XXX CHAPTER XXXI The Art of Public Speaking BY 2 The Art of Public Speaking BY J. BERG ESENWEIN AUTHOR OF "HOW TO ATTRACT AND HOLD AN AUDIENCE," "WRITING THE SHORT-STORY," "WRITING THE PHOTOPLAY," ETC., ETC., AND DALE CARNAGEY PROFESSOR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING, BALTIMORE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE AND FINANCE; INSTRUCTOR IN PUBLIC SPEAKING, Y.M.C.A. SCHOOLS, NEW YORK, BROOKLYN, BALTIMORE, AND PHILADELPHIA, AND THE NEW YORK CITY CHAPTER, AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF BANKING THE WRITER'S LIBRARY EDITED BY J. BERG ESENWEIN THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL SPRINGFIELD, MASS. PUBLISHERS Copyright 1915 THE HOME CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL ALL RIGHTS RESERVED TO F. ARTHUR METCALF FELLOW-WORKER AND FRIEND Table of Contents THINGS TO THINK OF FIRST--A FOREWORD * CHAPTER I--ACQUIRING CONFIDENCE BEFORE AN AUDIENCE * CHAPTER II--THE SIN OF MONOTONY DALE CARNAGEY * CHAPTER III--EFFICIENCY THROUGH EMPHASIS AND SUBORDINATION * CHAPTER IV--EFFICIENCY THROUGH CHANGE OF PITCH * CHAPTER V--EFFICIENCY THROUGH CHANGE OF PACE * CHAPTER VI--PAUSE AND POWER * CHAPTER VII--EFFICIENCY THROUGH INFLECTION * CHAPTER VIII--CONCENTRATION IN......

Words: 162622 - Pages: 651

Premium Essay

Ir Theories

...Theories of International Relations Third edition Scott Burchill, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit and Jacqui True Theories of International Relations This page intentionally left blank Theories of International Relations Third edition Scott Burchill, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit and Jacqui True Material from 1st edition © Deakin University 1995, 1996 Chapter 1 © Scott Burchill 2001, Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater 2005 Chapter 2 © Jack Donnelly 2005 Chapter 3 © Scott Burchill, Chapters 4 and 5 © Andrew Linklater, Chapters 6 and 7 © Richard Devetak, Chapter 8 © Christian Reus-Smit, Chapter 9 © Jacqui True, Chapter 10 © Matthew Paterson 2001, 2005 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the......

Words: 132890 - Pages: 532

Free Essay

Gre Vocabulary 3000

...Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization. List 1 GRE Verbal 750 Quantitative 800, AW 5.5 2008 10 Princeton, MIT, M. Fin Unit 1 ABANDON A B D I C AT E ABASE ABERRANT ABASH ABET A B AT E A B E YA N C E A B B R E V I AT E ABHOR abandon [ 1 n. ] carefree, freedom from constraint added spices to the stew with complete abandon unconstraint, uninhibitedness, unrestraint 2 v. to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon herself to a life of complete idleness abandon oneself to emotion indulge, surrender, give up 3 v. to withdraw from often in the face of danger or encroachment abandon the ship/homes salvage 4 v. to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to) NASA the bad weather forced NASA to abandon the launch abort, drop, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off keep, continue, maintain, carry on abase [ 1 v. ] to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem was unwilling to abase himself by pleading guilty to a crime that he did not commit debauch, degrade, profane, vitiate, discredit, foul, smirch, take down elevate, ennoble, uplift, aggrandize, canonize, deify, exalt abash [ 1 vt. ] to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of ,disconcert, embarrass Nothing could abash him. discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, fluster, nonplus, mortify embolden abate [ 1 v. ] to reduce in degree or intensity / abate his rage/pain taper off intensify 2......

Words: 139628 - Pages: 559

Premium Essay

Ethics

...ETHICS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Third Edition This page intentionally left blank ETHICS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Third Edition George W. Reynolds Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Ethics in Information Technology, Third Edition by George W. Reynolds VP/Editorial Director: Jack Calhoun Publisher: Joe Sabatino Senior Acquisitions Editor: Charles McCormick Jr. Senior Product Manager: Kate Hennessy Mason Development Editor: Mary Pat Shaffer Editorial Assistant: Nora Heink Marketing Manager: Bryant Chrzan Marketing Coordinator: Suellen Ruttkay Content Product Manager: Jennifer Feltri Senior Art Director: Stacy Jenkins Shirley Cover Designer: Itzhack Shelomi Cover Image: iStock Images Technology Project Manager: Chris Valentine Manufacturing Coordinator: Julio Esperas Copyeditor: Green Pen Quality Assurance Proofreader: Suzanne Huizenga Indexer: Alexandra Nickerson Composition: Pre-Press PMG © 2010 Course Technology, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written......

Words: 204343 - Pages: 818

Free Essay

Test2

...62118 0/nm 1/n1 2/nm 3/nm 4/nm 5/nm 6/nm 7/nm 8/nm 9/nm 1990s 0th/pt 1st/p 1th/tc 2nd/p 2th/tc 3rd/p 3th/tc 4th/pt 5th/pt 6th/pt 7th/pt 8th/pt 9th/pt 0s/pt a A AA AAA Aachen/M aardvark/SM Aaren/M Aarhus/M Aarika/M Aaron/M AB aback abacus/SM abaft Abagael/M Abagail/M abalone/SM abandoner/M abandon/LGDRS abandonment/SM abase/LGDSR abasement/S abaser/M abashed/UY abashment/MS abash/SDLG abate/DSRLG abated/U abatement/MS abater/M abattoir/SM Abba/M Abbe/M abbé/S abbess/SM Abbey/M abbey/MS Abbie/M Abbi/M Abbot/M abbot/MS Abbott/M abbr abbrev abbreviated/UA abbreviates/A abbreviate/XDSNG abbreviating/A abbreviation/M Abbye/M Abby/M ABC/M Abdel/M abdicate/NGDSX abdication/M abdomen/SM abdominal/YS abduct/DGS abduction/SM abductor/SM Abdul/M ab/DY abeam Abelard/M Abel/M Abelson/M Abe/M Aberdeen/M Abernathy/M aberrant/YS aberrational aberration/SM abet/S abetted abetting abettor/SM Abeu/M abeyance/MS abeyant Abey/M abhorred abhorrence/MS abhorrent/Y abhorrer/M abhorring abhor/S abidance/MS abide/JGSR abider/M abiding/Y Abidjan/M Abie/M Abigael/M Abigail/M Abigale/M Abilene/M ability/IMES abjection/MS abjectness/SM abject/SGPDY abjuration/SM abjuratory abjurer/M abjure/ZGSRD ablate/VGNSDX ablation/M ablative/SY ablaze abler/E ables/E ablest able/U abloom ablution/MS Ab/M ABM/S abnegate/NGSDX abnegation/M Abner/M abnormality/SM abnormal/SY ab......

Words: 113589 - Pages: 455