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Accounting 101

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The Role of Accounting on Business and Our Society Adrian Smith
Accounting 100
Prof. Eric Osei

A Financial statement is a record of financial activities of a business entity. Main objective of financial statements is to provide information about financial position, performance and changes in financial position, and flows of cash in the business organization which in turn is essential in making decisions. In order for financial statements to provide the necessary information, they have to abide by the principles of understandability, relevance, reliability and comparability (Alexander et al, 2005).
The first financial statement under consideration is statement of financial position. It is used to report on assets, liabilities, and capital of an entity. Assets are resources which have economic value attached to them, for example cash, debtors and inventory. Liabilities on the other side include creditors, deferred tax and accruals. Finally, capital is the owner’s equity. Statement of financial position is used to ensure that assets balance with combination of liabilities and capital. Second is the statement of comprehensive income. It provides information on revenues, expenses and profits incurred in a particular period of time. Its major purpose is to help in determining whether the business entity is operating at a profit or loss in a particular trading period. It also serves to reveal the rate of earning per share that is the amount of to be given to each stakeholder. Statement of cash flows is the last financial statement. It shows cash flow activities of a business entity that is operating, financing and investing. In other words, it accounts for cash in hand, cash incurred on expenses and investment activities which are likely to generate cash in future. Statement of cash flows is the best financial statement to use to determine financial health of a…...

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