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Human Development Index

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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It was created by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and the Indian economist Amartya Sen in 1990[1] and was published by the United Nations Development Programme.[2]

World map by quartiles of Human Development Index in 2013.

Origins
The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Development Reports of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990 and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq brought together a group of well-known development economists including: Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand and Meghnad Desai. Working along with Nobel laureate Amartya Sen, they worked on capabilities and functionings that provided the underlying conceptual framework. Haq was sure that a simple composite measure of human development was needed in order to convince the public, academics, and policy-makers that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being. Sen initially opposed this idea, but he went on to help Haq develop the Index. Sen was worried that it was difficult to capture the full complexity of human capabilities in a single index but Haq persuaded him that only a single number would shift the attention of policy-makers from concentration on economic to human well-being.[3][4]

Mahbub-ul-Haq

Dimensions and calculation

Amartya Sen

Human Development Index

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New method (2010 Report onwards)[5]
Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), starting with the 2010 Human Development Report the HDI combines three dimensions: • A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth • Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling • A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$) In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) 2. Education Index (EI) 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) 3. Income Index (II) Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:
LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling (Years that a 25-year-old person or older has spent in schools) EYS: Expected years of schooling (Years that a 5-year-old child will spend with his education in his whole life) GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita [6]

[7]

Old method (before 2010 Report)
The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: • Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity • Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting). • Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.

Human Development Index

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This is the methodology used by the UNDP up until its 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)[8] In general, to transform a raw variable, say , into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used: • where respectively. The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with ⅓ contributed by each of the following factor indices: • Life Expectancy Index = • Education Index = • Adult Literacy Index (ALI) = • Gross Enrollment Index (GEI) = • GDP = Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces different number of HDI. and are the lowest can attain,

and highest values the variable

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004

2013 report
The 2013 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Program was released on March 14, 2013, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2012. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[9]
Note: The green arrows ( ), red arrows ( ), and blue dashes ( ) represent changes in rank when compared to the new 2012 data HDI for 2011 – published in the 2012 report.

Human Development Index

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Norway 0.955 ( Australia 0.938 (

) )

• • 1) • 1) 4) • • 1) • •

Belgium 0.897 ( Austria 0.895 ( Singapore 0.895 ( France 0.893 ( Finland 0.892 ( Slovenia 0.892 ( Spain 0.885 ( Italy 0.881 ( ) )

1) 1) 7) 1) 1)

• • • • • • • 16) 1) • • • 1) • 1) • • • •

Andorra 0.846 ( Estonia 0.846 ( Slovakia 0.840 ( Qatar 0.834 ( Hungary 0.831 ( Barbados 0.825 ( Poland 0.821 ( Chile 0.819 ( Lithuania 0.818 ( ) 4) 1)

1) ) ) 1) 9)

United States 0.937 ( Netherlands 0.921 ( Germany 0.920 ( Ireland 0.916 ( Sweden 0.916 ( Switzerland 0.913 ( Japan 0.912 ( Canada 0.911 ( 2) 5) ) 3) 2) New Zealand 0.919 (

• • • • 3) ) • • • • •

Liechtenstein 0.883 ( 1) Luxembourg 0.875 (

1) 12)

United Arab Emirates 0.818 ( Portugal 0.816 ( Latvia 0.814 ( Seychelles 0.806 ( Croatia 0.805 ( 1) ) 1) 6) Argentina 0.811 ( 2)

United Kingdom 0.875 ( Czech Republic 0.873 ( Greece 0.860 ( Brunei 0.855 ( Cyprus 0.848 ( Malta 0.847 ( ) 1) 1) 4)

South Korea 0.909 ( Hong Kong 0.906 ( Iceland 0.906 ( Denmark 0.901 ( Israel 0.900 ( 1) ) 1)

Inequality-adjusted HDI
The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[9] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."
Note: The green arrows ( ), red arrows ( ), and blue dashes ( ) represent changes in rank. The changes in rank are not relative to the HDI list above, but are according to the source (p. 152) calculated with the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data. • • • • • • • • • • • • Norway 0.894 ( Australia 0.864 ( Sweden 0.859 ( Germany 0.856 ( Ireland 0.850 ( ) ) ) 3) ) • • • ) • • • 1) • • • • • • Canada 0.832 ( 4) 9) 13) 4) • • • • • • 2) • • • 6) 3) 4) • • • Estonia 0.770 ( Hungary 0.769 ( Greece 0.760 ( Cyprus 0.751 ( Poland 0.740 ( 2) 3) 3) 18) 4) ) 8)

Czech Republic 0.826 ( Belgium 0.825 ( 1) United States 0.821 ( Luxembourg 0.813 ( France 0.812 ( Spain 0.796 ( Israel 0.790 ( Slovakia 0.788 ( Malta 0.778 ( Italy 0.776 ( 2) 1) 8)

Netherlands 0.857 (

South Korea 0.758 (

Switzerland 0.849 ( Iceland 0.848 ( Denmark 0.845 ( Slovenia 0.840 ( Finland 0.839 ( Austria 0.837 ( 3)

United Kingdom 0.802 (

Montenegro 0.733 ( Portugal 0.729 ( Lithuania 0.727 ( Belarus 0.727 ( Latvia 0.726 ( Bulgaria 0.704 ( 1) 5) 1) 1) 3)

3) 7) 6) 3)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Andorra, Qatar, Barbados, United Arab Emirates, and Seychelles.

Human Development Index

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2011 report
The 2011 Human Development Report was released on 2 November 2011, and calculated HDI values based on estimates for 2011. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries (equal to the top quartile):[10]
Note: The green arrows ( ), red arrows ( ), and blue dashes ( ) represent changes in rank when compared to the 2011 HDI data for 2010 – published in the 2011 report (p. 131). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Norway 0.943 ( Australia 0.929 ( Netherlands 0.910 ( United States 0.910 ( New Zealand 0.908 ( Canada 0.908 ( Ireland 0.908 ( ) ) ) ) ) • • • ) • ) • • • ) • • • ) • • 1) • • ) ) • • ) ) Israel 0.888 ( Belgium 0.886 ( Austria 0.885 ( France 0.884 ( Slovenia 0.884 ( Finland 0.882 ( Spain 0.878 ( Italy 0.874 ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) • • • • • • • • • • • • • ) • • ) Brunei 0.838 ( Estonia 0.835 ( Slovakia 0.834 ( Malta 0.832 ( Qatar 0.831 ( Hungary 0.816 ( Poland 0.813 ( Lithuania 0.810 ( Portugal 0.809 ( Bahrain 0.806 ( Latvia 0.805 ( Chile 0.805 ( Croatia 0.796 ( Barbados 0.793 ( ) 1) 1) ) ) ) ) 1) 1) ) ) ) ) ) )

Liechtenstein 0.905 ( Germany 0.905 ( Sweden 0.904 ( Switzerland 0.903 ( Japan 0.901 ( ) Hong Kong 0.898 ( Iceland 0.898 ( 1) South Korea 0.897 ( Denmark 0.895 (

Luxembourg 0.867 ( Singapore 0.866 (

Czech Republic 0.865 ( United Kingdom 0.863 ( Greece 0.861 ( Cyprus 0.840 ( Andorra 0.838 ( ) )

Argentina 0.797 (

United Arab Emirates 0.846 (

Inequality-adjusted HDI
Below is a list of countries in the top quartile by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI).[] According to the report, the IHDI is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."
Note: The green arrows ( ), red arrows ( ), and blue dashes ( ) represent changes in rank when compared to the 2011 HDI list, for countries listed in both rankings. • • • • • • • • • • • • Norway 0.890 ( Australia 0.856 ( Sweden 0.851 ( ) ) 5) • • • 1) • • • 1) 4) ) 7) 7) 7) • • • • • • Czech Republic 0.821 ( Austria 0.820 ( Belgium 0.819 ( France 0.804 ( Spain 0.799 ( ) 2) 3) 1) 1) 9) • • • • • • 4) • • • • 19) • 2) Hungary 0.759 ( Greece 0.756 ( Cyprus 0.755 ( Poland 0.734 ( Lithuania 0.730 ( Portugal 0.726 ( Latvia 0.717 ( Serbia 0.694 ( Belarus 0.693 ( 1) 9) 10) ) 7) Montenegro 0.718 ( 3) 2) 2) 17) ) )

Netherlands 0.846 ( Iceland 0.845 ( Ireland 0.843 ( Germany 0.842 ( Denmark 0.842 ( Switzerland 0.840 ( Slovenia 0.837 ( Finland 0.833 ( Canada 0.829 ( 5) )

South Korea 0.749 (

Luxembourg 0.799 (

United Kingdom 0.791 ( Slovakia 0.787 ( Israel 0.779 ( Italy 0.779 ( Estonia 0.769 ( 8) 2) 7)

United States 0.771 (

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI include: New Zealand, Liechtenstein, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, United Arab Emirates, Andorra, Brunei, Malta, Qatar, Bahrain, Chile, Argentina and Barbados.

Human Development Index

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Countries not included
Some countries were not included for various reasons, mainly the unavailability of certain crucial data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2011 report:[11] North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, South Sudan, Somalia and Tuvalu.

2010 report
The 2010 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Program was released on November 4, 2010, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2010. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[12]
Note: The green arrows ( 2010 report. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Norway 0.938 ( Australia 0.937 ( ) ) • • ) • ) • • ) • ) • • • 12) • • ) ) • • • Israel 0.872 ( Finland 0.871 ( Iceland 0.869 ( Belgium 0.867 ( Denmark 0.866 ( Spain 0.863 ( Greece 0.855 ( Italy 0.854 ( Austria 0.851 ( Singapore 0.846 ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Hong Kong 0.862 ( 1) 1) ) ) ) • • • • • • • • • • • ) • • • Slovenia 0.828 ( Andorra 0.824 ( Slovakia 0.818 ( Malta 0.815 ( Estonia 0.812 ( Cyprus 0.810 ( Hungary 0.805 ( Brunei 0.805 ( Qatar 0.803 ( Bahrain 0.801 ( Portugal 0.795 ( Poland 0.795 ( Barbados 0.788 ( ) 5) ) ) 6) 1) ) ) 1) 1) ) ) ) 1) ), red arrows ( ), and blue dashes ( ) represent changes in rank when compared to the 2009 HDI published in the

New Zealand 0.907 ( United States 0.902 ( Ireland 0.895 ( )

United Arab Emirates 0.815 (

Liechtenstein 0.891 ( Netherlands 0.890 ( Canada 0.888 ( Sweden 0.885 ( Germany 0.885 ( Japan 0.884 ( ) ) )

Luxembourg 0.852 (

South Korea 0.877 ( Switzerland 0.874 ( France 0.872 ( 2)

United Kingdom 0.849 (

Czech Republic 0.841 (

Inequality-adjusted HDI
The 2010 Human Development Report was the first to calculate an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), which factors in inequalities in the three basic dimensions of human development (income, life expectancy, and education). Below is a list of countries in the top quartile by IHDI:[13]
Note: The green arrows ( ), red arrows ( ), and blue dashes ( ) represent changes in rank when compared to the 2010 HDI list, for countries listed in both rankings. • • • • • • • • • • • • Norway 0.876 ( Australia 0.864 ( Sweden 0.824 ( Germany 0.814 ( Switzerland 0.813 ( Ireland 0.813 ( Canada 0.812 ( Iceland 0.811 ( 3) 2) 5) ) ) 4) 1) 3) 4) • • • • • • • • • • • 9) • Belgium 0.794 ( France 0.792 ( Austria 0.787 ( Spain 0.779 ( Slovenia 0.771 ( Greece 0.768 ( Slovakia 0.764 ( Israel 0.763 ( Italy 0.752 ( 5) ) 2) 5) 2) 3) 11) 2) 3) 8) 5) • • • • • • • • 1) • • • Hungary 0.736 ( Estonia 0.733 ( ) 18) 3)

Czech Republic 0.790 (

South Korea 0.731 ( Cyprus 0.716 ( Poland 0.709 ( Portugal 0.700 ( Lithuania 0.693 ( Libya 0.693 ( Latvia 0.684 ( Romania 0.675 ( 4) 2) 3) 1) 1) 1) 1)

Netherlands 0.818 (

Luxembourg 0.775 (

United Kingdom 0.766 (

Denmark 0.810 ( 6) Finland 0.806 ( 2) United States 0.799 (

The Bahamas 0.671 (

4)

Human Development Index Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI include: New Zealand, Liechtenstein, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Republic of China (Taiwan), Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Malta, Brunei, Qatar, Bahrain and Barbados.

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Countries not included
Some countries were not included for various reasons, mainly the unavailability of certain crucial data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2010 report.[11] Cuba lodged a formal protest at its lack of inclusion. The UNDP explained that Cuba had been excluded due to the lack of an "internationally reported figure for Cuba’s Gross National Income adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity". All other indicators for Cuba were available, and reported by the UNDP, but the lack of one indicator meant that no ranking could be attributed to the country.[14][15]
Africa • • • Eritrea Seychelles Americas • • Somalia • • • • • Antigua and Barbuda Cuba Dominica Grenada Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Asia • • • • • Europe Bhutan • Iraq • North Korea • Lebanon Oman Oceania Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Palau Samoa Tuvalu Vanuatu

• Monaco San Marino • Vatican City • • • • •

Non-UN members (calculated by UNDP)
• Kosovo 0.700 (Ranked 91st among countries if included, same as Azerbaijan).[16]

2009 report
The 2009 Human Development Report by UNDP was released on October 5, 2009, and covers the period up to 2007. It was titled "Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development". The top countries by HDI were grouped in a new category called "very high human development". The report refers to these countries as developed countries.[17] They are:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Norway 0.971 ( Australia 0.970 ( Iceland 0.969 ( Canada 0.966 ( Ireland 0.965 ( 0) 2) 1) 1) ) ) • • • • • • • • 1) • • 2) • • 2) • ) 3) 2) ) Austria 0.955 ( Spain 0.955 ( Belgium 0.953 ( Italy 0.951 ( 1) 1) ) ) 1) 2) ) • • • • • • • ) • • 1) 1) ) ) • • • Israel 0.935 ( Andorra 0.934 ( Slovenia 0.929 ( Brunei 0.920 ( Kuwait 0.916 ( Cyprus 0.914 ( Qatar 0.910 ( Portugal 0.909 ( ) ) ) 1) 1) 2) ) 1) 1) )

Denmark 0.955 (

Netherlands 0.964 ( Sweden 0.963 ( France 0.961 ( Japan 0.960 ( Finland 0.959 (

Liechtenstein 0.951 ( New Zealand 0.950 (

United Kingdom 0.947 ( Germany 0.947 ( Singapore 0.944 ( Hong Kong 0.944 ( Greece 0.942 ( South Korea 0.937 ( )

Switzerland 0.960 ( Luxembourg 0.960 ( United States 0.956 (

United Arab Emirates 0.903 ( Czech Republic 0.903 ( Libya 0.903 ( Malta 0.902 ( 2) 3)

Human Development Index

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Countries not included
Some countries were not included for various reasons, such as being a non-UN member or unable or unwilling to provide the necessary data at the time of publication. Besides the states with limited recognition, the following states were also not included.
Asia • Europe North Korea • • • Oceania Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Nauru Tuvalu

• Monaco San Marino • Vatican City • •

2008 statistical update
A new index was released on December 18, 2008. This so-called "statistical update" covered the period up to 2006 and was published without an accompanying Human Development Report. The update is relevant due to newly released estimates of purchasing power parities (PPP), implying substantial adjustments for many countries, resulting in changes in HDI values and, in many cases, HDI ranks.[]
• • • • • • • • • • • Norway 0.968 ( Iceland 0.968 ( Canada 0.967 ( Australia 0.965 ( Ireland 0.960 ( ) 3) ) ) 1) 1) • • • • • • • • 9) • 3) • • 1) ) Finland 0.954 ( Denmark 0.952 ( Austria 0.951 ( Spain 0.949 ( Belgium 0.948 ( Greece 0.947 ( Italy 0.945 ( 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 3) 3) 1) 6) • • • • • • • • • 4) • • Germany 0.940 ( Israel 0.930 ( Slovenia 0.923 ( Brunei 0.919 ( Singapore 0.918 ( Kuwait 0.912 ( Cyprus 0.912 ( Libya 0.902 ( Portugal 0.900 ( 4) 2) 8) 9) 4) 1) 1) 1) 3) 3) 1)

South Korea 0.928 (

United States 0.950 (

Netherlands 0.958 ( Sweden 0.958 ( Japan 0.956 (

Luxembourg 0.956 ( Switzerland 0.955 ( France 0.954 ( 1)

New Zealand 0.944 (

United Arab Emirates 0.903 (

United Kingdom 0.942 ( Hong Kong 0.942 ( 1)

Countries not included
Some countries were not included for various reasons, such as being a non-UN member, unable, or unwilling to provide the necessary data at the time of publication. Besides the states with limited recognition, the following states were also not included.
Africa • Europe Zimbabwe • • • • • Oceania • Andorra Liechtenstein • • Monaco San Marino • Vatican City • • Kiribati Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Nauru Palau Tuvalu

Human Development Index

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2007/2008 report
The Human Development Report for 2007/2008 was launched in Brasilia, Brazil, on November 27, 2007. Its focus was on "Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world."[18] Most of the data used for the report are derived largely from 2005 or earlier, thus indicating an HDI for 2005. Not all UN member states choose to or are able to provide the necessary statistics. The report showed a small increase in world HDI in comparison with last year's report. This rise was fueled by a general improvement in the developing world, especially of the least developed countries group. This marked improvement at the bottom was offset with a decrease in HDI of high income countries. A HDI below 0.5 is considered to represent "low development". All 22 countries in that category are located in Africa. The highest-scoring Sub-Saharan countries, Gabon and South Africa, are ranked 119th and 121st, respectively. Nine countries departed from this category this year and joined the "medium development" group. A HDI of 0.8 or more is considered to represent "high development". This includes all developed countries, such as those in North America, Western Europe, Oceania, and Eastern Asia, as well as some developing countries in Eastern Europe, Central and South America, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and the oil-rich Arabian Peninsula. Seven countries were promoted to this category this year, leaving the "medium development" group: Albania, Belarus, Brazil, Libya, Macedonia, Russia and Saudi Arabia. On the following table, green arrows ( ) represent an increase in ranking over the previous study, while red arrows ( ) represent a decrease in ranking. They are followed by the number of spaces they moved. Blue dashes ( ) represent a nation that did not move in the rankings since the previous study.
• • • • • • • • • • Iceland 0.968 ( Norway 0.968 ( Australia 0.962 ( Canada 0.961 ( Ireland 0.959 ( Sweden 0.956 ( Switzerland 0.955 ( Japan 0.953 ( France 0.952 ( 1) 6) Netherlands 0.953 ( 1) 1) 2) 1) 1) ) 2) • • • • • • • • 1) • • Finland 0.952 ( ) 4) • • • 1) 1) 4) 6) 1) • • • 1) • • • • Hong Kong 0.937 ( Germany 0.935 ( Israel 0.932 ( Greece 0.926 ( Singapore 0.922 ( South Korea 0.921 ( Slovenia 0.917 ( Cyprus 0.903 ( Portugal 0.897 ( Libya 0.894 ( 4) ) 1) 1) ) ) ) ) 1) 1)

United States 0.951 ( Spain 0.949 ( Austria 0.948 ( Belgium 0.946 ( 6)

Denmark 0.949 (

United Kingdom 0.946 ( Luxembourg 0.944 ( New Zealand 0.943 ( Italy 0.941 ( 3)

Past top countries
The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest ten times, Canada eight times, followed by Japan which has been ranked highest three times. Iceland has been ranked highest twice.

In each original report
The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated. • • • • • • • • 2013 (2012)– 2011 (2011)– 2010 (2010)– 2009 (2007)– 2008 (2006)– 2007 (2005)– 2006 (2004)– 2005 (2003)– Norway Norway Norway Norway Iceland Iceland Norway Norway

Human Development Index • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2004 (2002)– 2003 (2001)– 2002 (2000)– 2001 (1999)– 2000 (1998)– 1999 (1997)– 1998 (1995)– 1997 (1994)– 1996 (1993)– 1995 (1992)– 1994 (????)– 1993 (????)– 1992 (1990)– 1991 (1990)– 1990 (????)– Norway Norway Norway Norway Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Japan Canada Japan Japan

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Future HDI projections
In April 2010, the Human Development Report Office provided[19] the 2010–2030 HDI projections (quoted in September 2010, by the United Nations Development Programme, in the Human Development Research paper 2010/40 [20], pp. 40–42). These projections were reached by re-calculating the HDI, using (for components of the HDI) projections of the components conducted by agencies that provide the UNDP with data for the HDI.

Criticism
The Human Development Index has been criticised on a number of grounds, including failure to include any ecological considerations, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, not paying much attention to development from a global perspective and based on grounds of measurement error of the underlying statistics and formula changes by the UNDP which can lead to severe misclassifications of countries in the categories of being a 'low', 'medium', 'high' or 'very high' human [] development country. The index has HDI for a sample of 150 countries shows a very high correlation with logarithm of GDP also been criticized as "redundant" and per capita. a "reinvention of the wheel", measuring aspects of development that have already been exhaustively studied.[][21] The index has further been criticised for having an inappropriate treatment of income, lacking year-to-year comparability, and assessing development differently in different groups of countries.[22]

Human Development Index Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI.[] They identify three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country’s development status and find that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donators and the public at large which use the HDI. In 2010 the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded[23] to a January 6, 2011 article in the magazine[24] which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuous updating of the human development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place. Each year, UN member states are listed and ranked according to the computed HDI. If high, the rank in the list can be easily used as a means of national aggrandizement; alternatively, if low, it can be used to highlight national insufficiencies. Using the HDI as an absolute index of social welfare, some authors have used panel HDI data to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life.[25] Ratan Lal Basu criticises the HDI concept from a completely different angle. According to him the Amartya Sen-Mahbub ul Haq concept of HDI considers that provision of material amenities alone would bring about Human Development, but Basu opines that Human Development in the true sense should embrace both material and moral development. According to him human development based on HDI alone, is similar to dairy farm economics to improve dairy farm output. To quote: "So human development effort should not end up in amelioration of material deprivations alone: it must undertake to bring about spiritual and moral development to assist the biped to become truly human."[26] For example, a high suicide rate would bring the index down. A few authors have proposed alternative indices to address some of the index's shortcomings.[27] However, of those proposed alternatives to the HDI, few have produced alternatives covering so many countries, and that no development index (other than, perhaps, Gross Domestic Product per capita) has been used so extensively—or effectively, in discussions and developmental planning as the HDI. However, there has been one lament about the HDI that has resulted in an extending of its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.[28][29]

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Notes and references
[5] HDR_2013_EN_TechNotes (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ media/ HDR_2013_EN_TechNotes. pdf). Page 2. [6] Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical durations of each level of education attended. Source: [7] (Expected years of schooling is a calculation of the number of years a child of school entrance age is expected to spend at school, or university, including years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrolment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrolment rates were to stay the same throughout the child’s life. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.) [8] Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ statistics/ faq/ question,68,en. html) [9] http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ media/ HDR_2013_EN_complete. pdf [11] International Human Rights Development Indicators (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ data/ map/ ), UNDP [14] "Samoa left out of UNDP index" (http:/ / www. samoaobserver. ws/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=30827:samoa-left& catid=1:latest-news& Itemid=50), Samoa Observer, January 22, 2010

Human Development Index
[15] Cuba country profile (http:/ / hdrstats. undp. org/ en/ countries/ profiles/ CUB. html), UNDP [16] List of countries by Human Development Index [17] http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ media/ HDR_2009_EN_Complete. pdf Human Development Report 2009[ (p. 171, 204) [19] In: Daponte Beth Osborne, and Hu difei: "Technical Note on Re-Calculating the HDI, Using Projections of Components of the HDI", April 2010, United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report Office. [20] http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ reports/ global/ hdr2010/ papers/ HDRP_2010_40. pdf [29] Information Note linked to data

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External links
• • • • • Human Development Report (http://hdr.undp.org/en/) 2010 Human Development Index Update (http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/Lets-Talk-HD-HDI_2010.pdf) Human Development Interactive Map (http://hdr.undp.org/en/data/map/) Human Development Tools and Rankings (http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/) Technical note explaining the definition of the HDI (http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/ hdr_20072008_tech_note_1.pdf) PDF (5.54 MB) • An independent HDI (http://www.humansecurityindex.org/?page_id=204) covering 232 countries, formulated along lines of the traditional (pre-2010) approach. • List of countries by HDI at NationMaster.com (http://www.nationmaster.com/graph-T/eco_hum_dev_ind) • America Is # ... 15? (http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090323/conley) by Dalton Conley, The Nation, March 4, 2009

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
Human Development Index Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=561057961 Contributors: -Spidersencer-, 15dawsonp, 2001:5C0:1400:A:0:0:0:7E7, 2001:700:300:1420:A9C4:7B39:692F:A244, 2D, A Fantasy, ACEOREVIVED, AL3X TH3 GR8, AMH-DS, Abdullah Geelah, Abellim, Accurizer, Acebulf, Actarux, Adam2288, AdjustShift, Adrian Comollo, Adult Film Actor, Adz657, Aero1980, Afinebalance, Aglondon, Ajajajhehe, Ajraddatz, Akarkera, Aksi great, Alan Pascoe, Alanmak, Alansohn, Alcarinquë, Aldy, AlexCovarrubias, AlexTingle, AlexanderGunnar, AlexiusHoratius, Alferac, All in, AllanManangan, Altzinn, Alyr999, Amnesiac86, AnakngAraw, AndTheCrowdGoesWild, Andjam, Andreas007, Andrew Steller, AndrewHowse, Andrwsc, Andy Marchbanks, AndySimpson, Andyso, Angusmclellan, AniRaptor2001, Anna Lincoln, Anon126, Anonymi, Anonymous0422, AnthonyJ Lock, Antti29, Appleseed, Applesort, Arctic Kangaroo, Argasp, Aridd, Aris Katsaris, Arjun01, Artem Grujovich, Artesà, Arthaus Mouse, Arx Fortis, Asbestos, Astronautics, Avaya1, AvicAWB, Avicennasis, Avionics1980, Azips, BATE Borisov, BD2412, BDS2006, Baderyp, BarretB, Baryonic Being, Battoe19, Bausinboss, Bazzargh, BbJeffery, Bbb23, Behun, Belg4mit, Ben Ram, Ben Webber, Bender235, BenjaminTsai, Bennelliott, Beno1000, Bentrebs, Bequw, Betacommand, Bfinn, Big Adamsky, Bjornbrunstad, Bkwillwm, Black-Velvet, Blahzre, Bob rulz, Bobak, Bobo192, Bobrayner, Bogdangiusca, Boilpoil, Bongwarrior, Bonusbox, Bookofjude, BovineBeast, BrendelSignature, Brianrulseh1, Brianski, BritishWatcher, Broccoli, Brusnl, Brz7, Btilm, BubbleDude22, Budavari1970, Bunifaaa, Butteris, C editor720, CUSENZA Mario, Cambrasa, Camillaschippa, Caminator ii, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canaima, Cantus, Capitalismojo, Cappelle, Capricorn42, Caquita21, Catinator, Cazort, Cbogart2, Cburnett, Cdang, Certes, Cflm001, Charles Essie, CharlesC, Chausean, Chemical Ali, Chicago god, Chipmunkdavis, Chookmeister, Chris the speller, Christopher Mann McKay, Chronus, CieloEstrellado, Cielomobile, Citicat, Citizen Premier, Clam0p, Clark89, Closedmouth, CocoaPuff310, Cogito ergo sumo, Cohneli, Columba livia, Conorbrady.ie, Corticopia, Countdown to oblivion, Cretog8, Cryptaker, Cuchullain, Cujo rosa, Curps, Cybercobra, Cyrus Andiron, Czarccc, DH85868993, DJ Clayworth, DJBullfish, DVdm, DVoit, Dabackgammonator, Dan wilson12, Dan56789, DanKeshet, DancingPhilosopher, Danno uk, DarkLink, Darlough, Daswede, David McCormick, David Schaich, Davius, Dayg1110, Ddjam4, DeadEyeArrow, Deepdreamer, Deiz, Denis Sacharnych, Der Golem, Derlinus, Desiphral, Devout Christian, Dfrg.msc, Diegom809, DirkvdM, Discospinster, Dismas, Ditsonis, Dnbbtt, Doc Tropics, DocWatson42, Docboat, Docu, Donarreiskoffer, Donner60, Douglas the Comeback Kid, Download, DrCruse, Dramatic, Drazsika, Dreamxxtraveller, Drgregmartin, Ducknish, Dysepsion, E Pluribus Anthony, E946, EDGKBH, Earl Andrew, Eastfrisian, Edgesonic, Edolen1, Eduardo Sellan III, Eeeeeekscv, Effer, Egtj, Elassint, Eleassar, Elekhh, Eliko, Elk Salmon, Elockid, ElockidAlternate, Emma May Smith, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Equilibrial, EscapingLife, Espoo, Espresso Addict, Ethraen, Euroval, Evilandi, Ex nihil, Excirial, Exerman, Explicit, ExplicitImplicity, Exukvera, Eyesnore, FF2010, Face, Faigl.ladislav, Fairseeder, Faisaltt, Faizan, Faradayplank, Fayenatic london, Fcarson, Fct, Felipe Menegaz, Fisherama55555, Flewis, Flexxx, Flockmeal, FoekeNoppert, Foofong1, Formerly very active, now only occasional editor, Foxhound66, Frank.manus, Franken10, Fred Bradstadt, Fredrik, Freefry, Frxstrem, Funandtrvl, GDP, GVOLTT, Gaius Cornelius, Gas Panic42, Gazpacho, Gbhatnag, Gblab, GenericBob, Genius Chimpanzee, Geoffrie, Geraldo Perez, Gfoley4, Gglenda, Giornorosso, Gioto, Girlwithgreeneyes, Glane23, Glass House 00, Glenn L, Glloq, GnuDoyng, Godefroy, GoneAwayNowAndRetired, Gonzalochileno, Goran.S2, Gproud, Grayshi, GregorB, Grenavitar, Gugganij, GuiQi, Guinsberg, Gurch, Gwernol, HIDECCHI001, HOOTmag, Halofan101, HamburgerRadio, HaploTR, Harryboyles, Hayden120, Haylee Meldrum, Hdante, Hede2000, HelgeStenstrom, Helldjinn, Help! 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File:2013 UN Human Development Report Quartiles.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2013_UN_Human_Development_Report_Quartiles.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: BlankMap-World6,_compact.svg: Canuckguy et al. derivative work: Vertawes (talk) File:Mahbub-ul-Haq.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mahbub-ul-Haq.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Snaim File:Amartya Sen NIH.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Amartya_Sen_NIH.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: NIH (according to picture caption) File:Human Development Index trends.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Human_Development_Index_trends.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: cflm (talk) File:Increase2.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Increase2.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Sarang File:Decrease2.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Decrease2.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Sarang File:Steady2.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Steady2.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Tomchen1989 File:Flag of Norway.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Norway.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dbenbenn File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bean49, Cathy Richards, David Descamps, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Evanc0912, Fry1989, Gabriel trzy, Howcome, IvanOS, Mimich, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, Oreo Priest, Ricordisamoa, Rocket000, Rodejong, SiBr4, Sir Iain, ThomasPusch, Warddr, Zscout370, 6 anonymous edits File:Flag of Andorra.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Andorra.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: HansenBCN File:Flag of Australia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Australia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Mifter File:Flag of Austria.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Austria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Estonia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Estonia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Originally drawn by User:SKopp. Blue colour changed by User:PeepP to match the image at . File:Flag of the United States.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Singapore.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Singapore.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various

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File:Flag of Slovakia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Slovakia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: SKopp File:Flag of the Netherlands.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Zscout370 File:Flag of France.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_France.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Qatar.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Qatar.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: (of code) cs:User:-xfiFile:Flag of Germany.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Finland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Finland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp File:Flag of Hungary.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Hungary.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of New Zealand.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Achim1999, Adabow, Adambro, Arria Belli, Avenue, Bawolff, Bjankuloski06en, ButterStick, Cycn, Denelson83, Donk, Duduziq, EugeneZelenko, Fred J, Fry1989, George Ho, Hugh Jass, Ibagli, Jusjih, Klemen Kocjancic, MAXXX-309, Mamndassan, Mattes, Nightstallion, O, Peeperman, Poromiami, Reisio, Rfc1394, Sarang, Shizhao, Tabasco, Transparent Blue, Väsk, Xufanc, Zscout370, 38 anonymous edits File:Flag of Slovenia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Slovenia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Achim1999 File:Flag of Barbados.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Barbados.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Denelson83 File:Flag of Ireland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ireland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Spain.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Spain.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Poland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Poland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Mifter File:Flag of Sweden.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Sweden.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Liechtenstein.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Mnmazur File:Flag of Chile.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Chile.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alkari, B1mbo, Cycn, David Newton, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, ElmA, Er Komandante, Fibonacci, Fry1989, Fsopolonezcaro, Herbythyme, Huhsunqu, Kallerna, Kanonkas, Klemen Kocjancic, Kyro, MAXXX-309, Mattes, McZusatz, Mozzan, Nagy, Nightstallion, Piastu, Pixeltoo, Pumbaa80, SKopp, Sarang, SiBr4, Srtxg, Sterling.M.Archer, Str4nd, Ultratomio, Vzb83, Xarucoponce, Yakoo, Yonatanh, Zscout370, 49 anonymous edits File:Flag of Switzerland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Marc Mongenet Credits: User:-xfiUser:Zscout370 File:Flag of Italy.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Italy.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Lithuania.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Lithuania.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Japan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Japan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Luxembourg.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Luxembourg.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anime Addict AA, Avala, Dbenbenn, Duduziq, F l a n k e r, Fry1989, Fukaumi, Gryffindor, Guanaco, Homo lupus, Kacir, Klemen Kocjancic, Krun, Madden, Neq00, Nightstallion, Piccadilly Circus, Pmsyyz, RamzyAbueita, Ricordisamoa, Zscout370, 5 anonymous edits File:Flag of Canada.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Good Olfactory, Mifter File:Flag of Portugal.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Portugal.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1910; generic design); Vítor Luís Rodrigues; António Martins-Tuválkin (2004; this specific vector set: see sources) File:Flag of South Korea.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various File:Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: special commission (of code): SVG version by cs:-xfi-. 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