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Acute Renal Failure

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Appendix D

Read each scenario and write a 25- to 50-word answer for each question following the scenarios. Use at least one reference per scenario and format your sources consistent with APA guidelines.

Scenario A

Acute renal failure: Ms. Jones, a 68-year-old female, underwent open-heart surgery to replace several blocked vessels in her heart. On her first day postoperatively, it was noted that she had very little urine output.

What is happening to Ms. Jones’s kidneys, and why is it causing the observed symptom? Acute Kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waster products from your blood.( Acute kidney failure fails into three categories such as prerenal, postrenal, and renal. Mrs. Jones suffers from Acute Renal Failure which means that the kidneys itself that prevent filtration of blood or production or urine. Kidneys is what filter the body's blood, it produces roughly about one milliliter of urine a minute and when the urine changes it is expected to shut down of the kidneys. Mrs. Jones body may have went into shock due to the surgery that she underwent, and an abnormal amount of urine is also known as oliguria.

What other symptoms and signs might occur? The other symptoms that Mrs. Jones may suffer are breath odor, mood changes, decreased appetite, decreased sensation, fatigue, flank pain, tremor in the hands, high blood pressure, Nausea, nosebleeds, hiccups, seizures, shortness of breath, slow movements, swelling in the ankles, feet, and legs, and Urination changes.

What is causing Ms. Jones’s kidney disease? Mrs. Jones's disease is caused by the surgery to fix the blocked blood vessels that were located in her heart. The blood is now able to pass through and fill the blood vessels, and the damage from the blood vessels that was being blocked over time that have compromised the blood in her body. The surgery caused the kidney disease due to the decrease of blood to the kidneys. This is the reason why oliguria is develop which is the low amount of urine output it could also include anuria.

What are possible treatment options, and what is the prognosis? People that are diagnose with acute kidney failure requires a hospital stay. Mrs. Jones was already hospitalized due to her previous surgery which help her tremodously. The first step is treating the cause of the kidney disease. The treatment options will depend on what's causing your kidney failure. Some treatments may include balancing the amount of fluids in your blood, Medication to control blood potassium. Medications to restore blood calcium level, and dialysis to remove toxins from the blood.

Scenario B

Chronic renal failure: Mr. Hodges, a 73-year-old man, has had congestive heart failure for the past 5 years. His doctor has told him that his heart is not functioning well, needing more and more medicine to maintain circulatory function. He has noticed that he is not urinating more than once a day.

Why is the condition of Mr. Hodges’s kidneys affecting the rest of his body? Mr. Hodges's body is collecting waste products which include uric acid, urea in the blood, and creatinine. In this case the kidneys did not properly filter the toxins and the waste from the blood. This problem can lead to fluid level and potassium to become abnormal in the body. This type of condition is what cause the the kidney to affect the rest of the body. Another way if affects the body might have due to the kidneys slowing down the healing process with the broken bones, and due to the lack of urination can lead to the build of water in the ankles and threw out his body.

As his chronic renal failure worsens, what other symptoms and signs might occur in his respiratory, digestive, nervous, and urinary systems? Mr. Hodges may suffer from other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, sleep problems, changes in urine output, changes in mental status, muscle twitches, hiccup, itching, chest pain, and high blood pressure. (

What is causing Mr. Hodges’s kidney disease? Mr. Hodges’s kidney disease is most likely being caused by medications he is taking for congestive heart failure. Medications for congestive heart failure can lower blood pressure (Zellman, 2010) restricting blood flow to the kidneys. Congestive heart failure is also more aggressively treated in most cases than chronic renal failure (Iaina, 2006).

What are possible treatment options, and what is the prognosis? Treatment depend on the cause of the kidney disease. It is very important to treat the cause of the kidney disease. Some treatments are high blood pressure medications, medication to lower cholesterol levels, medications to treat anemia, medications to relieve swelling, medications to protect your bones, and lower protein diet to minimize waste products in your blood


Iaina, A. (2006). Anemia, chronic renal disease and congestive heart failure--the cardio renal anemia syndrome: the need for cooperation between cardiologists and nephrologists. . Retrieved from

The Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011). Acute kidney failure. Retrieved from

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