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Addidas

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阿迪达斯品牌介绍

学生姓名: 专 业: 学 号: 学 院:

目录
1.阿迪达斯的历史发展 1 1.1阿迪达斯新老标志 1 1.2德国阿迪达斯公司简介 1
2.阿迪达斯的中国策略 2 2.1世界的阿迪达斯,更是中国的阿迪达斯 2 2.1.1中国本土化赞助运动 2 2.1.2中国人制定的“金牌”策略——2008年北京奥运会 3 2.1.3强攻中的“亲善”战术 4 2.1.4网尽漏网之鱼——品牌纵深细分与渠道扩张 4 2.2强攻战略的催魂武器——收购锐步 5 2.3阿迪:以奥运为舞台 6
3.阿迪达斯的品牌战略 7 3.1阿迪达斯的品牌策略 7 3.2阿迪达斯王国的供应链策略 9

摘要: adidas依然秉持Adi Dassler完美制鞋的理念,不断的与世界级的顶尖运动家与教练交换心得与需求,经过一连串反覆的测试与考验,发展出符合人体工学的各项产品,不但能帮助各类专业运动家们提升运动表现、更能满足一般市场消费者对高品质运动商品的需求。近年来,adidas不仅在设计上、功能上有新突破,代表性的三条线设计概念亦在流行趋势中掀起另一股风潮,席卷时下的年轻新世代形成流行新风格,带领全球运动商品迈向更多元化的远景。
关键字:adidas 阿迪达斯 品牌策略

1.阿迪达斯的历史发展

1.1阿迪达斯新老标志

1972年adidas首次采用“三叶草”这个商标。“三叶草”分别代表奥运精神、也是运动员一直追求的目标—更高、更快、更强。很多的人都认为“三叶草”的设计代表一朵盛开的花,其实原本它代表的是世界地图,将三个大陆板块连结在一起,也喻意着阿迪达斯创办人阿迪.达斯勒在运动鞋上所缝的三条带子。 1996年,adidas选择现代奥运诞生的一百周年开始,来纪念庆祝过往所取得的伟大成就,展望未来。“三叶草”只会出现在经典系列产品上,其他产品全部改用新的“三道杠”商标,代表品牌的优质内涵和未来前景。

1.2德国阿迪达斯公司简介

阿迪达斯(adidas)是一间德国运动用品制造商,是Adidas AG的成员公司。阿迪达斯以其创办人阿道夫•达斯勒(Adolf Adi Dassler)命名,在1920年于接近纽伦堡的赫佐格奥拉赫(Herzogenaurach)开始生产鞋类产品。1949年8月18日以adidas AG名字登记。阿迪达斯的服装及运动鞋设计通常都可见到3条平行间条,在其标志上亦可见,3条间条是阿迪达斯的特色。阿迪达斯("Adidas")以其创办人阿道夫•达斯勒(Adolf Dassler)的绰号(Adi)加上姓氏(Dassler)的头三个字母组成。 阿迪达斯体育用品,一个近百年历史的运动品牌,自从上世纪二十年代诞生,始终以“领跑者”的姿态伫立于世界体育用品的品牌阵营,且不断享受着接踵而来的成功喜悦。也就是这样一个优秀的运动品牌不仅为世界体育事业做出杰出贡献,同时在他的创新与引导下,世界体育产业经济及体育用品行业发展才呈现出更多的精彩。但自上世纪七十年代开始,在美国跑步运动热潮中被新生对手耐克严重挫败后,这种关乎品牌命运的“失落”一直陪伴其走过数十年的艰辛历程,并被营销界人士整理成经典失败案例摆在教学的课堂。 阿迪达斯的品牌创始人是阿迪达斯勒,达斯勒是个制鞋匠,还是一位痴迷的业余田径运动员。他从1926年开始经商,当时他家里开了家制造专用轻质跑鞋和足球鞋的工厂。1948年由于达斯勒兄弟产生家庭矛盾,达斯勒公司一分为二。其中一家叫彪马的公司归阿迪达斯勒的兄弟,另一家就是现在的阿迪达斯。

2.阿迪达斯的中国策略

2.1世界的阿迪达斯,更是中国的阿迪达斯

了解阿迪达斯品牌的同仁应该清楚,阿迪达斯体育用品从来不缺少优秀的高科技产品,因为阿迪达斯一直视“运动科技”为品牌发展原始动力与根本,这也是阿迪达斯品牌之所以长期抗战体育用品市场的重要原因。就如该品牌近些年所研发之a3、T-MAC3、Y-3等技术在产品上的运用,在全球体育用品史上均具有划时代的意义。 同时,阿迪达斯又习惯于不断更新产品技术与提高产品设计能力。譬如:在2004年,阿迪达斯继2002所推出之以吸震、导向、传动“三合一能量管理”为概念推出a3鞋款后,再一次革命性推出具备耐磨、抗温、吸震的“A3 ULTRA RIDE跑鞋”。同年又推出阿迪达斯“ClimaCool”系列360度透气运动鞋。 2005年,阿迪达斯在全球运动界引起轰动的世界首双芯片智能运动鞋“adidas-1”于4月15日正式登陆中国,虽然售价高2680元人民币,但还是成为众多运动爱好者力捧的高科技运动产品。今年11月,阿迪达斯又专门为拳坛传奇人物穆罕默德阿里而设计出的具备科学含量的时尚运动产品,也已经在中国各专卖店上柜……除了耐克品牌之外,估计已无法再有哪个品牌有实力与阿迪达斯相抗衡了。 只是阿迪达斯在战略防守阶段不能够基于坚实的产品实力本身,深入提高品牌渗透率。让中国消费者真切感受到“阿迪达斯体育用品就在身边”“阿迪达斯不仅仅只是运动贵族,更是中国人不可缺少的、优质的运动生活伙伴。” 在阿迪达斯统一管理华语区经营工作以来,除了不断推出高科技运动产品外,其在市场推广层面也已经按此奋斗目标在中国体育用品行业的上空不断抛出一颗颗足以带动行业经济发展的强攻式炸弹。

2.1.1中国本土化赞助运动

按照阿迪达斯体育用品的经营战略,如果说整合相同语种地区的分支机构是其强攻战略的的标志内容,那么巨资赞助中国足球则是阿迪达斯中华区成立后的第一颗炸弹。 由于阿迪达斯1999年与中国足协所签定的5年合同将在2004年到期,为了让其中华区市场发展能够拥有坚实的本土传播推广资源,阿迪达斯在中华区机构成立之时即提前与中国足协接触。虽然,耐克品牌此时也积极参与其中,且开出高价吸引中国足协的关注,但阿迪达斯在对中国足球市场未来几年的发展趋势进行全面分析和预测后,最终开出5亿元人民币的价码将长达6年的赞助合同揽于囊中。同时,阿迪所能获得的回报也比以前有很大增加,包括在中国之队比赛的场地广告、球衣版权等。 在这份新协议签订之后,且通过近一年时间的市场印证:国家队的正版球衣、包括外套都已成为阿迪产品销售的新热点,尤其阿迪达斯“猎鹰系列”新版足球鞋也得到了最佳的本土化演绎。另外在2004年到2009年期间,中国队的比赛任务不仅包括了2006年世界杯,更重要的是2008年奥运会,这两大赛事届时均将成为阿迪达斯品牌在中国本土区域的强势资源。 更令人惊喜的是,事隔不到一年时间,阿迪达斯又进行了一次创纪录投入,以2亿元人民币的资金和实物赞助中国国家排球队,时长五年时间。这个数字是国家排球队以往接受赞助的数十倍。这也是阿迪达斯有史以来对排球项目最大规模的一笔。虽然阿迪达斯也曾赞助过古巴女排,这次对中国排球队的赞助规模,一举超过了对古巴队的赞助。 阿迪达斯之所以会重金赞助中国排球,这与中国女排长期以来所取得的佳绩有一定关系,中国女排的成绩是中国大型球类项目中一向是最好的,形象也是非常好,但 “身价”一直不高,长期是“凤凰卖了个鸡价”。尤其随着中国女排在2003年世界锦标赛上重新夺得世界冠军,2004年又重新夺回奥运会冠军,中国排球的身价水涨船高,直线上升。 阿迪达斯愿意扔出数亿资金赞助中国运动组织,在其中华区发展史上还属于一个奇迹般的推广运动,笔者也认为这是一个明智之举,因为要让中国人尤其年轻人都喜爱和购买阿迪达斯产品,阿迪达斯必须让其金字塔推广模式实现本土化运作,只有如此才可以感动与亲和中国消费者,否则又在自己与消费者之间架起以往“高高在上”“可望而不可及”的品牌消费屏障。

2.1.2中国人制定的“金牌”策略——2008年北京奥运会

阿迪达斯与奥运会的联系历史悠久,最早在1928年的奥运会上就出现过阿迪达斯体育用品。与可口可乐、VISA卡等其他赞助商不同是,阿迪达斯体育用品为竞赛起到了锦上添花的作用,其新产品、新技术可以帮助一些优秀的运动员获取优异成绩,甚至摘得意想不到的运动项目金牌。1932年第一次穿阿迪达斯鞋的运动员获得奥运会金牌。1936年德国举行的奥运会上,杰西-欧文斯破记录地一人获得4枚金牌,令观众席上的希特勒大为光火。拍摄了欧文斯穿着阿迪达斯跑鞋的照片在全世界广为流传。 不过,阿迪达斯所赞助奥运会及其它重要体育赛事的推广活动一直以来均体现在中国市场以外的其它区域,对中国市场推进只能起到辅助效果。何况中国也未能取得一些象奥运会、世界杯这样的国际重点赛事,阿迪达斯没有其它能力对此进行合理嫁接。一直随着北京获得2008年奥运会主办权的机会来临,阿迪达斯才真正感受到即将拥有这份久违的大事件。 2005年1月24日,在北京奥林匹克中心,北京奥委会执行副主席王伟和阿迪达斯大中华地区总裁桑德琳分别在合作协议书上签字。阿迪达斯(苏州)有限公司和阿迪达斯-所罗门集团成为北京2008年奥运会第七个合作伙伴。这意味着北京2008年奥运会和北京残奥会的所有工作人员、自愿者、技术官员以及参加冬奥会和08奥运会的中国奥运代表团成员届时将穿着印有“ADIDAS”标志的体育服饰。赞助总价值13亿元。其中的一个戏剧性细节是:此次北京奥运会赞助活动是在阿迪达斯和中国本土品牌李宁之间展开,李宁开始投入10亿元希望取得赞助权,但还是由阿迪达斯取得最终胜利。 可以肯定的是,奥运会是全球规模最大、最激动人心的体育盛事,2008年首次在中国举行,这必将为阿迪达斯提供一个独一无二的平台,进而在中国乃至整个亚洲树立阿迪达斯的品牌形象与业务。毫无疑问,按照阿迪达斯一贯的行事风格,北京奥运会也将成为其强攻战略旗下最为核心的推广战术。为了能够在2008年奥运会前后借机取得强攻战略的胜利,阿迪达斯甚至为此准备了一支包括全球和本地专家的阿迪达斯专业团队,专门为北京奥运会工作,目的就是为北京奥运会项目度身定制产品、装备和科技。 虽然北京奥运会离现在还有两年时间,但可以预测的是:阿迪达斯在2007年即将展开专门针对北京奥运会为核心的推广活动,所有一切的推广细节将覆盖中国体育用品市场。

2.1.3强攻中的“亲善”战术

阿迪达斯为了稳固影响其“金字塔”模式底层的普通体育运动爱好者,一直致力于推动篮球运动的发展,且长期制定青少年推广计划——“草根行动”,“街头篮球赛”就是其中一分支。“街头篮球赛”引进中国已有6年时间,每年均有十万余人参与此次活动,已成为中国年轻篮球爱好者的最喜爱响应的品牌活动之一。目前该活动已经在全球建立起一个完整的体系:每年从城市到国家,再到大区,逐级晋升的赛事体系使全世界的青少年篮球爱好者拥有了交流的平台。

2.1.4网尽漏网之鱼——品牌纵深细分与渠道扩张

为了紧密配合阿迪达斯的强攻战略执行,近两年以来,阿迪达斯在品牌构建方面进行了一次颠覆——将阿迪达斯品牌分成三大系列,包括阿迪达斯运动表现系列(以前的“运动无止境”系列),运动传统系列(以前的经典系列)和运动时尚系列。这一划分从根本上改变传统的体育用品公司按服装和鞋类划分的方法。阿迪达斯给予每个系列以自己的标志,分别定位不同人群,均以独立品牌形式分别展示于卖场的不同区域,从而实现终端覆盖。通过市场印证:由于不同系列产品均代表不同运动风格,阿迪达斯产品十分深刻地迎合了现今运动爱好者的消费心理,为阿迪达斯品牌信仰者提供了更广阔了选购空间。 更值得一提的是,从2004年开始,阿迪达斯建立于三大系列产品构建基础上,同时进行了销售网络的扩张运动。阿迪达斯尝试发展关键客户的模式来积极进行销售网络的扩张,这个模式类似于召集合作伙伴进行加盟连锁。只是他们的关键词在于“合作”而并非仅仅指向“加盟”。据阿迪达斯公司资料显示,目前他们在中国的一些关键客户基本上都已经拥有了平均50至300多间的零售店铺,这些合作伙伴拥有自主的管理、资源和财务,并且在阿迪达斯的支持下,利用阿迪达斯的品牌来创建零售商自己的品牌。 也正是阿迪达斯乐于支持这些关键客户打造自有品牌并且坚信双方可以达到有效的品牌相互拉动。目前阿迪达斯与它的中国零售商们以每月新开40间店面的速度进行扩张——而这些都是建立在目前阿迪达斯53%的产品都是在中国生产这一基础上。截止2004年底,阿迪达斯在中国250个城市已经拥有1300多个专卖店,销量与2003年相比,增长了100%,销售额达到了14亿元人民币。同时阿迪达斯还争取将这个速度一直维持到2008年。到那个时候,阿迪在斯的目标是在中国400座城市内拥有4000间零售店,销售额超过10亿欧元。

2.2强攻战略的催魂武器——收购锐步

2005年8月份,体育用品行业都在关注一个惊人的消息,即欧洲最大的体育用品制造商德国阿迪达斯斥资30余亿欧元收购美国锐步公司,旨在进一步挑战世界运动品制造业霸主美国耐克公司。 这次收购对阿迪达斯来说是一个具有战略意义的里程碑事件,在世界运动商品业的历史上,让两家最具有代表性和知名度的巨头联合起来的事情一辈子只会出现一次。至此也可以看出,新阿迪达斯开始逐鹿中国,撼动耐克霸主地位的战略构想已然成形。 阿迪达斯收购锐步的行动,对其中国区域市场推进又能带来哪些实际利益。 利益一:锐步是仅次于耐克、阿迪达斯的全球第三大运动品制造商,通过多年的市场运作,锐步在中华区已经拥有极强的品牌影响力与市场运营基础。目前阿迪达斯在华市场份额为19%,如加上锐步,二者的总份额可迅速超过耐克30%,阿迪达斯收购锐步,势必会增强自己同耐克争夺至关重要的中华区市场的实力。 利益二:对于阿迪达斯来说,锐步在中国至少拥有一个连耐克都无法企及的市场利器——姚明。姚明与锐步在2003年签订了一份终身赞助合同,这是一个阿迪达斯将“充分利用”的市场机会,更是阿迪达斯收购锐步在华获得的最大收益之一。加之,姚明是中国迄今为止在全球最具影响的体坛明星,恰恰在阿迪达斯品牌的形象代言群体中,缺少一位能够主动亲和与憾动中国消费者的中国明星,这无非为阿迪达斯实现“世界的阿迪达斯,更是中国的阿迪达斯”的中国强攻计划增加更有份量的筹码。同时两大品牌还可以将双方的明星代言人进行联手式推广(大卫贝克汉姆是阿迪达斯的签约代言人之一,而艾弗森和姚明则是锐步众多NBA球星代言人中最著名的两位)。 利益三:按照体育用品行业的成功经验,优秀的品牌与产品首先必须在优秀的终端卖场获得最佳的产品展示效果,从而赢取市场主动权与消费信心。然而,谁能够有机会进入优秀卖场或获得最佳的卖场位置,还具体取决于品牌的影响程度与运作实力,虽然单凭阿迪达斯目前的品牌地位,并不须要太过于担心此点,但合并后的公司在和零售商谈判时将具有更大的说服力,能够争取到更多更好的货架位置。可以预见,中国各城市大型零售卖场即将成为阿迪达斯的天下。 利益四:自从阿迪达斯成立大中华区管理机构以来,其市场发展已呈现新的转机,尤其从2004年开始阿迪达斯在华发展速度已然快于耐克,阿迪达斯可以将其在华的一切资源同锐步分享。譬如今后在中国或其它区域签定新的代言合同时,将处于更加有利的地位,还能从媒体获得更多的广告折扣。更可以采用“二合一”的方式更新销售系统,从而节约运作成本与提高资源利用水平。笔者之所以下此结论,那是因为阿迪达斯和锐步的市场运营与销售不一定需要两套班子来进行操作。同时在产品代工企业和销售代理商等合作商的选择与利用上可进行互相渗透。 耐克目前在中国市场乃至全球体育用品市场上领先,但只要新阿迪达斯把握住中国机会,撼动耐克的霸主地位决非天方夜谭。正因为如此,耐克对于阿迪达斯在中国的强攻也保持了高度的关注,当然也会改变众多本土品牌所扬言之“竞争对手只有耐克”的轻敌态度。

2.3阿迪:以奥运为舞台

1928年,当公司创始人阿迪•达斯勒,为参加阿姆斯特丹奥运会的运动员缝制第一双运动鞋开始,阿迪达斯的历史就和奥运会紧密地联系到一起了———至少有三次以上的奥运官方供应商资历,在雅典奥运会上,阿迪达斯向所有28项运动中的26项提供装备。事实上,正是奥运会这种国际体育比赛为阿迪达斯提供了展示产品品质的最佳平台,也正是这一营销特色成就了后来的阿迪达斯。 阿迪•达斯勒和他的继任者们只有一个信念:要为运动员提供最好的产品,从而让他们成绩更好。而像奥运会这种国际性的比赛场地无疑是检验产品质量的最好基地。在全球,阿迪达斯的营销策略主要采取的是与世界级的体育赛事紧密联系的策略,以及与金牌项目团队和金牌运动员签订代言协议,进行品牌的相互拉动的策略。事实上对于体育用品公司来说,奥运会、世界杯、NBA、金牌运动员等等影响力巨大并且声誉良好的代言方式,本身也就是最好的宣传形式。尽管阿迪达斯旗下拥有一批著名的运动员作为代言人,但公司赞助活动的重心却更偏向于大型的全球体育比赛、体育组织和团队,如奥运会、欧洲足球锦标赛和世界杯足球赛。这一策略使阿迪达斯将自己与最激动人心的盛会联系在一起。这与偏重于赞助运动员个人的做法所不同的是,后者更大程度上寄希望于运动员的成功和赛场内外的楷模表现。除了世界大赛外,阿迪达斯还赞助世界各地的国家队和地区队。它赞助的队伍有德国、西班牙和法国等国家足球队,AC米兰队和皇家马德里队等足球俱乐部队,纽约扬基棒球队和旧金山49人橄榄球队。球队是其为数众多球迷们生活的中心和精神追求所在,这就为球队赞助商与顾客建立联系、向他们推广品牌提供了独特的机会。 依靠这一套营销模式,阿迪达斯在20世纪60年代和70年代可谓一枝独秀。 但是,进入70年代,阿迪达斯没有意识到平动已经成为一种潮流,还是专注于专业运动鞋。由于对销售预期的失败和对市场竞争状况的低估,阿迪达斯的地位受到了挑战,最后在70年代后期被耐克取代。

3.阿迪达斯的品牌战略

3.1阿迪达斯的品牌策略

阿迪达斯品牌技术上不断创新,成功地借助奥运会和著名运动员广告效应以及金字塔型的品牌推广模式 众所周知,阿迪达斯是当今世界著名的体育品牌之一,与耐克、锐步等品牌占据了全球体育用品消费的主要市场份额。阿迪达斯从1920年创立以来(“ADIDAS”商标注册于1948年),既有过成功的辉煌,也有过失败的教训。这些商战中的起落,与其品牌的定位和发展策略有着密切的关系。审视阿迪达斯的发展历史和品牌经营过程中的得与失,对于我国方兴未艾的体育用品产业的发展,无疑具有重要的借鉴价值。 从初创到世界体育用品一流品牌——扩张性的品牌策略频频奏效 阿迪达斯公司初创时,虽然还只是一个作坊式的小企业,但其眼光已瞄准了世界大市场。所以,在公司发展早期,阿迪达斯就将产品技术创新作为开拓市场、提高品牌知名度的动力。“功能第一”,“给运动员最好的”是公司品牌发展的原则。阿迪达斯的创始人阿迪•达斯勒不但是位田径运动员和体育爱好者,也是位推崇工艺、品质和热衷于创新的企业家和发明家,阿迪达斯运动鞋制作工艺中的许多技术突破都是由他实现的,他先后共获得700项的专利。同时,阿迪•达斯勒也是世界运动鞋制作领域的开先河者。1920年,阿迪就发明了世界上第一双训练用运动鞋,在他领导下的阿迪达斯诞生了世界上第一双冰鞋和胶铸足球钉鞋。阿迪达斯研制的旋入型钉鞋是个非常革命性的创新,人们甚至认为它为德国足球队1954年获得世界杯立下了汗马功劳。 阿迪达斯品牌扬名世界始于1936年在其本土德国柏林举行的奥运会上。此届奥运会前夕,阿迪找到极为希望夺冠的美国短跑运动员杰西•欧文斯,并向他保证钉鞋对其比赛肯定大有帮助,但当时被欧文斯拒绝了。于是阿迪又建议他可以在赛前训练中试穿。结果,使用效果使欧文斯如获至宝,并在正式比赛中使用了阿迪达斯的钉鞋,结果他连夺四枚金牌震惊了世界。虽然欧文斯本身的实力是毋庸置疑的,但他毕竟在众多跑鞋中选择了阿迪达斯跑鞋参赛。欧文斯的成绩令观众席上的阿道夫•希特勒大为光火,由于全世界对纳粹德国的一致痛恨,拍摄了欧文斯穿着阿迪达斯跑鞋的夺冠照片在世界各国广为流传。在确立世界知名体育用品品牌之后,阿迪达斯的品牌发展仍与技术革新保持着紧密的联系。1956年墨尔本奥运会上,阿迪达斯推出了一个附属品牌——“墨尔本”,这个品牌用来命名阿迪达斯新研制的改进型多钉扣型运动鞋。在那届奥运会上,穿阿迪达斯运动鞋的选手共获得72枚金牌,从而使阿迪达斯品牌知名度得到了更大的提高。 阿迪达斯长子霍斯特•达斯勒具有营销的禀赋,他率先将品牌在视觉上与运动员、运动队、大型比赛以及相关体育活动联系起来。在他的倡导下,阿迪达斯成为第一个向优秀运动员免费赠送运动鞋的公司,第一家与运动队签订长期提供球鞋、球袜合同的公司,使人们在许多世界级的比赛中看到优秀运动员们脚上穿着阿迪达斯的产品。同时,阿迪达斯积极赞助全球性的体育盛会。由于奥运会在人们心中的崇高地位,使之不仅为最优秀运动员提供大舞台,也为各种项目所使用的运动鞋展现不同功能创造了最好机会。因此,奥运会被阿迪达斯确定为最理想的赞助对象。阿迪达斯与可口可乐、Visa卡等其他赞助商不同,阿迪达斯运动鞋作为一种商品能实质性地融入比赛。同时,阿迪达斯与奥运选手和比赛的长期合作,使阿迪达斯得以与奥林匹克运动建立了坚实的联系,而其他与体育无关或间歇赞助奥运会的品牌要发展这种关系是十分困难的。 在公司发展过程中,阿迪达斯采取的是金字塔型的品牌推广模式,在三个层次产生影响。首先,该品牌吸引了许多想出成绩的运动员,这不仅是出于他们对高性能运动装备的需要,更在于阿迪达斯的不断革新,为选手们发挥高水平给予了技术上实质的支持。其次,阿迪达斯品牌在那些登上重大比赛领奖台的运动员身上频频出现,激发了更多潜在消费者——周末探险者和业余运动员的需要。在这个层次上,真正能满足需求的产品和口碑传播起了关键作用。第三,上述运动员的品牌偏好逐渐渗透到一般普通健身者群中,而这却是一个最大的消费群体。通过这种品牌推广方式,加之阿迪达斯已具有的强大市场基础,其品牌的影响力迅速延伸至与体育运动相关的各个层面。 阿迪达斯品牌通过技术上不断创新,成功地借助奥运会和著名运动员广告效应以及金字塔型的品牌推广模式等品牌发展策略,到上世纪60年代和70年代,阿迪达斯已在体育用品市场具有无可匹敌的优势,成为世界体育用品一流品牌。 鼎盛之后经营受挫——原品牌策略受到耐克的巨大挑战 1978年阿迪•达斯勒去世后,阿迪达斯失去了技术创新的主要动力。1985年霍斯勒•达斯勒的离世使阿迪达斯失去了一位具有品牌远见的管理者。1989年之后的3年,阿迪达斯公司先后卖给了法国商人伯纳德•塔皮尔和法国的一家银行财团,先后两任新老板的接手并未给阿迪达斯公司经营发展注入新的活力。而就在这个时期体育用品消费市场发生的变化,需要阿迪达斯做出品牌策略上的相应转变,而遗憾的是阿迪达斯却没有。 进入上世纪80年代后,阿迪达斯的金字塔品牌推广模式开始失效。在美国这个全球最大的运动产品市场,金字塔底那部分消费者参加跑步健身的人数激增,耐克抓住时机,大获成功。尽管阿迪达斯在跑步项目运动员中颇受青睐,穿阿迪达斯运动鞋参加纽约马拉松的选手从1970年的150人增加到1979年的4000人,一项70年代末的调查还显示有一半以上的美国人曾穿过阿迪达斯运动鞋。但事业的顺利使其忽视了慢跑热潮的兴起和耐克的崛起。阿迪达斯被成功者常见的想法束缚了——为什么要在陌生的领域投资呢?此时的阿迪达斯认为:慢跑不是群体性或竞技性运动项目,它和公司熟悉的市场不一样——慢跑健身者不在阿迪达斯金字塔模式的三个层次消费群体中。而对于属于大众健身的慢跑者群体,阿迪达斯也无法与什么队伍、俱乐部或组织建立联系。

3.2阿迪达斯王国的供应链策略

05年8月一条新闻震惊了运动商品行业:欧洲最大的运动品制造商德国阿迪达斯•所罗门公司3日宣布,它计划斥资31亿欧元收购美国锐步公司,旨在进一步挑战世界运动品制造业霸主美国耐克公司。锐步是仅次于耐克的美国第二大运动品制造商,全球排名第三,按照协议,锐步将继续保留自己的品牌,总部仍在美国马萨诸塞州的坎顿。收购后阿迪达斯增强自己同耐克争夺至关重要的美国市场的实力。加之早前,阿迪达斯击败李宁成为北京2008奥运会唯一运动商品类合作伙伴,一个与NIKE规模相当的新的运动商品王国浮出水面。 致力于创立全球著名的体育品牌的阿迪达斯•所罗门公司是经营体育运动服饰,鞋类用品,器械类的一家国际知名公司,也是欧洲最大的运动品制造商。目前阿迪达斯•索罗门集团对其旗下的三大品牌系列做了一个全新的构建——将阿迪达斯品牌分成三大系列,包括阿迪达斯运动表现系列(以前的“运动无止境”系列),运动传统系列(以前的经典系列)和运动时尚系列,给予每个系列以自己的标志,分别定位不同人群。这一划分定位从根本上改变了传统的体育用品公司按服装和鞋类划分的方法。目前主要提供的产品包括:ADIDAS——足球用品,四季各种类型服装(跑步服,足球服,篮球服等等);Bonfire——滑雪器械和服饰; Erima——足球团队装备和用品;Mavic——自行车运动器械:齿轮,变速装置等。 从1920年制造第一双运动鞋开始,到1927年的生产厂,再到1972年推出三叶草的商标,阿迪达斯一直都在运动商品的前沿位置。但确立起领先优势的还要算1995-1996 年。随着新标识的推出以及公司在巴黎、法兰克服上市,阿迪达斯基本确立了运动商品的王国雏形。 公司在全球市场都有业务。市场划分:亚洲,欧洲,美洲。公司的主要子公司遍部全球,通过各种方式直接或间接控股,主要分为德国,美洲,欧洲,拉丁美洲,亚洲太平洋地区。 ADIDAS通过其遍布全球的附属公司、批发商、持牌经营商及代理商,使产品差不多在世界每个国家均有出售。它的分公司散布在全球50多个国家,产品销售到160多个国家和地区,是世界头号体育用品公司。ADIDAS的产品众多,最主要一项是足球鞋,每年生产500多个品种28万余双,在150多个国家的体育用品销售中占据首位。ADIDAS建立了在市场中卓有成就的构架,这包括将所有权与管理权清楚界定;以产品为经营交点;采取集中管理手段,并在欧洲及北美设立设计及发展中心;设立区域销售附属公司结构;以及与原分销商成立合资企业,直接提高市场地位。

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