# Advance Quantitative Techniques and Scales of Research

In: Other Topics

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I- Research and its types II- Type of scales III- Corelation IV- Relaiblity V- Screening VI- Mean comparison test

RESEARCH: Finding solution to the problem and a careful study that creates addition in existing body of knowledge.
Types
I- Basic II- Applied
Other
I- Descriptive II- Explanatory III- Exploratory
Types of Scales I- Nominal II- Ordinal III- Interval IV- Ratio
Other
I- Dichotomous II- Likert-type scale III- List of items IV- Matrix question

Correlation analysis is used to describe the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables.
Types
I- Pearson correlation is used when quantitative data is normally distributed. II- Spearman correlation is used when data is not normally distributed

Reliability: Reliability of measure indicates extent to which it is without bias and hence ensures consistent measurement across time (stability) and across the various items in the instrument (internal consistency).
Reliability is a test of how consistently a measuring instrument measures whatever concept it is measuring.
Internal Consistency the homogeneity of the items in the measure I- items should hang together as a set and be capable of independently measuring the same concept II- Whether the items and the subsets of items in the measuring instrument are correlated highly.

a. Inter-item Consistency Reliability: This is a test of the consistency of respondents’ answers to all the items in a measure. The most popular test of inter-item consistency reliability is the Cronbach’s coefficient alpha.
b.Split-Half Reliability: Split-half reliability reflects the correlations between two halves of an instrument

Screening * Missing Data: Statistical Problems: SEM requires a certain minimum number of data points in order to...

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