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Advanced Teaching Methodology

In: English and Literature

Submitted By Mailanhcm
Words 471
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Approach: Within the teaching method framework, the approach is constituted by those theoretical principles on which the curricular design is based (Richards and Rodgers, 1986). Thus, an approach is usually understood as the body of linguistic, psychological and pedagogical theories which inspire the teaching practice. Stern (1983: 43-50) refers to foundations/theoretical assumptions and to a level -interlevel- between theory and practice where the educational linguistics theory and research take place.
Curricular design: A new term which substitutes both programme and syllabus as old limited references to contents and bibliography. Within Richards and Rodgers’ outline (1986), the design includes objectives, linguistic content, activities, learner roles, teacher roles, and the role of instructional materials. According to Stern (1983: 43-50), the practice level of a “general model for second language teaching” includes methodology -objectives, content, procedures, materials and evaluation of outcome- and organization; thus, the term methodology includes design and procedures.
Curriculum: As defined by Nunan (1988), it comprises the principles and procedures for the planning, implementation, evaluation and management of an educational programme.
Method: This general term includes the approach, design and procedures in Richards and Rodgers’ model.
Methodics and Method analysis: Terms used by Halliday, McIntosh and Strevens (1964) and Mackey (1965), respectively, in order to consider the whole teaching processes. Special emphasis is placed on selection, grading, presentation, repetition and testing.
Methodology: Stern’s (1983) concept of methodology can be identified with design, according to Richards and Rodgers (1986). It involves content, objectives, materials, procedures and assessment –under the acronym of C.O.M.P.A.-. Together with organization, it constitutes the practical level of the general model for second language teaching (Stern, 1983: 44).
Procedures: Those “techniques, practices, and behaviours observed when the method” is taken to the classroom, as Richards and Rodgers summarize (1986).
Programme: List of the topics or chapters of the course. It usually includes readings and other bibliographical references. It is a good tool to present the content outline which belongs to a broader conceptual curricular design framework.
Syllabus: Similar to programme, it contains what is to be taught with a clear reference to selection and grading of content.
Strategies: Learning strategies are those procedures used by the learner in order to cope with the problems faced. The knowledge of these “attack plans” is supposed to be taken to the classroom so that they become a new resource to make teaching work.
Teachers’ guide: First attempts to place traditional methods within a broader pedagogical framework “in the view of modern theorists-practitioners language teaching” (Stern, 1983: 477). The most relevant contribution comes from the teacher’s own experience. Rivers’ guide (1981) requires special mention due to her recommendation of an eclectic position.
Techniques: Teaching activities. They must be referred to the broader frame of curricular design to which they belong.
Theoretical principles: See approach.

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