Free Essay

Advertising Bans

In: Social Issues

Submitted By jjdsssss
Words 2348
Pages 10
In the context of the UK’s total ban on tobacco advertising and the potential future restrictions on alcohol advertising, critically review the debate between the strong or weak theories with regard to the effectiveness of advertising bans.

The effectiveness of advertising bans has been a debated for many years. There are two dominant theories of the debate regarding the nature of how advertising works: the strong theory and the weak theory. The strong theory coined by John Philip Jones holds the belief that advertising exerts a powerful persuasive influence on consumer’s behaviour (Jones, 1990). In Contrast Andrew Ehrenberg developed the view of the weak theory of advertising. This view suggests that advertising reinforces rather than initiates consumer behaviour (Ehrenberg, 1992). These two theories have been discussed thoroughly by many theorists to understand how advertising works. Many countries have implemented restrictions in advertising for tobacco and have issued potential future restrictions for alcohol, with the objective that introducing an adverting ban would lower overall consumption. However, Studies analysing the effects of advertising being linked to consumption has led to two separate views on how advertising works and have led some to believe that advertising bans have no effect on overall consumption.
The strong theory of advertising supports the belief that advertising has the power to persuade people who may not know of a brand or bought a product before to buy it. Also, that advertising in terms of the strong theory increases consumers knowledge and can change people’s behaviour patterns. It can also in the view of the strong theory of how advertising works increase sales and manipulate consumers through psychological techniques to make them buy a product (Jones, 1998).
However in contrast, the views of the weak theory believes that advertising does not have the power to change people’s attitudes or behaviour patterns and can’t persuade or manipulate someone into buying something. The weak theory argues that advertisings main purpose is not to persuade but to reinforce already existing behaviour patterns (Barnard, Ehrenberg, 1997). The “Awareness, Trial and Reinforcement” model developed by Ehrenberg is used to describe consumer behaviours according to the view of the weak theory. The idea is that advertising plays a small role in creating awareness, a small role in stimulating trial and an important role in reinforcing existing behaviour patterns (Weilbacher, 2001). The main idea of the weak theory is that advertisings main purpose is to create brand awareness knowledge and familiarity. That advertising can effect consumer habit and make them choose one brand over another that already exists in their mind (Yeshin, 2006).

The Tobacco advertising ban was introduced because it was being linked to people developing fatal diseases and classed as unhealthy. However, the ban has caused a debate into how advertising really works and whether the ban is actually effective in accomplishing its aims. The ban was introduced by the government in the aim that it would reduce overall consumption of tobacco and it would limit the amount of people taking up smoking as a habit. It was argued that tobacco advertising was one of the main influences in people taking up smoking especially amongst young people (Hoek, J. 1999). These views are related to the characteristics of the strong theory on how advertising works, and that advertising is powerful enough to persuade people to adopt smoking, increases peoples knowledge, increase sales and change consumer attitudes. This idea is closely related to the Aida model which demonstrates a view of consumer behaviour. The Aida model principals are to move peoples levels of unawareness to awareness and through this, develop interest, desire and then to buy a product (Yeshin, 2006). Criticism of this model is argued that there is no evidence that consumers behave in a rational linear way.
In relation to this, a view according to the strong theory is that advertising is often able to manipulate the consumer by the use of physiological techniques to persuade them to buy the brand and make people desire the product. An example of this before the ban was implemented was when the tobacco brand “Branson and Hedges” used commercials to promote their brand “Happiness is a cigar called Hamlet”. The cigar advert evoked the idea that if you were having a bad day and you smoked a Branson and Hedges cigar all your troubles would go away and you would be happy. The advert changed consumers behaviour towards the brand and gave the idea that the cigar would make you feel happy and manipulate you into buying it (Brierley, 2002).This is supported in Jones’s study on “Tobacco point of sale advertising increases positive brand user imagery”. In this study he concluded that advertising has an effect on people’s behaviours of a brand. People involved in the study were split into two groups and the group that viewed the Benson and Hedges advert instead of the people who just looked at the packaging were more likely to describe the brand as “relaxed, cool, and classy”. This supports the strong theory that advertising has the ability to manipulate you into believing that smoking will make everything feel better. Therefore, this promotes the idea that without advertising changing people attitudes and behaviour patterns towards a product or brand people would not be persuaded to buy a product and therefore result in lowering overall consumption (Donovan, et al 2002).
There is the argument of the strong theory that the most influential thing advertising could do is to make young people knowledgeable about the brands before they become consumers (Hoek, J. 1999).The task of advertising is to increase brand awareness which has the ability to change people’s attitudes towards smoking and make it seem socially acceptable in society due to its overpowering visibility. Therefore the ban should in relation to the strong theory of thinking decrease the amount of young people’s awareness of tobacco brands which would overall stop people being persuaded to smoke and decrease in consumption (Donovan et al, 2002).
However, many studies have shown that there has been no noticeable change in the consumption or sales of tobacco since the ban which promotes the idea of the weak theory. This relates to the “Awareness, Trial and reinforcement” model of consumer behaviour that advertising reinforces to people who already smoke and have taken up the habit and plays a small role in actual persuading people to smoke but is capable of increasing brand awareness and can stimulating trial of a brand (Ehrenberg,1992).
Therefore, the view of the weak theory on how advertising works is aimed at encouraging their existing consumers to consume more of the goods and increase brand awareness among non-users especially the young (Hoek, J. 1999). An argument of the weak theory of advertising is that advertising alone does not persuade or influence people to buy a product, but other parts of the marketing mix contribute to consumer behaviour. For example, tobacco companies have succeeded in increasing point of sale exposure of their brands by developing new alternatives of existing brands. Since 1998 brand families have grown in size by more than 50%, with popular brands such as Benson & Hedges increasing brand variants from 4 in 1998 to 23 in 2012. The increase in brand variants is designed to increase a brands visual impact on shop shelves which could stimulate trial to try a new variant of a brand you already smoke (ASH Briefing 2012).
Sponsorship was another advertising tool that was used to reinforce smoking and build awareness amongst youths. One main tactic of tobacco companies was to sponsor major sporting events such as motor racing. Research by academics has shown that children have greater brand awareness of those cigarette brands that sponsor sporting events (Young, 1990). This supports the view of the weak theory that advertising can increases brand awareness among youths. Therefore if the ban was effective it would lower youth awareness of the brands which would reduce the amount of young people developing the habit. Studies show from the “ASH” website that after the “Tobacco Advertising and promotions Act” young people’s awareness of tobacco marketing and brand awareness has declined since the ban. However, there is still no evidence that tobacco promotion influences consumer behaviour of the child (ASH Briefing,2012).

In conclusion the reasons for tobacco ban rely heavily on the ideas of the strong theory on how advertising works. If Advertising wasn’t a persuasive tool and did in fact work through the weak theory that advertising reinforced people who already smoked, decreases in consumption would not be obvious in the short term and may not be obvious in the long term since tobacco is so addictive (Hoek, 1999).

Like tobacco, alcohol has also been an area where restrictions have been put in place. The government have implemented these restrictions to protect young people and help stop underage drinking. It is claimed through the strong theory of advertising that advertising alcohol creates a positive image of alcohol consumption and therefore increases consumption. Also that advertising increases competition which results in the reduction of price which makes alcohol more desirable because it is cheap. Therefore advertising bans are predicted to lower alcohol consumption. Again these views are based on the views of the strong theory of advertising that it has the power to persuade people to buy a product and increases sales (Nelson, Young 2001). For example when “Absolut Vodka” was first advertised it was never heard of before. However, they used advertising to make themselves look different from any other vodka brand. They advertised the brand to look classy and fashionable. This changed people’s attitudes towards the brand and made people want to be associated with the drink. Instantly the brand image and sales were increased through advertising as Absolut was known and still is known as one of the main vodka brands and sales increased by 10% and gathered 70% of market share (Lewis, 1996).
In contrast, according to the weak theory other types of marketing are a concern just as much as advertising. For example, Heineken sponsored the Olympics 2013. This was done through the views of the weak theory to create brand awareness and reinforce people who already drank beer to try the brand. By sponsoring the Olympics, Heineken got exclusive merchandising rights so that Heineken beer was one of the only beers that you could drink at the events which forced trial of the product with the hope that it would result in changing people attitudes towards the brand and result in repeated buying of that brand with further reinforcement from advertisement. However, Alcohol brands that sponsor sporting events are banned in France. For example, the main football cup competition used to be called the “Heineken cup” and is now called the “H cup” due to Frances restrictions on alcohol. However, studies by the French government have stated that the advertisement ban of alcohol has no effect on overall consumption and is related to other factors. (Berger,1999)
Therefore, advertising is not the only thing that influences alcohol consumption, there are other marketing tools such as sponsorship, sales promotions, direct marketing that all play an influence. Also other factors such as peer groups and social surroundings play a huge role in people starting drinking. It is argued that a complete ban on broadcast advertising of all beverages would have no effect on consumption (Nelson & Young, 2001).
In conclusion, there are criticisms and positives of both the strong and weak theory views on how advertising works. However in terms of alcohol and tobacco advertising ban, it is argued that they would have no effect on lowering consumption. It could be argued that advertising to an extent influences young people, however parental and peer approval could also be argued to be a main influence. Other recommendations which could lower consumption instead of an overall advertising ban could be to introduce more regulations such as an increase in price and age which could have an effect on people buying and taking up smoking and drinking habits especially from a young age. Another method could be to apply the weak theory of advertising by reinforcing the dangers of smoking and alcohol abuse through anti-smoking/drinking advertising campaigns (Hoek,1999). However, the debate on how advertising actually works still goes on, as well as the debate on the effectiveness advertising bans has on lowering overall consumption.

References

* Ambler, T. and Vakratsas, D. (1996), ‘The Pursuit of Advertising Theory’, Business Strategy Review, Vol. 7, No.1, pp14-23. * ASH Briefing. (2012). UK Tobacco Advertising and Promotion. Available: http://ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_124.pdf. Last accessed 23/10/2013. * Barnard, N. and Ehrenberg, A. (1997), ‘Advertising: Strongly Persuasive or Nudging?’, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan/Feb, pp21-32. * Berger, G. (1999) et al. La Loi relative à la lutte contre le tabagisme et l'alcoolisme: rapport d'évaluation. La Documentation Française, 106 * Ehrenberg, A. S. C. (1992), ‘Comments on How Advertising Works’, Marketing and Research Today, pp167-169. * Hoek, J. (1999), ‘Effects of Tobacco Advertising Restrictions: Weak Responses to Strong Measures’, International Journal of Advertising, February, Vol. 18, No. 1. * Jones, J. P. (1990), ‘Advertising: Strong Force or Weak Force? Two Views and Ocean Apart’, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 9, pp233-246. * John Philip Jones (1998). How Advertising Works. London: SAGE Publications. 291-293. * Nelson, J.P. & Young, D.J. 2001. Do advertising bans work? An international comparison. International Journal of Advertising, 20(3), 273-296. * Richard W Lewis (1996). The Absolut Book : The Absolut vodka advertising story. Boston: Journey editions. 3-11. * R J Donovan, J Jancey, S Jones. (2002). Tobacco point of sale advertising increases positive brand user imagery. Tobacco Control. 11 (1), 191–194. * Sean Brierley (2002). The Advertising Handbook. London: Routledge. 229-232. * Yeshin, T. (2006), Advertising, Thomson Learning, Chapter 2. * Young, B, M. (1990) TV Advertising and children * Weilbacher, W. M. (2001), ‘Point of View: Does Advertising Cause a “Hierarchy of Effects”’, Journal of Advertising Research, November/December, pp19-26.

Jay-Jay Doolan
Advertising Strategy- Individual Essay
Module leader – Shirley Rate
Matriculation Number –S1014507

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Case Analysis of Ban of Tobacco Advertising in India

...Case Analysis of ban of tobacco advertising in India Here is the brief background information. On Feb 6, 2001 Indian government announced they were going to enforce a ban regarding tobacco advertising in their country. Banning included barring tobacco industries from advertising their products, sponsoring sport or cultural events. The ban was aimed to discourage young mind in India to take part in smoking. The ban, however, heated a debate between the supporters of tobacco companies and the opposition parties. In this paper, I will summarize the arguments that support the ban on tobacco advertising in India and the arguments that oppose the ban. In addition, I will discuss the conflict of interest issue pertaining to Indian government as well as I will describe my opinion on what governments should do in regards to tobacco advertising. 1. Summarize the arguments in favor of the ban on tobacco advertising in India To begin with, the advocates of the ban argued that this action of government was nothing unconstitutional. The government, in fact, has the right to interfere since their main concern was their citizen well-being. They gave this example. We know that guns are bad, so every nation has banned the public advertisement against guns so why tobacco should has a special privilege? Secondly, they used statistic from World Health Organization (WHO). They pointed out that over 3 million were killed by consuming tobacco products in 1990 and the death rate increased to......

Words: 927 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Case About Vanatin

...the possibility of detrimental side effect, including death, has at least doubled. For example, these scientists have estimated that Vanatin is causing about 30 to 40 unnecessary deaths per year (i.e., deaths that could be prevented if the patients had used a substitute made by a competitor of Booth). Despite the recommendations to remove fixed-ratio drugs from the market, doctors have continued to use them. They offer a shotgun approach for a doctor who is unsure of his or her diagnosis. Recently a group of impartial scientists appointed by the National Academy of Science and the National Research Council panel, carried out extensive research studies on the drug and recommended unanimously that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ban the sale of Vanatin. One of the members of the panel, Dr....

Words: 783 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Unit 3

...specific purpose that you agreed with the seller (for example, if you specifically asked for a printer that would be compatible with your computer) Goods sold must also match any sample you were shown in-store, or any description in a brochure Consumer protection from unfair trading There are three main sections in the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations. These are as follows: • The general ban on unfair commercial practices • Misleading and aggressive practices which are assessed in light of the effect they have, or are likely to have, on the average consumer • The Black List which contains the list of those practices which are unfair and thus banned Apple must advertise the product properly so that customers can understand the product and its features. Consumer Credit Act The Consumer Credit Act 1974 regulates consumer credit and covers the following areas: • content and form of credit agreements • method of calculating annual percentage rate (APR) • procedures relating to events of default, termination or early settlement • credit Advertising • section 75 which gives you extra protection on items costing over £100 and up to £30,000 paid by credit card Data protection act The Data Protection Act 1998 gives you the right to know what information about you is held by companies. It also sets down rules for companies about how they handle your personal information. When you buy goods and services from apple they will collect information......

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gun Violence

...enough and what else can be done to reduce such acts from occurring. With more lives being affected on a regular basis, more concerns arise as to how people can live safe lives when guns are being used in increasing numbers. It is shameful to say that almost every day you hear about some sort of gun violence affecting people either in your hometown or in another part of the world. Years ago gun violence had its issues but nothing like what is going on it current society. While there are events that have occurred that seem shocking, sad and pointless, similar actions have occurred decades ago; except they didn’t seem to occur as frequently as they do today. Gun violence has grown into an international crisis. Some people feel we should ban guns altogether, while others feel this would be impossible. Getting rid of guns may help remedy the issue but it may not be enough to make the problem go away. There are certain parts of the world that has already banned guns and similar weapons. The problem here is people can still smuggle them in. Other parts of the world have certain types of guns that are illegal for citizens to have in their possession. Eliminating guns from the equation is just a part of the problem. You have people that are not willing to talk about their problems and jump to conclusions way too soon. Meaning, people get angry over little things or something that you should be able to laugh about. Then, you have situations in which someone is threatened, but......

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Burqa

...States, as well as other countries, and is getting questioned as to if it should be banned or not. A ban of women wearing a Burka in public would be a morally correct decision. Since the Burka covers the face, as well as the whole body, it poses as a security threat to the public. A woman wearing a Burka may be hiding the tools to carry out an attack of sorts under the clothe itself. The ban on Burka's would satisfy the Utilitarianism belief of 'the greatest good for the greatest number', by eliminating this security threat. The Burka also prevents social interaction between women wearing a Burka and the civilian population. Many people argue against a ban, stating that is just a way of protecting our own people. Those are flawed because banning a burka would also protect Muslim women. If a Muslim woman refuses to wear a Burka, sexual assault or molestation is a justifiable punishment. By banning the Burka, women who choose not to wear it would be protected from being assaulted because of their decision. In conclusion, a ban on the Burka would be a morally correct decision because it would produce the greatest good for the greatest number by eliminating safety threats and protecting Muslim women. Benson, Rod. "Why we should not ban the burqa." . N.p., 8 Sept. 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. . Mahfouz, Christina. "The Burqa Debate: To Ban or Not to Ban." Perceptivist. Ed. Grace Brown. N.p., 15 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. . View Full...

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Personal Reflection

...Date: 17th October, 2014 Title: Taiwanese oil ban a bad move, says shop owner Link: http://m.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1617878/taiwanese-oil-ban-bad-move-say s-shop-owner In September, there was a shocking news stating that a Taiwan company had been using gutter oil to produce lard. Unfortunately, a lot of small companies had purchased its lard to make different kinds of food. Later, it was found that the problem also existed in Hong Kong. Therefore, to protect the public health, thru government has banned imports and sales of all kinds of oil from Taiwan. However, some of the shopkeepers are discontented with this action, and thinks that it will create a panic among the customers. This issue has brought both problems and opportunities. For problems, it stirs up controversy between shopkeepers and the government, about the ban on sales of oil coming from Taiwan. With this policy, the related shop owners need to bear the loss in sales revenue, and also the number of customers. As there is a dilemma between shops' profits and public health, the problems cannot be easily solved in several days. On the other hand, for opportunities, it can increase the popularity of food from other countries. They can act as substitutes of products with gutter oil, and many people might switch to the new choices. Therefore, supermarkets or department stores can import more foreign food to maintain stable sales, or even make a profit in the current situation. From my point of view, I......

Words: 433 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Hsc Is a Waste of Time Speech

...INTRO MY FELLOW FRIENDS! ( Loudly) Imagine a life without the HSC? Everyday we go to sleep at night worrying about the next day at school. Everyone’s objective in life is to live it to the FULLEST! THE HSC IS THE MAIN ENEMY PREVENTING US FROM ENJOYING A HAPPY AND PLEASANT LIFE. It is for the HSC’S SAKE that we are so STRESSED all the time. At school we study and then when we get home we have to study again, Surely there is no one of you guys that wants to study ? I am giving you guys the chance to join me in making the teachers ban the HSC. THIS IS YOUR FREE TICKET TO HAPPINESS AND FREEDOM. OBVIOUSLY EVEN AN IDIOT can see that we have ABSOLUTELY NO TIME to enjoy life. BODY 1 LOOK AT YOU GUYS ALL OF YOU ! you are sitting here in this classroom, when YOU COULD BE OUTSIDE PLAYING SOCCER OR WORKING OUT. If it wasn’t for the HSC I AM SURE you would be having fun, but now ur sitting in this classroom trying to compete against each other for the top marks. We could be very fit and healthy!I am sure you all did lots of hard work and went to tutoring to get into this school. IF we banned the HSC you guys would be “free and happy” and be ridded of all stress and failure at school. THIS IS YOUR FREE TICKET TO FREEDOM AND HAPPINESSS! BODY 2 Even right now as I speak we are being tested. Homework and assignments are a monster! Your life is being ruined and time is being eaten up by the monster! Life is an hourglass, time is precious! Imagine homework and assignments......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ban the Burqa?

...States, as well as other countries, and is getting questioned as to if it should be banned or not. A ban of women wearing a Burka in public would be a morally correct decision. Since the Burka covers the face, as well as the whole body, it poses as a security threat to the public. A woman wearing a Burka may be hiding the tools to carry out an attack of sorts under the clothe itself. The ban on Burka's would satisfy the Utilitarianism belief of 'the greatest good for the greatest number', by eliminating this security threat. The Burka also prevents social interaction between women wearing a Burka and the civilian population. Many people argue against a ban, stating that is just a way of protecting our own people. Those are flawed because banning a burka would also protect Muslim women. If a Muslim woman refuses to wear a Burka, sexual assault or molestation is a justifiable punishment. By banning the Burka, women who choose not to wear it would be protected from being assaulted because of their decision. In conclusion, a ban on the Burka would be a morally correct decision because it would produce the greatest good for the greatest number by eliminating safety threats and protecting Muslim women. Benson, Rod. "Why we should not ban the burqa." . N.p., 8 Sept. 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. . Mahfouz, Christina. "The Burqa Debate: To Ban or Not to Ban." Perceptivist. Ed. Grace Brown. N.p., 15 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012....

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The History of Football

...second and third century BC in China. Sources taken from military manuals at the time describe an exercise called Tsu’ Chu, in which opponents used a leather ball filled with feathers and hair. The aim was to get the ball into a small net fixed on to bamboo canes while also defending themselves from attacks. Variations of the game are also documented in Egyptian and Greek society, proving that the sport has a long tradition throughout history. First instituted bans by leading figures In comparison to China’s advanced version of the football itself, the English equivalent was made using an inflated animal bladder. The game’s appeal continued to increase in England so much so that in the 1300s, its popularity became a bone of contention for Edward II. The king became increasingly concerned that football was distracting people from practicing archery, at a time when he was preparing to go to war with Scotland. The solution to this problem was to enforce a ban on everyone playing football. This was to be the first of many bans to be instituted by leading figures such as Edward III, Henry IV and Oliver Cromwell. Nevertheless, football re-emerged and continued to increase in popularity, particularly amongst the working classes, who saw the game as an opportunity to channel their grievances and socialize with people from similar...

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cigarette Smoking Needs Regulation in Public Places

...world’s largest industries (Listverse, 2011). Cigarette smoking in public places is a widely controversial topic. Many people are unaware of the actual history of smoking bans. People are also unaware who is affected by smoking regulation in public places, the effects on society, why it is important to solve the problem of cigarette smoking in public places in concern to regulation, and possible solutions that are out in the world to help solve this problem. The first known smoking ban occurred in 1590 and was given by Pope Urban VII during his short reign as pope. Anyone who was caught smoking or chewing tobacco near a church was excommunicated. It was not until the twentieth century that the health problems associated with tobacco use came to light in the public eye. This is the time when businesses provided smokers with their own separate locations, so they could smoke without exposing the rest of the customers to the dangers and annoyance of smoke (Reasons, pros, and cons, 2008). In the 1990s, California became the first state to issue a smoking ban, and this was in restaurants. Since that time, many cities have taken up the drive to ban cigarette smoking in public locations, particularly restaurants. In fact, recent estimates show that as many as thirty-four states have cities that have some sort of ban smoking laws (Reasons, pros, and cons, 2008). Over the past hundreds of years, smoking regulation has become a top priority for people to have a strong opinion on.......

Words: 2098 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Public Smoking Bans

...` Public Smoking Bans Maria Robbins Ivy Tech Community College ENGL 111-JOF-Research Paper Cooper-3830 November 4, 2013 Abstract The smoking ban has caused smokers to adjust their smoking behavior. Public places have banned the smokers from smoking inside their businesses. The smoking ban has caused smokers to make choices. This has decreased their smoking and some have been able to quit completely. Still there are people who have smoked their whole life and have chosen not to stop smoking. Smokers do not have the freedom to smoke in public places that they once had. The public smoking ban has been the center of debates, because smokers feel it is their right to smoke when and where they want. The non-smokers want to be able to go out and enjoy a smoke-free environment. Public Smoking Bans Public smoking has been a right the smoker has had for years. Only in recent years has the public smoking ban law been put in affect. It took many years of debating over the fact if smoking in public should be ban. Smoking is an individual choice, and it is an activity that is absolutely legal. However, some states have passed laws to prohibit the activity in public and in workplaces. This legislation has been the focus of many debates in statehouses and city-county councils throughout the country. The smoking bans forces a smoker to not be welcome to smoke freely in public. For years the non-smoker had to deal with going out......

Words: 3946 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Smoking Ban Debate

...The Smoking Ban Debate Smoking, a hot button issue that has gained momentum is on the verge of exploding. Smoking bans are the current answer to the growing backlash from the general public over second hand smoke, a controversial action which brings the subject of individual rights to the forefront. Tobacco use has been debated for hundreds of years, with the medical field describing tobacco use as a “deadly narcotic” as early as 1853. With momentum gaining a pinnacle, regulations implementing and enforcing smoking bans are widespread, with oppositions position that these bans impose on individual rights. David Hudson wrote “The Department of Justice once stated smoking as the single leading cause of death in the United States”. An author/ research attorney who specializes in First Amendment rights, his book, Smoking Bans, widely discusses the impact that smoking bans have protecting public health, while some believe it infringes on individual rights. Key issues surround the debate that revolve around individual choice, social responsibility, and governmental power, and with the issues bring a wide variety of interests. A 2000 lawsuit Supreme Court ruled the Food and Drug Administration was not allowed to regulate tobacco as a drug. To many, this seemed like a logical solution to a smoking culture glamorized by Hollywood in the 1950’s into the 1070’s. To others, it would have ineffective results as the Liquor Prohibition proved to be in earlier......

Words: 1165 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Tabocco Tax

...Abstract This paper is a cumulation of a three part portfolio assignment describing the tobacco tax issue in the United States. The first part of the paper defines the tax issue and gives a brief history of the tobacco excise tax. The second section discusses the stakeholders and an analysis of the issue. And lastly, I describe my policy perspective. The Tobacco Tax Issue Is taxation on tobacco an effective means of decreasing the smoking rate or is it just an elaborate ploy to increase taxes by playing on voter emotions? The message is clear and has been etched in our minds over the years; tobacco kills. Tobacco and secondary tobacco products kill an estimated 440,000 Americans per year. Over the past several decades, state and local governments have passed tobacco excise taxes and other laws regulating the use of tobacco. But who is actually behind the legislature? First Tobacco Tax Tax on tobacco was first implemented by Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, in 1794 (Altman, 2009). The tax was soon repealed, but excise taxes have been a staple in federal revenues since the American Civil War. In 1921, Iowa successfully passed the first state tax on tobacco, with many states to follow. Not only does the federal government and state governments tax tobacco, but now city municipalities are also imposing a local tax on tobacco (Altman, 2009). But what is the current tobacco tax about? There are several sides to...

Words: 3579 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Davao: No Smoking City

...WHO smoke-free city case study Advancing the enforcement of the smoking ban in public places – Davao City, Philippines © World Health Organization 2011 All rights reserved. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to the WHO Centre for Health Development, I.H.D. Centre th Building, 9 Floor, 5-1, 1-chome, Wakinohama-Kaigandori, Chuo-ku, Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture, 651-0073, Japan (fax: +81 78 230 3178; email: wkc@wkc.who.int). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by WHO to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any......

Words: 6764 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Smoking Ban

...Natallia Harry Professor Deavers ENG 111/9 12.09.09 Smoking bans Lately, the health hazards connected with "passive smoking" or "second-hand smoke" - also known as "environmental tobacco smoke”, have been gradually getting increased recognition. The majority of people in modern society are aware that smoking can cause health problems not only in smokers but in people nearby. In recent years many cities, districts and whole states have cracked down on smoking in public. As of October 2009, nearly 60 percent of the U.S. population, or more than 175 million people, live in areas that have passed strong smoke-free laws covering restaurants and bars – a figure that has nearly doubled in size in three years ( Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids). While the purpose of smoke-free laws is to protect health, some have expressed concern that an unintended side effect might be economic losses, especially within the hospitality industry. In fact, according to the Report of the Surgeon General ,who is the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government, “The results of all credible peer- reviewed studies show that smoke-free policies and regulations do not have a negative impact on business revenues … and they are the most effective way to improve worker and business health”( Report of the Surgeon General). The number of smokers in America is truly a staggering number; according to an in-depth study by the Institute of Medicine,......

Words: 3499 - Pages: 14