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Advertising & Discloure

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Resume Jurnal : Corrective Advertising and Affirmative Disclosure Statement: Potensi Mereka dalam Membingungkan dan Menyesatkan Konsumen
Oleh : Jacob Jacoby, Margaret C Nelson & Wayne D.Hover

1. Pendahuluan
Topik iklan menipu dan menyesatkan konsumen menjadi sorotan dalam regulasi dan akademis selama dekade terakhir (eg. Cohen 1974;Gardner 1975;Jacoby, Hoyer and Sheluga 1980, chapter 2;Jacoby and Small 1975;Russo, Metcalf and Stephens 1981). Perbaikan terkait masalah iklan yang dinilai menipu atau menyesatkan menjadi bahan diskusi yang cukup solid. Dua hal kontroversial yang perlu diperbaiki adalah iklan korektif dan pengungkapan afirmatif. Tujuan dari iklan korektif adalah untuk mengubah atau memperbaiki keyakinan yang konon dianggap salah. Sedangkan tujuan dari pengungkapan afirmatif adalah untuk menanamkan keyakinan baru. Penelitian awal difokuskan pada dampak iklan korektif terhadap kesadaran merk, niat membeli, sikap terhadap merk, iklan, dan perusahaan. Kemudian penelitian dilanjutkan pada dampak terhadap keyakinan konsumen. Kesadaran, keyakinan, sikap, dan niat adalah variabel dependen yang paling sering digunakan untuk menilai dampak komunikasi dan biasanya komponen utama dalam konseptualisasi paling diterima dalam proses komunikasi. Pertimbangan dari model mengungkapkan bahwa dalam setiap kasus, pemahaman diasumsikan mendahului pembentukan keyakinan dan perubahan. Setelah informasi telah dipahami, diharapkan dari informasi tersebut dapat untuk mempengaruhi sikap, intensions, dan perilaku. Karenanya, kedua upaya regulator untuk menjalankan hak dalam perbaikan berdasarkan hasil dari penelitian selalu berakhir di hasil yang kritis. Asumsi yang belum diverifikasi menyatakan bahwa langkah logis sebelum pemahaman yang telah dicapai.
2. Background Of The Case
Kasus berawal dari dua produk obat pereda nyeri yang hampir sama yaitu Bufferin dan Excedrin. FTC ( Federal Trade Comission ) menyatakan bahwa iklan bufferin mengklaim bahwa produknya adalah pereda nyeri yang lebih cepat dan lembut untuk perut dibandingkan dengan aspirin biasa ( Sejenis obat penahan rasa sakit atau nyeri ). FTC menyatakan bahwa iklan tersebut mengklaim Excedrin adalah pereda nyeri yang lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan obat aspirin biasa. Akan tetapi menurut staff dari FTC bukti untuk membuktikan kebenaran dari iklan tersebut tidak ada. FTC ingin konsumen sadar dan mengetahui bahwa bukti yang saat itu tersedia menunjukkan bahwa mungkin klaim tersebut benar, tingkat bukti saja tidak cukup menurut beberapa pihak yang berwenang. Jawaban yang dibuat oleh pihak Brystol-Myers adalah sementara tidak ada yang tak terbantahkan dan bukti positif untuk mendukung klaim ini, bukti yang tersedia tidak memenuhi standart yang diterima secara umum. FTC berharap bahwa hakim hukum administrasi mendengar kasus ini dan perintahnya akan menguntungkannya, nasihat keluhan dikirim hakim surat yang berisi dua set berikut pernyataan perbaikan dalam setiap set yang diperintahkan untuk dimasukkan dalam iklan berikutnya. Apa yang ada dalam iklan Excerdin, diungkapkan bahwa:
1. Excerdin belum terbukti menjadi pereda nyeri yang lebih efektif daripada aspirin
2. Tidak diketahui apakah Excerdin adalah obat lebih efektif daripada pereda nyeri aspirin
3. Terdapat pertanyaan nyata, apakah excerdin adalah pereda nyeri yang efektif daripada aspirin
Apa yang ada dalam iklan Bufferin, diungkapkan bahwa :
1. Bufferin belum terbukti menjadi obat yang lebih cepat dalam mengatasi sakit dan lebih lembut daripada aspirin
2. Tidak diketahui apakah Bufferin adalah obat pereda rasa sakit secara cepat, alami dan lembut di perut daripada obat aspirin
3. Ada sebuah pertanyaan, apakah Bufferin adalah obat pereda sakit yang lebih cepat dan lembut daripada aspirin
Melayani sebagai saksi ahli, penulis senior menyatakan bahwa sebagian konsumen akan bingung mengenai arti yang diinginkan dan dimaksudkan dari pernyataan apa yang sebenarnya diungkapkan oleh kedua produk obat tersebut pada iklan. Investigasi yang dijelaskan di bawah merupakan upaya empiris untuk mengkonfirmasi (atau disconfirm) akan keyakinan terhadap pernyataan iklan ini. Jika didukung, sebuah temuan memberikan saran bahwa terlepas dari niat baik yang mereka, korektif, iklan dan pernyataan afirmatif mampu menyesatkan konsumen.
3. The Conceptual Framework
Pertimbangan proses dimana manusia menerjemahkan makna dari komunikasi yang mereka terima melalui iklan yang beredar. Ketika seseorang sengaja terlibat dalam komunikasi, dia melakukannya karena ada beberapa pemikiran atau perasaan bahwa ia ingin pihak yang lain untuk memahami. Namun pikiran yang berada di dalam pikiran sumber tidak bisa langsung dialihkan ke inti pikiran penerima. Sumber komunikasi pikiran, harus mengubah ke dalam ke dalam beberapa bentuk kata eksternal denotable dan kata – kata tertulis. Pada kesempatannya, penerima harus membaca sandi atau menafsirkan ekspresi terang – terangan ini dan menterjemahkan makna yang sama dengan yang dimaksudkan oleh sumber.

Gambar diatas mengurutkan kejadian dari awal sumber (perusahaan) yang memilki produk, hingga kepada receiver sebagai penerima masukan dari iklan yang dibuat.
Struktur adalah label yang digunakan untuk menunjuk pikiran dan perasaan mereka dalam pikiran individu, struktur permukaan label yang digunakan untuk ditunjuk ekspresi eksternal yang terlihat dalam pikiran tersebut.
Source (Perusahaan) : Pihak yang memberikan Informasi kepada pihak advertising (Message) tentang produk yang akan di iklankan kepada konsumen (Receiver)
Message/Medium : Adalah bagaimana pihak advertising dan pihak perusahaan akan menentukan media apa yang akan digunakan untuk promosi produk yang akan ditawarkan kepada konsumen
Receiver (Konsumen) : bagaimana konsumen atau target pasar akan merespon & mengerti apa maksud iklan dari perusahaan. Pada pihak konsumen ini yang sering terjadi perbedaan antara maksud perusahaan dengan apa yang ditangkap oleh konsumen.
Hyphotesis
Dihubungkan dengan jurnal Jacob Jacoby dan rekannya, disini terjadi kesalahpahaman mengenai informasi produk yang ditawarkan perusahaan dengan pihak advertising. Dimana pihak perusahaan menawarkan obat penghilang rasa nyeri alternatif, namun apa yang ditangkap oleh pihak advertising yaitu produk obat Excedrin dan Bufferin lebih ampuh dalam mengobati nyeri dibandingkan dengan aspirin.
Sehingga dari pihak receiver (konsumen) merasa dirugikan atas iklan yang beredar luas yang menyebutkan bahwa produk obat Excedrin lebih ampuh mengobati nyeri daripada aspirin. Konsumen merasa kecewa setelah pemakaian produk obat Exedrin ternyata tidak sesuai dengan apa yang diiklankan.
Hal tersebut terjadi juga pada produk perusahaan yaitu Bufferin dimana jika produk Bufferin adalah obat khusus untuk nyeri daerah perut. Produk Bufferin ini juga diiklankan mampu mengobati nyeri daripada aspirin
Sedangkan, produk obat Bufferin maupun Excedrin juga belum terbukti lebih ampuh meredakan rasa nyeri dibandingkan dengan aspirin menurut FTC (Federal Trade Commission). Disini belum ada bukti secara laboratori untuk membuktikan apa yang diiklankan oleh kedua produk tersebut.
Metode
Metodologi Penelitian dalam jurnal ini menggunakan metode Closed – Ended Assesment untuk mengetahui seberapa besar konsumen yang akan percaya, tidak percaya, dan bingung terhadap apa yang diiklankan oleh kedua produk obat penghilang rasa nyeri tersebut. Berikut adalah penjelasan mengenai metode closed ended assesment
Metode closed-ended assesment adalah format pertanyaan yang membatasi responden dengan daftar pilihan jawaban di mana mereka harus memilih untuk menjawab pertanyaan itu. Umumnya metode ini berbentuk pilihan ganda, baik dengan satu jawaban atau dengan Checklist semua, tetapi juga bisa dalam format skala, di mana responden harus memutuskan untuk menilai situasi di sepanjang kontinum skala, mirip dengan metode likert.
Metode close ended kontras dengan metode open ended, yang tidak bisa dijawab dengan sederhana "ya" atau "tidak", atau dengan sebagian informasi.
Penghitungan respondense menggunakan metode kuantitatif, dimana metode ini mengembangkan dan menggunakan model-model matematis, teori-teori dan/atau hipotesis yang berkaitan dengan fenomena alam. Proses pengukuran adalah bagian yang sentral dalam penelitian kuantitatif karena hal ini memberikan hubungan yang fundamental antara pengamatan empiris dan ekspresi matematis dari hubungan-hubungan kuantitatif.
Penelitian kuantitatif banyak dipergunakan baik dalam ilmu-ilmu alam maupun ilmu-ilmu sosial, dari fisika dan biologi hingga sosiologi dan jurnalisme. Pendekatan ini juga digunakan sebagai cara untuk meneliti berbagai aspek dari pendidikan. Istilah penelitian kuantitatif sering dipergunakan dalam ilmu-ilmu sosial untuk membedakannya dengan penelitian kualitatif.
Penelitian kuantitatif adalah definisi, pengukuran data kuantitatif dan statistik objektif melalui perhitungan ilmiah berasal dari sampel orang-orang atau penduduk yang diminta menjawab atas sejumlah pertanyaan tentang survei untuk menentukan frekuensi dan persentase tanggapan mereka. Sebagai contoh: 240 orang, 79% dari populasi sampel, mengatakan bahwa mereka lebih percaya pada diri mereka pribadi masa depan mereka dari setahun yang lalu hingga hari ini. Menurut ketentuan ukuran sampel statistik yang berlaku, maka 79% dari penemuan dapat diproyeksikan ke seluruh populasi dari sampel yang telah dipilih. pengambilan data ini adalah disebut sebagai survei kuantitatif atau penelitian kuantitatif.
Ukuran sampel untuk survei oleh statistik dihitung dengan menggunakan rumusan untuk menentukan seberapa besar ukuran sampel yang diperlukan dari suatu populasi untuk mencapai hasil dengan tingkat akurasi yang dapat diterima. pada umumnya, para peneliti mencari ukuran sampel yang akan menghasilkan temuan dengan minimal 95% tingkat keyakinan (yang berarti bahwa jika Anda survei diulang 100 kali, 95 kali dari seratus, Anda akan mendapatkan respon yang sama) dan plus / minus 5 persentase poin margin dari kesalahan. Banyak survei sampel dirancang untuk menghasilkan margin yang lebih kecil dari kesalahan.

Sample
Penelitian ini menyebarkan kuesioner kepada sebanyak 451 responden. Terbagi dari sample pertama 92 orang dari Purdue University Undergraduate. Lalu sample kedua sebanyak 281 orang berasal dari lulusan kampus yang tinggal di daerah Lafayette, Indiana USA. Terakhir sampe ketiga adalah 78 orang berasal dari ras hitam yang tinggal di Chicago Selatan

Hasil
Ini adalah tabel hasil kuesioner yang disebarkan
Kesimpulan dari tabel diatas :
1. Akurat adalah konsumen yang percaya bahwa Bufferin dan Excedrin lebih ampuh daripada aspirin atau konsumen yang termakan oleh iklan. Tingkat akurat rata – rata adalah 28% untuk excedrin dan 19% untuk bufferin
2. Inakurat adalah konsumen yang kecewa dan tertipu bahwa bufferin dan excedrin lebih ampuh daripada aspirin. Tingkat inakurat rata-rata untuk excedrin adalah 26% dan 46%
3. Confused adalah konsumen yang masih ragu dan tidak yakin apakah bufferin dan excedrin lebih ampuh daripada aspirin. Tingkat confused rata-rata untuk excedrin adalah 46% dan 35% untuk bufferin.

Kesimpulan & Saran
Hingga akhir penelitian sampai saat ini apa yang diiklankan oleh produk Excedrin dan Bufferin masih belum menunjukkan bukti yang kuat bahwa lebih baik daripada aspirin untuk menghilangkan rasa nyeri.
Dan dari hasil apa yang diiklankan oleh perusahaan obat tersebut,
a. Excedrin mungkin lebih efektif dari aspirin tapi belum ada bukti yang kuat untuk pernyataan tersebut.
b. Exccedrin mungkin lebih efektif dari aspirin tapi tidak ada konsumen yang mengakui kebenaran iklan tersebut
c. Excedrin mungkin lebih efektif dari aspirin tapi tidak ada penelitian lebih lanjut akan hal ini untuk membuktikan kebenarannya
d. Excedrin kurang efektif mengobati rasa nyeri dari pada aspirin
e. Excedrin tidak lagi efektif mengobati rasa nyeri daripada aspirin
Saran bahwa konsumen sebaiknya jeli dalam melihat apa yang diiklankan oleh perusahaan itu tidak selalu sepenuhnya benar dan terbukti secara ilmiah, seharusnya konsumen lebih hati – hati dalam mengkonsumsi iklan yang beredar jangan ditelan secara mentah – mentah. Perusahaan juga seharusnya jika membuat iklan tentang produk harus sesuai dengan apa yang diberikan tidak asal mengiklan tanpa kondisi sebenarnya walaupun dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan penjualan.

Daftar Pustaka
Jacob Jacoby, Margaret C. Nelson and Wayne D. Hoyer : Journal of Marketing vol.46, No.1 (Winter, 1982) pp.61-72 Published by : American Marketing Association

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