Free Essay

Aero Design

In: Science

Submitted By nafiz375
Words 1828
Pages 8


Faculty Advisor

Easir Arafat Papon

Group Members
Shoyon Panday
Adib Belhaj Hasan
Nafiz Ahmed Khan
Borhan Uddin Manam

Table Of Contents

Executive Summary
Conceptual Design
Preliminary Design
Detail Design
Flow Simulation Of Whole Aircraft
Manufacturing Process & Plan
CG Location

ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS NACA National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics | AR Aspect Ratio | Re Reynolds number | b Span | c Chord | s Wing area | t/c Thickness-to-chord ratio | MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord | Cd0 Airfoil minimum coefficient of drag | CDi Aircraft induced drag coefficient (vortex drag) | CD0 Aircraft parasite drag coefficient | CD Aircraft drag coefficient | | CL Lift Co-efficient |

* a) Executive Summary

This report encompasses the design and manufacturing processes, conducted by the MILITARY INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHONOLOGY (MIST), DHAKA, where team ‘Hub & Blade’ is destined for their design report entry in the 1ST NATIONAL AERO-DESIGN COMPETITION & EXHIBITION .
The theme of the competition is to design an aircraft. The goal of this competition is that the design will be in such a way that can fly with the highest advantageous materialistic body, having the lowest possible cost and weight.
Team “Hub & Blade” is well on its way to bring a competitive fixed wing rc plane design to the 1ST NATIONAL AERO-DESIGN COMPETITION & EXHIBITION .

b) Conceptual Design
Conceptual design begins by determining design constraints. The design variables & goals are determined to perform sketched design.

c) Preliminary Design
To refine the conceptual design, a list of critical design parameters was developed. Each one is discussed, identifying the method by which trade studies were performed.

Typically, the simplicity and performance per weight of the monoplane would make it the frontrunner.

A mono-plane was selected to eliminate complexity and issues with case fit. Asymmetric loads are not a factor since the number of bats to be flown is chosen by the team and can be designed around the optimal number given in the scoring analysis. A detachable wing design was chosen because of the simplification of construction and repair ability.

Wing Area

The selection of wing area is important to meet the specified take-off distance in less than 100 ft. A larger wing area provides a short take-off distance and larger payload capacity, but cruise velocity is also reduced. Since the score sensitivity analysis indicates that cruise speed is not as important as other score parameters, a larger wing is preferred for short take-off capability.

Large wingspans are preferred for greater efficiency, but the wingspan is limited to 7 feet for storage in the box to avoid interference with the fuselage.

Airfoil selection is important because it affects take-off distance, cruise velocity, and stall characteristics. A large maximum lift coefficient is desirable to reduce take-off distance, but a high lift airfoil also increases drag and decreases cruise velocity. Wing thickness is also a consideration for sufficient strength to support the wing payloads and to provide space for servos and release mechanisms mounted on the wing.

While the lifting fuselage could potentially reduce wing loading, it was eliminated because of the difficulty of executing low-weight construction and excessive airfoil thickness due to payload height and plan form constraints. Conventional and blended fuselages were retained for more detailed analysis.

Battery Type and Quantity

Selecting the battery type and quantity requires balancing weight and performance. Each battery type investigated was rated for a given capacity and weight. By dividing the capacity of a single cell by its weight, a single term can be used to characterize the battery, known as energy density. In general, a higher energy density is desirable, but a trade study of how weight affects score is warranted to note any maximum conditions.

Motor and Gear Box

When selecting a propulsion system, the selection of a motor and gear box is a critical process. A high efficiency motor is desired, but must meet other sizing requirements, such as maximum power.
Additionally, trade-offs between the no-load current and internal resistance must be considered, affecting the motor’s capability to adequately convert the electric power to torque and RPM. The gear box allows the motor to reduce the motor RPM output, allowing for more torque to be generated.

Materials | Voltage | Speed(second/60 deg) | Weight | | 4.8v~6.0v | 0.1 | 19g | | 15v | 5 | 240g | | (a) 1s / 3.7V | 1200mAh | 23g |

d) Detail Design

Detail design combines theoretical sizing with physical, real-world considerations .Each Sub-team examined the structural capabilities, subsystem design, weight and balance, and flight and mission performance in order to define the characteristics of the final aircraft.


A balsa built-up wing was sized and analyzed.First we select an aerofil for wing construction through necessary analysis needed for best performance. After analyzing lots of shape we select the final one.

Following analysis are done for selecting this aerofoil .


α | Cl | Cd | Cm 0.25 | Cp* | M cr. | [°] | [-] | [-] | [-] | [-] | [-] | 0.0 | 1.122 | 0.01113 | -0.148 | -1.672 | 0.577 | 1.0 | 1.239 | 0.01270 | -0.150 | -1.844 | 0.558 | 2.0 | 1.347 | 0.02245 | -0.153 | -2.063 | 0.537 | 3.0 | 1.441 | 0.02400 | -0.154 | -2.288 | 0.517 | 4.0 | 1.534 | 0.02600 | -0.156 | -2.519 | 0.499 | 5.0 | 1.624 | 0.02851 | -0.157 | -2.756 | 0.482 | 6.0 | 1.707 | 0.03139 | -0.158 | -3.136 | 0.459 | 7.0 | 1.780 | 0.03514 | -0.161 | -3.951 | 0.418 | 8.0 | 1.834 | 0.04555 | -0.162 | -4.836 | 0.384 | 9.0 | 1.875 | 0.05082 | -0.163 | -5.789 | 0.354 | 10.0 | 1.890 | 0.05815 | -0.162 | -6.810 | 0.330 |

α | Re | Mach | Λ | Cl | Cd | Cm 0.25 | [°] | [-] | [-] | [-] | [-] | [-] | [-] | 0.000 | 100000 | 0.000 | ∞ | 1.122 | 0.01113 | -0.148 |

First Reynolds number 100000
Last Reynolds number 500000

Clvs Cd Graph


Initial Mesh Settings
Automatic initial mesh: On
Result resolution level: 4
Advanced narrow channel refinement: Off
Refinement in solid region: Off
Geometry Resolution
Evaluation of minimum gap size: Automatic
Evaluation of minimum wall thickness: Automatic
Computational Domain
X min | -1.477 m | X max | 1.152 m | Y min | -0.771 m | Y max | 0.766 m | Z min | -1.355 m | Z max | 1.215 m |

Boundary Conditions 2D plane flow | None | At X min | Default | At X max | Default | At Y min | Default | At Y max | Default | At Z min | Default | At Z max | Default |

Physical Features
Heat conduction in solids: Off
Time dependent: On
Gravitational effects: On
Flow type: Laminar and turbulent
High Mach number flow: Off
Humidity: Off
Default roughness: 0 micrometer
Gravitational Settings X component | 0 m/s^2 | Y component | -9.81 m/s^2 | Z component | 0 m/s^2 |

Default wall conditions: Adiabatic wall
Ambient Conditions Thermodynamic parameters | Static Pressure: 101325.00 PaTemperature: 385.00 K | Velocity parameters | Velocity vectorVelocity in X direction: 300.000 m/sVelocity in Y direction: 0 m/sVelocity in Z direction: 0 m/s | Turbulence parameters | Turbulence intensity and lengthIntensity: 0.10 %Length: 0.003 m |

Material Settings
Global Goals
GG Force (Y) 1 Type | Global Goal | Goal type | Force (Y) | Coordinate system | Global coordinate system | Use in convergence | On |

GG Force (X) 1 Type | Global Goal | Goal type | Force (X) | Coordinate system | Global coordinate system | Use in convergence | On |

Surface Goals
SG Av Static Pressure 1 Type | Surface Goal | Goal type | Static Pressure | Calculate | Average value | Faces | Face<2> Face<1> | Coordinate system | Global coordinate system | Use in convergence | On |

SG Av Velocity (X) 1 Type | Surface Goal | Goal type | Velocity (X) | Calculate | Average value | Faces | Face<2> Face<1> | Coordinate system | Global coordinate system | Use in convergence | On |

SG Av Velocity (Y) 1 Type | Surface Goal | Goal type | Velocity (Y) | Calculate | Average value | Faces | Face<2> Face<1> | Coordinate system | Global coordinate system | Use in convergence | On |

Calculation Control Options
Finish Conditions Finish conditions | If one is satisfied | Maximum physical time | 5.000 s |

Solver Refinement
Refinement: Disabled
Results Saving Save before refinement | On | Periodic saving | Units: Physical timePeriod: 1.000 s |

Advanced Control Options
Flow Freezing Flow freezing strategy | Disabled |

Manual time step (Freezing): Off
Manual time step: Off
Engineering Database
Path: Gases Pre-Defined
Specific heat ratio (Cp/Cv): 1.399
Molecular mass: 0.0290 kg/mol
Dynamic viscosity

Specific heat (Cp)

Thermal conductivity

f) Manufacturing Plan and processes:

Although the aircraft was sized to be as light as possible, multiple manufacturing methods were experimented with to conserve weight. Our manufacturing plan focused on the production of four main components: wing, landing gear, motor mount, and payload mount system

Wing and Tail
The wings and tail are large volume components where manufacturing methods have a large impaction weight reduction.
Balsa built-up – This built up method consists of balsa ribs that would attach to the landing gear. Stringers create a frame that could be coated with a light material to preserve the airfoil shape .A balsa buildup was considered due its lower weight. The initial balsa buildup proved to be effective in saving weight due to the removal of extra materials such as fiberglass and carbon fiber.

2.Landing Gear

Because the wing spar is integrated into the landing gear, different manufacturing methods were used based on what the design required: Foam core / carbon fiber landing gear – A U shaped foam core was cut using a hotwire CNC machine. Sections that required drilling were cut out and replaced with balsa blocks and wrapped with 45 degree bidirectional carbon fiber strips.Unidirectional carbon fiber sandwiched the foam core, fiberglass strips were wrapped around the entire gear to hold the carbon to the foam landing gear. g) CG Mass properties of IKARUS Density = 0.04 pounds per cubic inch Mass = 19.67 pounds Volume = 544.58 cubic inches Surface area = 1159.05 square inches Center of mass: ( inches ) X = -6.80 Y = -0.75 Z = -3.07 Principal axes of inertia and principal moments of inertia: ( pounds * square inches ) Taken at the center of mass. Ix = (-0.01, -0.05, 1.00) Px = 608.23 Iy = (1.00, 0.00, 0.01) Py = 1140.93 Iz = (-0.00, 1.00, 0.05) Pz = 1655.31

Moments of inertia: ( pounds * square inches ) Taken at the center of mass and aligned with the output coordinate system. Lxx = 1140.88 Lxy = 1.54 Lxz = -5.14 Lyx = 1.54 Lyy = 1652.37 Lyz = -55.45 Lzx = -5.14 Lzy = -55.45 Lzz = 611.22 Moments of inertia: ( pounds * square inches ) Taken at the output coordinate system.

Ixx = 1337.45 Ixy = 102.15 Ixz = 405.44 Iyx = 102.15 Iyy = 2746.90 Iyz = -10.01 Izx = 405.44 Izy = -10.01 Izz =1531.4

h) Reference: I. Solidworks II. Javafoil

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