Free Essay

African American Scientist

In: Science

Submitted By cole320
Words 609
Pages 3
Patricia Bath
Patricia Era Bath was born on November 4, 1942, in Harlem, New York, to Rupert Bath, the first black motorman for the New York City subway system, and Gladys Bath, a housewife and domestic worker who used her salary to save money for her children's education. Bath was encouraged by her family to pursue academic interests. Her father, a former Merchant Marine and an occasional newspaper columnist, taught Bath about the wonders of travel and the value of exploring new cultures. Her mother piqued the young girl's interest in science by buying her a chemistry set. As a result, Bath worked hard on her intellectual pursuits and, at the age of 16, became one of only a few students to attend a cancer research workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The program head, Dr. Robert Bernard, was so impressed with Bath's discoveries during the project that he incorporated her findings in a scientific paper he presented at a conference. The publicity surrounding her discoveries earned Bath the Mademoiselle magazine's Merit Award in 1960. After graduating from high school in only two years, Bath headed to Hunter College, where she earned a bachelor's degree in 1964. She then attended Howard University to pursue a medical degree. Bath graduated with honors from Howard in 1968, and accepted an internship at Harlem Hospital shortly afterward. The following year, she also began pursuing a fellowship in ophthalmology at Columbia University. Through her studies there, she discovered that African Americans were twice more likely to suffer from blindness than other patients to which she attended, and eight times more likely to develop glaucoma. Her research led to her development of a community ophthalmology system, which increased the amount of eye care given to those who were unable to afford treatment. In 1973, Patricia Bath became the first African American to complete a residency in ophthalmology. She moved to California the following year to work as an assistant professor of surgery at both Charles R. Drew University and the University of California, Los Angeles. In 1975, she became the first female faculty member in the Department of Ophthalmology at UCLA's Jules Stein Eye Institute. In 1976, Bath co-founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, which established that "eyesight is a basic human right." By 1983, Bath had helped create the Ophthalmology Residency Training program at UCLA-Drew, which she also chaired—becoming, in addition to her other firsts, the first woman in the nation to hold such a position. In 1981, Bath began working on her most well-known invention: the Laserphaco Probe (1986). Harnessing laser technology, the device created a less painful and more precise treatment of cataracts. She received a patent for the device in 1988, becoming the first African-American female doctor to receive a patent for a medical purpose. (She also holds patents in Japan, Canada and Europe.) With her Laserphaco Probe, Bath was able to help restore the sight of individuals who had been blind for more than 30 years. In 1993, Bath retired from her position at the UCLA Medical Center and became an honorary member of its medical staff. That same year, she was named a "Howard University Pioneer in Academic Medicine." Among her many roles in the medical field, Bath is a strong advocate of telemedicine, which uses technology to provide medical services in remote areas. I chose Patricia Bath because I wanted to know more about women have impacted science and how recognize how big of a role they played in our history.


"Patricia Bath." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 22 Feb. 2015.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Biography, Race Theory and Conflicts of W.E.B. Du Bois

...theorists and a major factor of equal rights for blacks in the United States. At a time when many black Americans sought to improve their status by adapting to the ideals of white society and tolerating discrimination and segregation, W.E.B. Du Bois was a constant proponent of unconditional equal and civil rights for all blacks. As a social scientist, he was also a pioneer in documenting historical and social truths about blacks in the United States . W.E.B. Du Bois introduce the idea of double consciousness, an ideology that defines African Americans seeking to reconcile two different cultures that create their modern identity. Although Du Bois spoke of double consciousness in early twentieth century, the problem continues to affect many African Americans today. This research will give analyze the biography, race theory and conflicts of W.E.B. Du Bois. W. E. B. Du Bois 1868–1963 “Social Scientist, Political Activist, Author, Editor, and Educator” From the late 1890s through the 1940s, W. E. B. Du Bois was one of the leading black theorists and a major factor of equal rights for blacks in the United States. At a time when many black Americans sought to improve their status by adapting to the ideals of white society and tolerating discrimination and segregation, W.E.B. Du Bois was a constant proponent of unconditional equal and civil rights for all blacks. As a social scientist, he was also a pioneer in documenting historical and social truths about blacks in the......

Words: 1402 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Medical Experimentation on African Americans

...Experimentation on African Americans Katryna A. Lawson Montgomery College Abstract This research paper is going to review some of the horrific ways that African Americans were abused by medical research experiments in the United States. I will also examine how America’s physicians has a disgraceful history of exploitative studies in which African Americans have been used as objects, for new surgical techniques, drug testing, nuclear radiation absorption, biased psychological testing, sterilization, and cadavers all in the name of medical science since the time of slavery. Medical experimentation on African Americans began during the time of slavery. The South was home to 90 percent of American blacks, in some states, the black population was completely comprised of slaves: Alabama, for example, forbade the presence of free blacks. Since there was so many slaves, this also made the south a haven for the lowest of the low, worst kind of medical experiments on African Americans. Harriet A. Washington, author of the book Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black American from Colonial time to the Present, cites many of the atrocious acts that the Black Americans experienced through telling personal stories like those of slave women, giving faces to many of the black victims of violent medical experimentation and racially biased investigations, while also revealing the doctors inflicting the abuse. Doctors tortured and abused African American......

Words: 1628 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Benjamin Banneker  February 25, 2014 By: Carmella Cross Benjamin Banneker born November 9,1731 he was born in Ellicott’s Mills, Md.. He was the son of ex-slave named Robert, whose wife Mary Banneker, was the daughter of an Englishwoman and an African ex-slave. He was taught to read by his white grandmother named Molly and for a short time he also attended a small Quaker school. He was best know as Colonial African-American scientist and surveyor of was Washington, D.C.. Benjamin Banneker has been called the first African American intellectual. Benjamin was a free-born descendant of slaves who had became famous 18th-century astronomer, mathematician and surveyor. He was also considered by many to be the first African-American scientist. He taught himself astronomy and accurately forecast-ed lunar and solar eclipses. Benjamin was raised on a tobacco farm in rural Maryland, where he attend school but was largely self-taught in the sciences. Although Benjamin worked most of his life as a farmer, his analytical and problem solving skills became legendary. Hie=s achievements were indeed impressive at the age of 24 he studied clockworks and constructed his own clock from wood. He taught himself astronomy and published a popular almanac, Benjamin Banneker’s Almanac from 1792 to 1797. These almanacs included his own astronomical calculations as well as opinion pieces, literature and medical and tidal information among other things. In 1791, Benjamin was......

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Prisoners of Henrietta Lacks, and the Value of Their Fate

...Prisoners of Henrietta Lacks, and the Value of Their Fate Inquiry Question: How does Rebecca Skloot’s depiction of prisoner experiments and research change the way we think about how early medical developments were first brought to life, and who really took the risks we should credit for them? Hypothesis/Working Thesis: Considering the reduced liabilities, rights, and public outreach of prisoners in the past, using prisoners as test rats was viewed as highly unethical and forceful by many. Skloot, Rebecca. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown Publishers, 2010. Print. In the Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, Rebecca Skloot not only argues her point, but also does a great job at informing and teaching her readers the vast risks prisoners were susceptible to while being used by doctors as human guinea pigs. Skloot makes many references to different potentially deadly diseases that were injected into prisoners for further research. The public’s opinion on this happening was shocking; many thinking it was highly unethical and forceful of the doctors. Skloot makes claims about how prisoners were viewed as vulnerable inmates who were unable to give informed consent. Regardless of how the treatment was viewed, prisons and doctors did what they wanted to do in those days ranging from diseases, to chemical warfare agents, to deterring how X-raying testicles affected sperm count (Skloot 129). Throughout her study of how HeLa cells have expanded, and where......

Words: 729 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Researc Without Emapthy

...Research without Empathy In 1932, the Public Health Service, working with the Tuskegee Institute, began a study to record the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks. It was called the "Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male." The study initially involved 600 black men, 399 with syphilis, 201 who did not have the disease. The study was conducted without patient knowledge or consent. Researchers told the men they were being treated for "bad blood," a local term used to describe several ailments, including syphilis, anemia, and fatigue. In truth, they did not receive the proper treatment needed to cure their illness. They didn’t even know they were in fact a part of a scientific study. In exchange for taking part in the study, the men received free medical exams, free meals, and burial cost coverage. The study lasted 40 years before it was exposed by the media. In July 1972, an Associated Press reporter published an article about the study, stating: “For 40 years the U.S. Public Health Service has conducted a study in which human guinea pigs, denied proper medical treatment, have died of syphilis and its side effects. The Study was conducted to determine from autopsies what the disease does to the human body.” Public outcry was immediate and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare launched an investigation. An advisory panel formed to review the experiment and decided that although the men had agreed to......

Words: 894 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

A Sample of a Guide Written by Me

...Chapter 1: Introduction We will be helping our students learn more about black history by: * Introducing them to African American heroes that they may not have heard about. * Teaching them to use new technology. * Introducing African American Heroes Each teacher will take a specific area of African American heroes to make a lesson around. Say for example if you are the science teacher you might want to focus maybe on African American scientist. Prezi Prezi is a cloud based presentation software and storytelling tool that is used for exploring and sharing ideas on a virtual canvas. Prezi is used as platform for bridging linear and non-linear information, and as a tool for both for free-form brainstorming and structured presentation. Text, images, videos and other presentation media are placed upon the canvas, and can be grouped together in frames. Users then designate the relative size and position between all presentation objects and may pan and zoom in and between these objects. For linear presentations, users can construct a prescribed navigation path. Prezi was initially developed by Hungarian architect Adam Somlai-Fischer as an architectural visualization tool. Prezi’s stated mission is to “make sharing ideas more interesting”, and it is intended to be an intuitive tool to develop and share ideas as a visual narrative. . Wordle Wordle is a word could that is a visual representation for text data, typically used to visualize free form......

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

History of Minority Populations

...History of Minority Populations in the Child Welfare System Honore'-Collins, C. P. (2005). THE IMPACT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN INCARCERATION ON AFRICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN IN THE CHILD WELFARE SYSTEM. Race, Gender & Class, 12(3/4), 107-118. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. African Americans are excessively represented in child welfare systems and in the American Judiciary System. The history of America shows how discriminatory laws have affected those in the two systems. It took the struggle of civil rights for African American children to be included in the child welfare system. Steps are needed to control the overwhelming numbers of African Americans represented in both systems. There is still much need for qualitative and quantitave research involving the connectivity between the two systems so that social workers, researchers, political scientists, and policy makers can make an attempt to collaborate and find alternative prevention plans. Service provisions are needed to address African Americans and their children in these situations. Documentation is necessary from those working in both systems over the inclusion of African Americans in these systems. Lundgren, Lena M., Robert F. Schilling, and Susan D. Peloquin. "Evidence-based drug treatment practice and the child welfare system: the example of methadone." Social Work 50.1 (2005): 53+. General OneFile. Web. 10 July 2011. Child welfare agencies should have policies to promote training programs so that the social......

Words: 512 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Voter Rights

...USA. Unfortunately if you go back not even a century ago African Americans and women was denied this fundamental right to vote, securing the right to vote in United States was a long battle both for African-Americans and women. We can see how voting outcomes is essential to the true democratic process by having tight voting requirement it hinders the process and effects turnout. Voting Turnout, while undergoing new legislation since the repeal of the Jim Crow Laws, are still undergoing voting suppression, still disproportionately effecting racial minorities and the poor. To truly understand how voting requirements effect voter’s turnout we would have to look at the history of voting requirements in the U.S. Throughout United States history there have been many barriers that states have imposed that restrict voting rights especially for racial minorities and the poor. One requirement that definitely made voting a little more difficult was with requiring Americans to register prior to voting this meant that not only a citizen was care enough to go out and vote on election night they also must register prior to doing so. Registration was mainly intended to stop voter fraud, so each state was allowed to create their own registration laws this led to some states having more strict registration laws than others. The south took advantage of having the ability to create state registrations laws and used it deny African American the right to vote, Literacy test were initially......

Words: 1840 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Racial Profiling

...United States experience controversial confrontation with law enforcers constantly. There will be discussions on multiple confrontations with law enforcers and the possibility of how each can be considered discrimination. Some racism against young African American needs to be addressed and law enforcers need to stop targeting minorities. As mentioned above, racial profiling refers to discriminatory practice by law enforcers, or others authorities of the law, target specific individuals due to their race, ethnicity or religion (American Civil Liberties Union). Some of the many recent targets include Muslims, who have been labeled as terrorists, African Americans as gang members and with Donald Trump’s recent dramas, Latin Americans are labeled as immigrants. All these labels mentioned above are based on either race or ethnicity which have no value or importance. Before discussing some of the details in racial discrimination, A brief explanation of the history of racial profiling (American Civil Liberties Union). Racial profiling in the United States dates back to 1700’s during time that many African Americans were slaves and those who did not have an owner had to prove it with registry papers (Opposing Viewpoints). Those African Americans that were free were constantly...

Words: 1636 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Culturael Diversities

...treatment, focus on this population's; Africans American, regularly serve as a substitute for different variables, for example, financial states dialects capacity or society conduct that have a relationship or association with wellbeing status and social insurance. The doubt that African Americans, are finding in the human services framework they dreaded they will be utilized as a test for preventive administer to therapeutic examination. This social insurance framework is construct of a history that incorporate experimentation, sickle cell screening, family arranging automatic sanitization and investment of the therapeutic framework in the defense of prejudice and separation in the public eye. However accessible confirmation has been demonstrated however numerous decades that minorities existed destitution have lacking access to social insurance and got insufficient health awareness and experience unsuitable result. This populace don't think they will got skillful direction to nature of forethought,. So they are not incite to look for health awareness nor dealt with their wellbeing. African American is now off guard by being of color, and having shorter life expectances than white, on the grounds that, white American is offer, better human services and quality forethought. Africa American is more probable than white not to trust their specialists. Hence that clarifies the criticalness of this support in clinical examination and studies. Scientists accept that awful feeling......

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Tuskegee Syphlis Study

...violated. The physicians conducting the study misled the men from the beginning of the experiment. They purposely told men that they had “bad blood” and that they would treat them. Instead, these men were given a placebo. Physicians made sure that they did not receive treatment or help from anyone else. The reward for this “therapy” was free meals, free medical examinations and free burial insurance. It took more than 20 years to reveal the details of this famous Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Tuskegee became a symbol of discrimination in health treatment, ethical misbehavior in human research, and government abuse of innocent people that died in the name of the bad study and science. The entire Syphilis event fortified a fear of the African Americans toward white human race in medical and...

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

My Opinion, Henrietta Lacks' Response and Dr.Kings Dream

...will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.” Dr. King had a vision that one day everyone could be seen as equal and that they would only be judged by their character. He knew that during his time, African Americans were at a disadvantage compared to the whites. The African Americans had fewer rights, and Dr. King sought to change that fact and help for the equality of all. While obtaining freedom and rights have been achieved in Dr. King’s dream, everyone being seen as equal or being judged by the content of a person’s character has not fully been fulfilled. I believe that Henrietta lacks would have responded to Dr. King’s speech with joy and acceptance. First off, Henrietta lacks was born in Roanoke, Virginia, on August 1, 1920 and had 9 other siblings. Henrietta was raised by her grandfather after her mother died. Henrietta attended school, but she stopped in the sixth grade. While walking to school she passed the white school where children threw rocks and taunted her. Later on, Henrietta married David and moved north. She was also soon diagnosed with cervical cancer and was treated as a research experiment. Scientists took her cells without her permission and discovered that her cancer cells didn’t die. Though they made much success, they gave her no credit because she was black. Henrietta would have loved a time where she wasn’t teased because of her skin color, or told she had......

Words: 636 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The New Black Face

...identity. History is important to people of all cultures it helps to guide you by knowing where you’ve come from and it lets you know when you’ve elevated your way of thinking by honoring your ancestors and what they have fought for. The new black movement is encouraging a growth stunting amongst black people which is not helping to create a more progressive race but is instead encouraging children to lose themselves. The new black face is the result of the African experience while in America, forcible assimilation has always been a part of our culture, but there is a new threat implemented by enticing the youth with the “New Black Movement.” The notion of the new negro was coined by Alain Locke meaning by race, was black, but would not live in the stereotypical confines of what being black meant. But affluent African Americans such as Raven Symone and Pharrell have taken this idea and morphed it into what can be seen as an abandonment of identification, according to Pharrell, you must stop identifying with the African American group altogether and the positive accolades of hard work will elevate your status with society. But this idea is simply furthers the crisis of identification within black children. In the 1940’s there was a doll study performed by The Clarks determined that the black children overwhelmingly had chosen the white dolls when given the choice between the two. This study was done to show the, as they called it, “white bias” displayed by the children of......

Words: 967 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Mamie Clark

...Mamie Phipps Clark was born Mamie Katherine Phipps. An African-American Psychologist who made a significant impact on developmental psychology. Mamie received distinguished alumni awards from both Howard and Columbia Universities. She also received honorary doctorate degrees from Williams College and the Pratt Institute and a noted fellowship award from the American Association of University Women for her research on the psychological effects of racism and segregation. Her contributions stimulated racial desegregation in education in order to improve the lives of minorities. She was born in 1917 and died in 1983. She was the eldest of two children born to Harold H. and Katie F. Phipps in Hot Springs, Arkansas where Mamie attended racially segregated elementary and secondary schools. She graduated Pine Bluff's Lanston High School in 1934 at the age of 16. After High School, Mamie enrolled in Howard University to major in Mathematics and Physics. After her first year at Howard University, Mamie met her future husband, Kenneth Bancroft Clark, who influenced her to change her major to Psychology due to her interest in children. She was enrolled into the Psychology program, she graduated magna cum laude in 1938 and then spent some time working in a law office where she was able to witness first-hand the damaging effects of segregation. She soon started graduate school and had two children while pursuing her studies. Her master's thesis titled “The Consciousness of Self in Negro......

Words: 736 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...quantity of improved products. Life expectancies have increased and racial segregation has been abolished. The divide between the rich and poor isn’t as great as it was a few decades earlier. The most popular method of calculating the standard of living is real GDP but this not gives an accurate measurement of standard of living. It normally requires considering additional measures. Nevertheless , the real GDP per person does tend to be positively associated with many things people value, including better goods and services , health, life expectancies and education”.(economics text book page 124) Henrietta Lacks was 31 years old when she died in Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, one of the few healthcare facilities that admitted African Americans. Prior to her death, cells from her tumor were examined by Dr. George Gey. Dr. Gey had tried for decades to grow malignant cells outside of the body in the hopes of using them to find the cause of cancer and its cure. White doctors used Henrietta’s cells to make huge improvements in the standard of living by improving health care industry for example reducing mortality rates due to various illnesses,...

Words: 1371 - Pages: 6