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African American Servicemen Contributions to Military History

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Abstract
Racism and discrimination plagued this nation for many generations. It halted the progression of one race and exceled the advancement of another. These advancements were for Caucasian leaders whom thrived such as Patton, Custer, and York. The accomplishments of these men should not succumb to diminishment because they in fact earned what they received regardless of skin color. However, they did not face as many hindrances as African-American leaders such as Powell, Flipper, and McKinney. The accomplishments of these men paved the way for future African-Americans to flourish. These men along with the Buffalo Soldiers and Tuskegee Airmen provided heroes for young African-Americans to admire and thrive to be like. Thrive to break barriers, prove wrong unwarranted doubt, and change the perception of a racially entrenched America. They were the beginning, some of the firsts, and they initiated the way for a new way of thinking. They started the healing in a deeply seeded illness. An illness called hate. It is an outstandingly hard illness to cure; however, not one of impossibilities. These valiant African-American leaders set underway a cure for a race, a nation, and a dream.

African American Servicemen Contributions to Military History The United States Armed Forces has been one of great failures and great successes. One of its greatest failures was the inability to recognize at the time the contributions made by African-Americans as well as their ability for greatness like so many Caucasian Servicemen. Caucasian Servicemen such as General George S. Patton, General George A. Custer, and SGT Alvin York all contributed invaluably to the military including all of their prodigious accomplishments. African-American Servicemen have had as many accomplishments as Caucasian Servicemen, and they achieved these accomplishments in the face of adversity. Valued service members like General Colin Powell, Henry O. Flipper, and former Sergeant Major of the Army Gene McKinney. Other esteemed service members included forces who paved the way such as the Buffalo Soldiers and the Tuskegee Airmen. It could be a great wonder of how many more African-Americans could have contributed invaluably to their nation, if they only had the opportunity.
Individual African-American Accomplishments African-Americans contributed greatly to our nation’s history. They had done so when all odds were against them and they had done so with patience and class. When alleged they were not good enough, they showed patience, and when attacked for the color of their skin, they showed class. They held their heads high and drove on allowing them to be some of the first African-Americans to overcome insurmountable feats. These feats highlighted some great men, not just black, not just white, but men. Men who surpassed expectations, color barriers, racism, and showed resiliency to whatever obstacles stood in their way.

Gene McKinney On November 3, 1950, Gene C. McKinney was born in Monticello, Florida. He enlisted in the Army in 1968, and served in Vietnam with the 173rd Airborne Brigade. McKinney’s decorations and awards include the Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal (with Oak Leaf Cluster), Meritorious Service Medal (with Three Oak Leaf Clusters), Army Commendation Medal, Army Achievement Medal, Good Conduct Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Vietnam Service Medal, NCO Professional Development Ribbon, Army Service Ribbon, Overseas Service Ribbon, Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal, Combat Infantryman Badge and the Parachutist Badge. From 1995 to 1997, McKinney served as the 10th Sergeant Major of the Army. He was the first and only African-American to hold this position.
Colin Powell Colin Luther Powell was born on April 5, 1937 in Harlem New York, the son of Jamaican immigrants. In 1958, he received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Geology from the City College of New York. During his attendance to college, he joined the Reserve Officers Training Corp, and he did very well. After graduation, he began his tour of active duty as an Army second lieutenant. He completed Basic Combat Training, Airborne, and Ranger school in Fort Benning, Georgia. In 1962, Powell served his country in Vietnam serving as a captain in the Army. Wounded during his first tour, he returned to Vietnam as a major in 1968. In 1972, he served a White House position under President Richard Nixon, and in 1973, he returned to military duty commanding the 1st Battalion, 32nd Infantry in Korea. A year later, he returned to Washington, D.C. to the Pentagon where for the following year, he served on the Defense Department staff. In 1976, as a colonel he commanded the 2nd Brigade of the 101st Airborne Division after receiving advanced military training from the National War College. In 1977, back in Washington again, he served as the Senior Military Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense and in 1981 promoted to brigadier general. After his promotion, he commanded the 4th Infantry Division in Fort Carson, Colorado and then as Deputy Commanding General of the U.S. Army’s Combined Arms Development Activity in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. General Powell then became the Military Assistant to Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger from 1983 to 1986 in which he helped in the invasion of Grenada and the airstrike on Libya. In 1986, he took command of the V Corps in Frankfurt, West Germany as a lieutenant general. Then from 1987 to 1989, he served as deputy to the National Security Advisor upon President Ronald Regan’s request. After the National Security Advisor Frank Carlucci became Secretary of Defense, Powell became his successor to the position of National Security Advisor. He was the first African-American to hold the position and in 1989 he was promoted to 4-star general. Back to his duties in the Army, he became the commander of Forces Command in Fort McPherson, Georgia. Then finally, in 1989, President George Bush asked him to become the 12th Chairman of the Joints Chief of Staff. He was the first African-American to attain this position. Following the 2000 election of President George W. Bush, Powell became the 65th Secretary of State upon his selection to the position. He was once again a first, being the first African-American to hold this position. In 2004, Powell retired from a life of public service.
Henry O. Flipper In 1802, Congress authorized the establishment of the United States Military Academy (USMA) in WestPoint, New York. The USMA finally allowed admittance of an African-American after 68 years. In 1870, WestPoint granted admission to an African-American named James Webster Smith, but dismissed him in 1874 right before graduation. Smith later wrote a series of letters to a black newspaper explaining some of the hardships he faced among the cadets (Buckley, 2001). According to Buckley (2001), Smith prepared greatly for WestPoint academically, but several cadets made it evident to him that he would not graduate. One of these cadets was the son of President Ulysses S. Grant, who made it very clear to his father that a black would never graduate from the Military Academy. Smith died of consumption two years after his dismissal. James W. Smith was a roommate to Henry Ossian Flipper during his first year at the Academy. Flipper was born into slavery in 1856 and attended university in Atlanta during the reconstruction period. In 1873, Flipper gained admission to the Military Academy at WestPoint. He was the seventh African-American to receive admittance to the Military Academy. According to Buckley (2001), even though he did encounter a few aggressive racists, many were friendly to him especially when not in a group setting. Flipper found the instructors at the Academy to be fair, and unlike Smith, he was less prone to fight back when ostracized. In 1877, Flipper became the first African-American to graduate from the United States Military Academy. Upon his graduation, he received assignment to the 10th Calvary, an all-black regiment. Flipper became the first African-American to lead the Buffalo Soldiers. Flipper later relocated to Fort Davis, Texas where he was to serve as quartermaster and commissary officer. The Commander at Fort Davis was Colonel William R. Shafter, whom made very clear his dislike for African-American officers. COL Shafter assigned Flipper to keep charge of the quartermaster’s safe. When Flipper discovered that the safe was short money, he was aware this was an opportunity for those who disliked him to take advantage of his detrimental situation. He did not report the loss and repaid the money himself with the help of local businesspersons. In 1881, when confronted about the money, he lied and later was court-martialed. He was not convicted on embezzlement charges, but they found him guilty of conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman. In 1882, Flipper received a dismissal from the United States Army with a dishonorable discharge. In other cases similar to Flipper’s concerning white officers in embezzlement predicaments, the white officers did not receive a dismissal from the military. President Chester A. Arthur denied Flipper a less harsh sentence, which had been the recommendation. Flipper fought the rest of his life against the charges. It was not until 1976, in which Flipper’s dishonorable discharge changed to a good conduct discharge, and in 1978, he received a proper reburial with military honors. In 1999, President Bill Clinton granted Flipper an official presidential pardon.
Paving the Way Henry O. Flipper is one of many African-Americans who have contributed a first, a first to accomplish something for the great of a race and for the great of a nation. He was one individual who became part of a group of individuals. Groups that gave of themselves all that they had to include their loyalty, their honor, and even their lives. They gave selflessly to a nation that considered them second-class citizens. A nation that did not think they were capable of being anything other than a body, or a number with no mental or physical capabilities to be anything better. These great men proved themselves repeatedly with their contributions and sacrifices they so graciously made.
Buffalo Soldiers The Buffalo Soldiers were all-black regiments commanded by white officers until Henry O. Flipper came along. These forces formed in 1866 in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas starting with the 9th and 10th Calvary and the 24th and 25th Infantry to follow. They were not necessarily the first all-black regiment ever formed, but they were the first to form in peacetime and also the first that Congress established. The Buffalo Soldiers spent a lot of time on the Western Frontier, and believed to have picked up their nickname there. The Cheyenne thought their hair resembled that of buffalo fur, hence the name “Buffalo” Soldier. The Buffalo Soldiers contributed greatly on the western front defeating Native American enemies such as the Cheyenne, Apaches, and Kiowa. They faced harsh elements in the west. According to Astor (1998),
It was a brutal life, aside from the danger of battle. Away from the fort facilities, which they built themselves, they lived in tents or in the open, spent long hours in saddle riding great distances, coped with stifling heat, subzero cold and acute shortages of water and food. A number perished not from hostile action but exposure, disease, and deprivation (p. 45).
Not only were the conditions severe, but segregation was still evident. Whenever possible, the Whites and Blacks remained separate from each other, and their living quarters were never as good. They received the worse of the equipment, weapons, and horses. Their uniforms were lacking and there often was not enough food or the food they did have was rotten. They received harsher punishments and dealt with racist leadership as well as racist attacks. Even so, they still forged on and continuously proved their skeptics wrong. In 1881, the Buffalo Soldiers helped by rescuing stranded white homesteaders. They aided in the rescue of their animals and many villages by delivering supplies. When supplies ran out, they would selflessly donate their own pay to provide relief. Aside from the many relief efforts, they fought many hard strenuous battles against the Native Americans. They not only fought, but they did very well. “The African-American cavalrymen and infantrymen in the West proved that soldiers will be soldiers regardless of color. They will perform brave deeds when called upon…” (Lanning, 1997, p. 75).
Tuskegee Airmen In October of 1940, under the direction of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the War Department made an announcement that Negro Aviation units would form and pilots, mechanics, and technical specialists would be trained (Francis, 1997). In the spring of 1941, the Army Air Force was training African-Americans and on March 21, 1941, the 99th squadron was formally activated. The proper location was determined and training for these pilots would commence at the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. March 7, 1942 marked the occasion for the first graduation of African-American pilots into the Army Air Force. The five graduating cadets that day were CPT Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Charles Debow, Jr., Lemuel R. Custis, George S. Roberts, and Mac Ross. In April of 1943, the 99th squadron was now combat ready. They set out for North Africa where they attached to the 33rd Fighter Group commanded by Colonel William Momyer. The 99th did not receive a warm reception from the 33rd, and members of the 99th believed COL Momyer was racist toward them. The 99th flew their first mission on June 2, 1943 as the wingmen to the 33rd. There assignment was to attack the island of Pantelleria, which is located in the Mediterranean Sea. The mission was a success although the role of the 99th received mass criticism for lack of value. Their courage was in question because of their lack of victories. The 99th was under a great deal of pressure to succeed, in fact, they needed to do more than succeed. They needed to be great. The future of African-Americans in the Air Corp was dependent on it. Colonel Davis, the Commander of the 99th and graduate of the Tuskegee Institute said, “…the members of the 99th realized that the Unit was a test to determine whether the Negro pilot was physically, mentally, and emotionally suited to the rigors of combat flying” (Francis, 1997, p. 89). It was not that the 99th was unable to perform, but in order to do so they needed admission into combat situations. According to Major George S. Roberts, another commander of the 99th and graduate of the Tuskegee Institute, the 99th went months without even seeing an enemy aircraft let alone being able to fire upon one (Francis, 1997). Despite the criticizing of the 99th, on September 23, 1943, they came upon new orders to Barcellona, Sicily, and from there to mainland Italy into immediate combat action. In October, the 99th joined the 79th, where the reception was much more welcoming than from the 33rd. They gained permission to fly combat missions along with the 79th. The better reception and acceptance by the 79th allowed for a much more successful 99th. They were able to do their job and they did it well attacking targets and dropping bombs on targeted areas. The 79th and 99th received great praises for their accomplishments together. This was the beginning for many successes of African-American pilots known as the Tuskegee Airmen.
Successful Caucasian Soldiers It would be unfair to name the accomplishments of these great African-American Servicemen without also giving credit to the great Caucasian Servicemen as well. It is an imbalanced statement to claim they were only great because they were white and granted the opportunity to lead and become great. They obviously had to prove themselves as well in order to even acquire such positions of power. They also proved themselves loyal, honorable, and selflessly willing to sacrifice their own lives for the greater good of a nation.

Patton General George S. Patton was one of the most successful combat leaders of all time, known mostly for his efforts during World War II. In 1909, he graduated from the United States Military Academy at WestPoint. In 1943, during WWII, he was victorious when he led the 7th U.S. Army in the invasion of Sicily. In 1944, he took command over 3rd Army and tore through France freeing Northern France and claiming city after city. In 1945, Patton and his 3rd Army headed straight into Germany capturing and defeating many enemy forces and helping to free Germany from the Nazi regime.
York
Sergeant Alvin C. York was born into poverty and drafted into World War I. He served with the 82nd Infantry Division and received great recognition for his attack on German Soldiers in the Argonne Forrest in France. He led a small group of Soldiers in the attack and captured 132 German Soldiers. He received the prestigious Medal of Honor for his leadership during the attack.
Custer
General George Armstrong Custer was a heroic general of him time. His heroics made famous for his actions during the Civil War. His aggressive leadership style brought great attention by other generals as well as the public. His first battle was at the Battle of Bull Run where he gained much recognition and he was a major component in the retreat of the forces commanded by General Robert E. Lee. After the Civil War, he continued his aggressive campaign on the war against Native Americans. Unfortunately, his aggressive nature got the better of him during the Battle of Little Big Horn. He led the attack on the Lakota and their Chief Sitting Bull, where Custer and his troops were outnumbered, surrounded, and slaughtered. In spite of his defeat, he is still one of the greatest known American heroes in the history of the United States.
In The Face of Adversity There is no question when it comes to American History; there are heroes on both sides of the spectrum. There are heroic Caucasian Soldiers and there are heroic African-American Soldiers. The difference in these Soldiers is one race received grooming for it, while another had to overcome enormous obstacles to even dream about it. In the case of the African-American, even when they did succeed, there was normally some agenda to discredit said victory. In the case of Henry O. Flipper, he was able to accomplish his goal against all odds. After he accomplished his goals, there were people waiting in the winds to discredit that accomplishment. Unfortunately, for Flipper, they were successful. He did not receive the proper acknowledgment until after he was long gone. The same analogy applies when reviewing the Tuskegee Airmen and the Buffalo Soldiers. They were finally granted the opportunity to prove themselves, but in turn, were critically observed for any possibility of failure. If or when the smallest of failures occurred, a happy condescending smile was waiting with pleasure to try to prove they were mentally and physically inadequate. According to Francis (1997),
The flight of the Wright Brothers in 1903 sparked enthusiasm for aviation by black youths, but racial hatred and discrimination so deeply embedded in American life that Blacks were excluded from flight instruction. It was a wide-held belief that Blacks had neither the mentality, aptitude nor reflexes to fly (p. 27).
On the other side of the coin are the Caucasian Soldiers, and in no way should any Soldiers’ accomplishments ever be devalued no matter the color of their skin. However, when comparing the two races, the experience is where the questionability lies. For example, General George S. Patton was no doubt a great general with many accomplishments. The difference for Patton versus an African-American leader was the fact his upbringing bred him for greatness. Through the expression of countless stories of his ancestors’ great accomplishments in the American Revolution and the Civil War, reared with confidence in what his capabilities could be. He began to dream of his future accomplishments as a young boy. The only dreams a young African-American boy could envision in the military were that of a cook. Although, when he dreamed of a different world, it is quite possible he pictured himself flying a plane, but it was make-believe. His parents dreamed of him getting an education, and staying out of trouble, and the ability to provide for a family. If Patton told his parents he wanted to be a pilot, they would promote his dreams and do everything in their power to see their boy got what he wanted. Here in lies the difference. One race groomed for and promised greatness, while the other was just hopeful to get by and live their life in peace. The fact that African-Americans went beyond what they were predestined for is proof of their resiliency, their ambition, their hope, and their newfound dreams.
Conclusion
As mentioned previously, the United States Armed Forces has been one of great failures as well as great successes. The failures of discrimination have been obvious, and the triumph through those failures admirable. These triumphs being of the Buffalo Soldiers, Tuskegee Airmen, Henry O. Flipper, General Colin Powell, and the first African-American Sergeant Major of the Army Gene McKinney all paving the way for the Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines of today. Some of the successes are the identification of great leaders such as General George S. Patton, General George A. Custer, and Sergeant Alvin York. The recognizing of these great men while also recognizing there may have been greater opportunity to have more like them if only the opportunity would have been attainable for those of other races. Unfortunately, the mindset ingrained into a nation, and overcoming such a mindset is an ongoing battle, which is slowly being shattered. A mindset that allowed certain dreams to go so far and one that exuded hate across a nation. However, with the continued success in the face of adversity these dreams can now go beyond what was ever imaginable and reach places never dreamed. Hope has replaced hate and reality has replaced dreams.

References
A & E Networks. (2012). Alvin C. York: Biography. Retrieved from http://www.biography.com/people/alvin-c-york-41029. A & E Networks. (2012). George Custer: Biography. Retrieved from http://www.biography.com/people/george-custer-9264128. A & E Networks. (2012). George Patton: Biography. Retrieved from http://www.biography.com/people/george-patton-9434904. Association of the United States Army. (n.d.). 10th SMA - Gene C. McKinney. Retrieved from http://www.ausa.org/resources/nco/sma/Pages/10thSMA-GeneCMcKinney.aspx. Astor, G. (1998). The Right to Fight: A History of African Americas in the Military. Novato,
CA: Presidio Press.
Buckley, G. (2001). American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm. New York, NY: Random House.
Department of Defense. (1991). Black Americans in Defense of Our Nation. Washington D.C.:
Author.
Dryden, C. W. (1997). A-Train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman. Tuscaloosa, AL: The
University of Alabama Press.
Francis, C. E. (1997). The Tuskegee Airmen: The Men Who Changed A Nation (4th ed.). Boston,
MA: Branden Publishing Company.
Haulman, D. L. (2012). Tuskegee Airmen Chronology. Retrieved from http://www.tuskegeeairmen.org/explore/TUSKEGEE_AIRMEN_CHRONOLOGY.pdf. Lanning, M. L. (1997). The African-American Soldier: From Crispus Attucks to Colin Powell.
Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group.
National Archives and Records Administration. (n.d.). Lt. Henry O. Flipper's Quest for Justice:
“As honorable a record in the Army as any officer in it". Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/henry_o_flipper/ National Park Service. (n.d.). The Buffalo Soldiers. Retrieved from http://www.nps.gov/prsf/historyculture/buffalo-soldiers.htm. Public Broadcasting Service. (2001). George Armstrong Custer (1839-1876). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/custer.htm. The New York Times (2010). Patton's Career A Brilliant One. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1111.html. The United States Army. (n.d.). Gene C. McKinney: 10th Sergeant Major of the Army.
Retrieved from http://www.army.mil/leaders/sma/Former/sma_bio10.html.…...

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...African American History Michele Matthews HIS 204 American History Since 1865 Instructor: Mark Hoffman November 13, 2013 African American History To earn their place in America’s Society, African Americans fought many battles that brought them a very long way from 1865. African Americans went through a whole lot of hardship to get where they are today. Yes it is not perfect now but every actions made a big different through history. There are many achievements African American has made since the ending of slavery. Many sat, spoke, marched, cried, fought, died, and dreamed to make footprint in history. In this paper I will discuss some very important event in African American history like our 44th President Obama back to when slavery was ended. It all started in 1865 when the Civil war ended. The African American felt their freedom was a great turning point. Once slavery ended African American made plan to expand their culture. In our textbook, it states “They had a clear vision of what freedom meant. It was not just freedom from white control, but also the opportunity to expand the institutions and autonomous culture that they made while they endured slavery” (Bowles, 2011). As they develop a new society and beliefs, the laws started to change as while. The Plessy v. Ferguson case was the birth of the Jim Crow law. In David Bishop journal, he stated “Bernstein concluded that the “Supreme Court was compelled to distort cases before it could pollute the......

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Hist221 African American History

... Slavery Before America History 221 American Military University Slavery Before America This paper will focus on slavery before America and the differences in detail while under each rule. When most people think of slavery they fast forward to Slavery in the Americas because for most there is not a lot known about slavery before America. When in actuality slavery was very much present before the union of the states; and in this paper I intend to show the different slave systems and how they play a part in what we as Americans know to be slavery. According to (Scaruffi, n.d.) The Dutch were the first, apparently, to import black slaves into North America, but black slaves had already been employed all over the world, including South and Central America. For example Britain’s earliest known involvement in the western slave trade dates back over two thousand years ago. The British following the lead of the Portuguese in enslaving Africans actually began to get a strong hold on the slave trade and thus became known as the primary facilitator of slaves. With Britain now the primary facilitator of slaves, Special ships were built to accommodate the lucrative business. Under the rule of the British plantation and mine owners bought the Africans and more died in the process called 'seasoning'. In the British colonies the slaves were treated as non-human: they were 'chattels', to be worked to death as it was cheaper to purchase......

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American Military History

...American Military Technology Gary Smith MIL 311 American Military History II Instructor Trevor Albertson March 2, 2014 Introduction “Technology shapes the conduct of war in a tremendous way. It determines how wars are fought, how armies are organized and also many of the limitations they have,” according to Krishnan (2008, p. 1). The United States armed forces have seen many innovations in military technology that have helped project the United States as a global leader in politics and military matters. World War II was the catapult that launched the United States onto the world stage and began the shift of American armed forces swing towards advancing military technology to maintain the ability to politically have significance throughout the globe. American dominance of military technology has continued from World War II through modern times, with a significant focus towards the future and private sectors being the important key to maintaining that dominance. World War II Technology Advancements Starting with technology advancement during World War II, the U.S. Navy did not advance as strongly as other branches. Aircraft carriers came of age and dominated as the main focus of fleets, while submarines became incredible predators of the seas. The actual development of new ships was not really there, since the turn-around time of such an endeavor outweighed the benefits during wartime. However, the Navy did make strides in SONAR technology, which......

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African American Violence in History

...extremism, however the gathering that quite gets the main part of this contempt is the African American group. There are numerous shocking generalizations that individuals place upon them, from they are inalienably savage to they are inept. Considering how dynamic, different, and tolerating the United States cases to be we too are liable of this appalling conduct. Despite the fact that roughness toward African Americans has declined generously since the foundation of this nation regardless it has yet to totally stop, which is astonishing. African Americans did not do anything to dispense this savagery upon themselves, they didn't do anything to launch any kind of question. So these individuals don't merit this treatment. Truth be told, we ought to be saying thanks to African Americans for their commitments to society. The main reason they are singled out is a direct result of the shading of their skin, and the way that others wish to create their predominance. It is sickening. African Americans have been the casualties of savagery originated from antagonistic vibe from their entry to the New World, their subjugation, the social equality development, and even until today. Christopher Columbus still gets acknowledgment for being the author of the New World, actually when there is a plenty of proof demonstrating that there were different people groups that had been possessing the area; African Americans included. At the point when Columbus and his men arrived they realized that......

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African American History

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...against each other on strategies for black economic and social advancement. Their opposing ideas or arguments can be analyzed in discussions over the ways to end class and racial injustice and the roles of black leadership. Nevertheless, whose philosophy is more convincing? Both W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington are significant and inspirational African American leaders on the matter of education for black people in the history. Their two African American leadership tactics for racial equality were divided into economic strategy and political strategy near the turn of the century. The most intense controversy in African American leadership at that time erupted between two remarkable black leaders: W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington. Du Bois was the major spokesman for gradualist political strategy. On the other side, Washington was the dominant advocate of the gradualist economic strategy. In the speech, The Talented Tenth, the author, W. E. B. Du Bois, argued for the higher education of black people. The term, The Talented Tenth, was created by Du Bois to depict the likeliness of one out ten African Americans turning into leaders of their race worldwide, through writing and publishing books, carrying on their academic trainings, or involving in social changes directly. He declares “to attempt to establish any sort of a system of common and industrial school training, without first (and I say first advisedly) without first providing for the higher......

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American Military History

...HY-2000 American Military History For The Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America NOTES INTRODUCTION: Primary purpose of book is to analyze the development of military policy; examine the characteristics and behavior or the armed forces in the execution of that policy; to illuminate the impact of military policy on America’s international relations and domestic development. Policy is the sum of the assumptions, plans, programs and actions taken by the citizens of the United States, principally through governmental action, to ensure the physical security of their lives, property and way of life from external military attack and domestic insurrection (mutiny). War is a less elusive concept, since it enjoys centuries of political and judicial definition: it is the application of state violence in the name of policy. It involves the killing and wounding of people and destroying property until the survivors abandon their military resistance or the belligerents come to a negotiated agreement. War aims are the purpose for which wars are fought. Strategy, the general concept for the use of military force, is derived from war aims. In wartime strategy is normally expressed in terms of geographic areas of operations, the timing of operations, and the allocations, and the allocation of forces. Operational doctrine, which is an institutional concept for planning and conducting operations. Taking into account such factors as......

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