Premium Essay

African Conservation

In: Historical Events

Submitted By jmellef
Words 2241
Pages 9
Jacob Ellefsen
April 2nd 2012
Prof. Julie Weiskopf
Colonial Nature Paper
Word Count: 2,225
Colonial Nature Practices in Africa Africa contains number truly unique geographic features that are home to a number of different plant and animal species. As history has shown Africa to be the cradle of civilization, the inhabitants have developed a harmonious, possibly even religious balance with their environment. When Europeans arrived in Africa they saw many such practices as “backwards” and labeled those people demonstrating them as uncivilized. They saw it as a matter of religious right and of nation pride to take upon themselves a civilizing mission of Africa. With them they brought new scientific developments to increase crop production and to bring crops to areas that were previously unable to sustain them. It seemed like a great improvement of the region, but the balance of life for the Africans had been disrupted. The onslaught of colonialism brought with a number of changes that affected the livelihoods of many Africans, but African replied with a number of diverse ways in which to react to the colonial management of African environmental resources. This paper will focus on the regions of Kenya, The Matopos Hills in modern day Zimbabwe, and finally colonial South Africa. The Inhabitants of Africa were controlled by the environment they resided in. It controlled every part of their lives from basic survival to agricultural production of goods. They had lived in such a matter for hundreds upon thousands of years and the land in return had cared for them. Then in the fifteenth century, Prince Henry the Navigator began sending out voyages of exploration to seek out wealth and spread European influence around the world. They first looked to Africa because of its gold reserves for wealth; it wouldn’t be till later that the Europeans would discover the many...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Environmental Law Legislations

...Practical Difficulties of Enforcement of Legislation of Conservation of Species Legislation for the conservation of species is notoriously difficult to enforce for several reasons. Long lists of species are of relatively little use if few people can recognise the species concerned. The negative listing approach may help considerably in this respect, as public and enforcement personnel have only to be able to recognise a relatively small number of authorized species, as has the 'small bunch' rule for plants. An element of intention is often required in order for an offence to have been committed, yet this may be extremely difficult to prove and it is more usual for good faith to be presumed. In this context, the hunting proficiency test is particularly valuable. Hunters who have passed the test have learned about protected species and would therefore have greater difficulty in pleading ignorance of the specimens they may have taken or damaged unlawfully. Reversing the burden of proof can contribute significantly to effective enforcement. The effect of such a reversal is that possession of a specimen of a given species is deemed to be unlawful, unless the possessor can prove otherwise. For example, under the Customs Code in France, the possessor of CITES specimens must be able to prove that these have been lawfully obtained. However, great care must be taken if an offence is deemed to be one of strict criminal liability, as there may be a serious risk of injustice......

Words: 1314 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...examples should be chosen to illustrate the principles and issues that are included in the specification. This guide includes suitable examples that may be used (in italics) but others may be used if preferred eg if the candidates or teachers have particular experience or knowledge. It is anticipated that the use of carefully selected examples may reduce total teaching effort by enabling a number of issues to be covered in a single situation. This will also help candidates to appreciate the holistic, inter-connected nature of the subject and prepare them for the study of broader issues such as sustainability in A2. Case study example. Minsmere RSPB reserve, Suffolk. Issues in the Specification which could be covered: Rationale for wildlife conservation Species inter-dependence Problems caused by introduced species Eradication of competitors Legal protection of habitats and species Captive breeding and release programmes Habitat management, especially plagioclimaxes The role of Governmental and...

Words: 6185 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Physics and Batteries

...Soil and Water conservation H. H. Bennett once said, “Soil conservation is probably the youngest of all the agricultural sciences.” Its newness doesn’t make it any less important, especially in small towns where people rely heavily on soil and water conservation to grow crops to feed their families and people around the world. In 2000, slightly more than one-half of the nation’s population lived in jurisdictions cities, towns, boroughs, villages and townships with fewer than 25,000 people or in rural areas, which makes it even more important to conserve soil and water in such areas, so we can have it for future generations and beyond. Small towns need soil conservation to survive because without it they will not be able to grow crops, and in turn people will have to leave thus is the end of a small town, because with no people there can be no town. Just like in the dust bowl were people couldn’t grow crops because of the poor soil conditions this could happen again if we are not careful of the land that we use to farm. Small towns also need water conservation because when you are living in a place like the panhandle of Texas water is scarce and relied upon for daily living. When water is used in this part of the world it should be conserved. Just as in the last couple of years we have had a severe drought causing our lakes and rivers, to deplete. Another reason for soil and water conservation is that you need small towns. In places as dry and as farmed as the......

Words: 362 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Marine Mammals

...Marine Mammal Conservation Sharon Herzog COM/172-Elements of University Composition and Communications II July 28, 2013 Timothy Toole Marine Mammal Conservation There are 29 marine mammals on the endangered and threatened list produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The US Fisheries and Wildlife foundation also have a list that includes certain seals, sea otters, and polar bears. There are many threats to marine mammals. These threats include dangers posed by humans and the environment. There are laws in place to help protect marine mammals from further dangers. Captivity has brought forth much controversy as to dangers it may pose to marine mammals. Marine mammal habitat conservation may be the only answer to protecting marine mammal life. There are five characteristic that an animal must possess to be classified as a mammal. These characteristics include being warm-blooded, having hair or fur, having the ability to breathe air through lungs, the ability to bear live young, and the ability to nurse their young with milk produced by mammary glands (The Marine Mammal Center, 2013). Marine mammals also have a thick layer of fat called blubber that they rely on to keep them warm in the water. They have the ability to store up extra oxygen to aid them in staying under water for extended periods of time. Marine mammals spend a lot of time swimming, their bodies are streamlined to help them swim faster. One of......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...plans for new and existing campaigns. 3. Report writing 4. Work with various sponsoring brands for effective and mutually beneficial joint initiatives. 5. Ensure continued funding for the various marketing campaigns and events. 6. Contribute as Event Manager for these events and campaigns. 7. Interact with the electronic and print media for coverage of these events and campaigns. 8. Ensure funding from the various events and campaigns. 9. Acquire funding from the corporate sector for the various conservation projects and events. 10. Coordination, Communication & Planning work in written and verbal, both external and internal for sourcing, marketing, sales, technical & market/product developmental teams as well. 11. To understand customer's exact needs, answer customer's queries. Eligibility / Selection Criteria Education, Experience & Skills * A well-established personal commitment to nature conservation; * Bachelors/Masters Degree in Marketing, no experience require * Analytical and Problem-Solving skills and Results Orientation; * Good interpersonal and computer skills specially Microsoft Excel; * Good English Language Reading, writing & speaking; * Knowledge of accounting software will be an advantage (preferably Sage ERP ACCPAC 500); * Relevant Experience will be an advantage however not mandatory. * Sensitivity to gender and other current social issues in countries such as......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Literarture Summary

...supporting it by hosting a live earth day travel chat,where one will get to understand Eco-Luxury.One can go on a vacation in hotels which have scored high points on various issues like energy,water efficiency and atmosphere,etc and the good thing about this is one does not need to to compromise on style ,comfort and can still be trendy by just checking out the list of eco-friendly hotels and aminities provided.Even the airlines are concerned about the environment.They are supporting it by reducing the the usage of carbon and plantation of trees.This will help us as well as the future generation to live a better life and enjoy the beauty of mother earth. AFRICAN WILDLIFE FOUNDATION.(n.d.).Conservation tourism:Conservation tourism turns wildlife into a local asset.Retrieved from The article speaks about how successfully Africa has conserved the wildlife.Instead of feeling it like a threat to the livelihoods it is helping in saving and growing tourism .It also reports how the locals have been protecting the area i.e. private properties which does not come in protected areas.The national parks are creating jobs as well as conserving the elephants.The rarest of mountain gorrilas will get saved which will keep a balance between the wildlife and the local community. Wikipedia.(2013).Ecotourism.Retrieved from......

Words: 1083 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Shoeshone National Forestry

...The Shoshone National Forestry The Shoshone National Forest has resources that influence forest health, the economy, and society. There are many benefits and risk of extracting non-renewable and renewable energy resources from the Shoshone National Forest ecosystem including, fire, wind, diseases, damage to vegetation, corrosion of structural materials and negative health effects on wildlife and human occupancy. As with all National Forests in the U.S. the practice of conservation of resources, ensure a sustainable flow of raw materials and maintain the diversity of plant and animal species on the National Forest System lands. Renewable The benefits of extracting renewable energy sources and alternative resources such as biomass, wood and other plant material, along with the lease options of the Shoshone National forest provide viable solutions that allow for the creation of cleaner energy resource, and wilderness designated zoning areas that enhance land protection and prohibit alterations by man to the ecosystem. Less than 10% percent of the total area is utilized for the land lease. The majority of the forest has been reserved for wildlife, plants, animals and the protection of the habitat. The Shoshone National Forest has about 1,300 documented species of plants. Lower elevations often have brush and grass dominated by vegetation while, other forest areas are dominated by various combinations of species (The HRO Case Studies Series, 2006). Non- Renewable The risk...

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Endangered Species

...Biodiversity at all levels is being lost to human impact, irretrievably when species become extinct. Once vanished, a species can never return. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Global Species Program along with the Species Survival Commission (SSC) and partners, such as the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), assess the status of species on a global scale for the IUCN Red List in an effort to underline possible extinction, thereby encourage their conservation (IUCN, 2014). All assessments or reassessments for publication on the IUCN Red List must use categories, such as Endangered (EN) and criteria (e.g., Continuing decline in EOO, AOO, habitat, locations or subpopulations, or mature individuals and/or Extreme fluctuation in EOO, AOO, locations or subpopulations, or mature individuals) as adopted by the IUCN Council (IUCN, 2014). In 2012, the Atrichornis clamosus (also known as Noisy Scrub-bird, Western Scrubird) was uplisted to Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In questioning why, large lighting-induced fires and other small-scale unexplained events further declined population size and habitat quality on the south coast of Western Australia . However, these species have a chance to recover overtime. The conservation actions include, but are not limited to, long-term monitoring of the species’ recovery, improved fire protection management and the search for potential......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Conservation vs. Preservation

...Conservation versus Preservation Jessica SCI-275 September 15, 2013 Joanna Gress Conservation Verses Preservation Dear Editor, Conservationists have cautioned us that continuing to be wasteful and pollute the environment won’t only cause our generation to suffer, but future generations will suffer as well. The Bridger-Teton National Forest in Western Wyoming and its ecosystem is the largest ecosystem that still remains intact within the lower 48 United States (United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, 2013). By conserving and managing places such as this, and the natural resources we will continue to benefit from them for generations to come. “Americans are used to living their lives fueled by cheap energy.” (Berg et al., 2011). The message that should to be spread to others is that it is to enhance the future, but there are boundaries that need to be set. There are also many risks involved in using our natural resources for personal development. By depleting the environment we live in we are creating many risks not only to our environment but also our health. If using a place like Bridger-Teton National Forest to look for oil or use trees to fuel our growth as a nation is the best, then making sure we use the four steps to assess the risks is pertinent. “Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing, and reducing risks.” (Berg et al., 2011). Hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Niokolo-Koba National Park

...Park Ronald Thompson University of Phoenix In Senegal, the Niokolo-Koba National Park is the largest and oldest national park (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). The park has around 200 meters of flat regions with lines of hills, where the remainder of the park is full of low plateaus. There are many languages that are spoken within the park. They are: Spanish, French, Russian, English, and Arabic. The Niokolo-Koba National Park was put on the World Heritage Danger List in 2007. The park is located in the western region of Africa near the Guinea-Bissau border in South Eastern Senegal (Absolute Astronomy 2010). It best known for its wildlife and it contains the most important natural habitat for biological diversity, including threatened species. Senegal is home to “2,500 different types of species and the Niokolo-Koba contain 1,500 of them” (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). Currently 120 different species families occupy the park as well. The park is home to “80 different species of mammals, 330 birds, 38 reptiles, 20 amphibians, 60 different types of fish” (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). The vegetation plays a strong role in this park as well. There are four types of soils that are found in the park in various locations. The soils include “tropical red soil, ferrolateritic crusts, alluvial, and hydromorphic” (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). The vegetation in the park comes in many forms. The park includes grass, woody savannas, bushes, and many trees. A long list of......

Words: 1636 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...The areas of environmental concern are as follows; hazardous waste and materials, high levels of noise, endangered species, archeological sites, and pollution. There is also the limited access highway, hills wetlands, several winding streams, and one large river. The unit leaders should discuss the environmental risks in training meetings, as well as with their soldiers ensuring that all soldiers understand the environmental concerns, the mission- related environmental risk, the potential of environmental factors on the mission and operations, as well as the unit SOP. There should also be a spill contingency plan; all soldiers should follow the units sop regarding Hazardous waste and materials. The unit must identify points of collection and turn in for Hazardous waste and hazardous materials; the unit is responsible for keeping a cleanup report, as well as any documentation regarding hazardous spills. The unit is responsible for reporting any unexploded ordnance, unit must also remove any expended brass, communications wire, concertina, booby traps, and propellant chars from training sites. Unit should also conduct police call to ensure all trash and any other harmful objects are removed from the site to protect all species, and other environmental elements from pollution. The unit must provide a current Hazardous material inventory and a material safety data sheet for every hazardous material in the unit. Unit leaders should outline the locations of surface water as......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Marine Conservation

...Discuss one management practice for sustainability and conservation of natural resources in that ecosystem The protection of marine species and ecosystems in oceans and seas worldwide is marine conservation. Marine conservation involves the protection and restoration of species, populations and habitats while mitigating human activities such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, whaling and other issues that affect marine life and habitats. The goal of marine conservation is accomplished by enforcing and creating laws, such as the Endangered Species Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. It is also done by establishing marine protected areas, studying populations through conducting stock assessments and mitigating human activities with the goal of restoring populations. A recent practice that has become popular in marine conservation is the use of Marine Conservation Agreements (MCAs). Through recent years of research, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have realized that the creation of formal protected areas may not be adequate enough to protect ocean and coastal biodiversity, particularly in areas where rights have already been contracted to specific owners and users. In order to address this, NGOs have increased their usage of MCAs to complement other marine and coastal protection efforts. Marine Conservation Agreements consist of any formal or informal understanding in which one or more parties commit to delivering explicit economic incentives in......

Words: 443 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Environment Accounting

...UQ�s Ecology Centre and collaborators have found only the �honest� reporting of both the positive and negative outcomes of conservation policy can we hope to properly manage our dwindling environmental resources. Lead author of the study, Dr Eve McDonald-Madden, said without rigorous and transparent accounting it is impossible to manage the environment. �Given the increasing public awareness of conservation issues and the need for ongoing investment in environmental management, it is worrying that little attention has been given to deriving rigorous metrics for reporting on conservation investments,� Dr McDonald-Madden said. �Reporting both gains and losses is a basic requirement of �honest� conservation accounting. The current global standard of reporting gains but not losses is unjustified and potentially misleading.� Professor Hugh Possingham, Director of a federally funded Commonwealth Environmental Research Facility on environmental decision-making and co-author of the study, said the field of biodiversity conservation is hampered by weak performance measurement, �In the corporate world such weak reporting would be considered bad practice,� Professor Possingham said. The researchers used a case study of land clearing in Queensland from 1997 to 2003 and found, with traditional reporting methods, the conservation gains would appear to be small but positive. �When metrics are used that account for both loss and......

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Norther Spotted Owl V. Loggin in the Pacific Northwest

...The Northern spotted owl vs. Logging interest in the Pacific Northwest The rich ecosystem of the old growth forest provides a home for the Northern spotted owl, and a habitat for the owl’s primary prey. However, these same towering trees of cedars and firs which serve as the owls’ habitat, is also the primary source of a multi-billion dollar logging industry. However, if the forest is destroyed due to logging, the Northern spotted owl will lose its habitat. The Northern spotted owl has been on the rapid decline, with over half of the population being wiped out. The old growth forest, the home of the spotted owl, has become a huge income earning logging industry that has created jobs for thousands of workers. As a result of logging, approximately only 10% of the original forest remains intact leaving limited space for the already dwindling number of the owls in the region. In response to this decline, environmentalist petitioned the US Fish and Wildlife Service to place the owl on the endangered species list, arguing that as an indicator species, the northern spotted owl is a gauge of the health of the forest that provides its habitat. Since the main threat to the spotted owl is habitat loss due to logging, the US government declared the owl as a threatened species in 1990, a move which was vehemently opposed by the timber industry, as millions of acres of Pacific Northwest forest was protected to help slow or even reverse the decline in owl......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sci 265

...University of Phoenix Material Natural Resources Worksheet Complete the following table: | |Fossil Fuel |Alternative Energy | |Identify 3 types of both energy categories |1. |1. | |and what they are most often used to power.|2. |2. | | |3. |3. | |Benefits to using these energy types | | | |Environmental impacts of using these energy| | | |types | | | |Are these energy types renewable? Explain. | | | Using the textbooks, the University Library, or other resources answer each of the following questions in 150- to 300-words. Be sure to provide references for the sources you use. |Question |Response ......

Words: 264 - Pages: 2