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African Decolonization

In: Historical Events

Submitted By joeyo
Words 473
Pages 2
Decolonization of Africa

1. Pre-WWI
Africa was being colonized at this time.

2. WWI and Interwar * Africa came under Euro control in decades before WWI * Missionary efforts small groups of Western-educated Africans * Educated Africans loyal to Britain and France during WWI * British and French able to draw on their African colonies for soldiers and materials throughout the war * Local rebellions in Africa * Shipping shortages and sudden decline in demands for crops like cocoa * Africans not happy to go hungry so that armies could be fed * War taught Africans to kill white people * Broken promises- Better jobs and public honors not given to young Africans who fought in the war * Protests intensified, especially during G. Depression * Nationalist merchants began to organize under leaders like Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. DuBois * Led conferences that stirred anticolonial feelings among educated Africans * Well-educated Africans represented in French parliament * French-speaking Africans concentrated their organizational and ideological efforts in Paris with the negrtitude movement * African societies celebrated * Western-educated Africans in British territories were given greater opportunities in Africa itself * African leaders formed relationships with nationalists of other British colonies * Granted some representation in colonial advisory councils by British * Emphasis on colony specific mobilization * Vigorous attacks on British policies * Efforts to win a mass following

3. WWII and Beyond
-Make general observations of Africa in this time * Forced labor and confiscation of crops continued during WWII * Inflations and controlled markets cut down on earnings * Hundreds of thousands of Africans drawn into war * Fought bravely only to face discrimination at home after war * Postwar nationalist campaigns * Industrial development no longer restricted because French and British needed goods * Urban population growth in Africa * Colonization ended by 1960s in Africa
-Ghana and Kwame Nkrumah * British Gold Coast colony * Radical leader * Nkrumah was Western-educated and wanted independence * Tried to be nonviolent but riots broke out * African leaders were slow to organize dissidents into mass movement * Fear of losing seats on colonial legislative councils * Nkrumah established Convention Peoples Party and organized mass rallies, boycotts, and strikes * Won repeated concessions from British- Africans given more and more representation, and gradually took over administration of colony * Nkrumah became prime minister in 1957 *
-Kenya and Jomo Kenyatta * Settler colonies unable to gain peaceful independence * Settler population blocked indigenous nationalist movements * Settlers fought all attempts to turn over political control or to grant civil rights * Unable to make progress through nonviolent tactics, they turned to violence * Kenyatta had a nonviolent approach that failed * Radicals formed Land Freedom Army that mounted a campaign of terror against people considered collaborators * British responded with all-out military effort to crush rebels * Kenyatta and KAU organizers, eliminating nonviolent alternative * British then wanted to negotiate with nationalists * Kenyatta released from prison and was a spokesperson for African Kenyans * 1963-Kenyan independence * One party rule stable and prosperous

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