Free Essay

Agriculture in India

In: Social Issues

Submitted By damnme
Words 1474
Pages 6
Indian agriculture has been main source of income for the masses since decades. It is also referred to as India’s mother economy. In the current times as well it accounts for about two-thirds of the employment of the Indian labor force. An intense global food situation in present times signifies the importance of expanding the existent resources and food production in developing countries like India. The Five Year Plans by the Government of India are meant to achieve this goal.
The northern states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh contribute over 80% of the production of food grains. “Among the southern states, Tamil Nadu shows the highest percentage of irrigated area and intensity of irrigation but not intensity of cropping.” (2) Growth of plantation crops such as coffee, cocoa, pepper and cardamom are dominated by the states of Kerala and hilly Karnataka.
Indian agriculture has developed over the period of years, particularly after Independence in 1947. The stagnating growth which characterized the first of the twentieth century was significantly in contrast with the second half. However, it has been a slow and painful process. This does not come as a surprise since most of the developing countries experiencing transition in economy have encountered the same. They are striving to achieve multiple objectives at a time with limited resources at their disposal. While efficient use of available resources is of utmost importance, getting most advantageous returns from investment in these resources are what determine the course of progress.
Several factors contribute to the growth of agriculture in any economy. These factors comprise of physical, human, economic, and technological factors. Physical factors can be attributed to soil type and climate. Human factors include knowledge, density of population, and composition of labor force. Technological factors are judged by tools and machinery. Economic factor in a way contributes to all of the above as well as others like transport, storage, subsidies and taxes.
Rural development cannot be overlooked in a developing economy like India because majority of the population still resides in these parts of the country. The development is clearly not possible by ignoring the rural areas because of the presence of high prevalence of unemployment and poverty. Stress on rural development is an absolute necessity for economic growth. This is evident from the Sixth Five Year Plan by the Indian Government which states “to make agricultural not only an instrument of maintaining an effective national food security system but also as a catalyst of income and employment generation in rural areas.” (7)
The change in the socio-economic infrastructure of the economy leads to migration to the urban sector and occasionally emigration as well. In modern world, development of health care and education is directly proportional to the growth in economy which attracts the masses to move from one location to another.
During the British rule in 1800’s and early 1900’s the condition of the Indian peasants was worsened by the atrocities forces upon them by the British in the form of taxes. They demanded fixed returns from the peasants either as a percentage of crop growth or as a monetary value. The growth in Indian agriculture was further marred by several factors such as famines, flood and drought. Lack of independent capital was one of the key reasons for low productivity by Indian peasants.
In 1947, India was regarded as an extremely backward living because of the economic conditions, standard of living like housing, health and educational facilities. The partition between India and Pakistan only worsened the situation. Not only was the agricultural production was dismal but the manufacturing industry dominated by cottage and small scale industry took a back step.
In modern times, India holds strategic importance in the map of the modern world because of its rise as one of the most developing nations of the world. However the exponential increase in population has been one of the biggest reasons that hurt the economic prospects of the country. Even though India’s industrialization has been incredible, it has done too little to eliminate the rise of unemployment and poverty in the rural sector.
As mentioned above, the exploding population growth has sabotaged the growth of the agricultural sector. With the available resources and the capacity to produce vegetables and fruits is not sufficient the entire population. Thus, in spite of the increase in production, the next resort is to import eatables from other nations. As a matter of fact, Indian farm production is amongst the lowest in the world. However, the progress of Indian farmers to become self sufficient in food grains post independence is quiet impressive. “Between 1950-51 and 1983-84 the production of food grains rose from 51 million tons to 152.4 million tons; sugarcane from 57 million tons to 177 million tons; cotton from 3 million bales to 6.58 million bales; jute from 3.3 million bales to 7.41 million; and that of the five major oilseeds from 5.2 million tons to 12.8 million tons.” (2) The rapid growth in food grain production post independence can be attributed to the adoption of new technology based on HYV program. Among the plantation crops, coconut leads the production while black pepper is the bottom of the table. “India has the largest area and is the largest producer of raw cashew nut and exporter of cashew kernels in the world.” (3)
Evidently, the best possible solution to the agricultural problem in India is to apprehend the growth of population. Considering the population stays stable, even a small growth in production would appear substantial as it would boost their currency value by exporting products instead of importing the same. However, the chances of putting a hold on the population growth would be a farfetched approach since that can be done only over a large period of time. In the meanwhile the government could be instrumental in improving the agricultural infrastructure in the rural areas. Ironically, “the authors of five year plans in India have not yet included the output of animal husbandry, dairying and fisheries in the main output aims for agriculture.” (8) Thus it is important that the people who are responsible for taking the vital decisions expand their vision of the agriculture industry. Educating the farmers and their families is yet another important step that needs to be implemented since majority of rural India is still illiterate. The increased emphasis on irrigation and fertilizer programs drafted in the Five Year Plans will certainly help boost the production. Unlike other crops, plantations play an important role in concentration of natural resources. Mixed tree planting is effective in plantation areas to make soil more productive and high value oriented.
Corruption at various levels in the political system of the Indian economy has contributed to the poor agricultural growth of the country. Even if a particular kind of funding is announced by the central government, it quiet frequently happens that the finance does not reach the spenders by allotted time. As a matter of fact the received funds are less than the ones released because certain unauthorized individual take a portion of the funds as so-called “commissions”.
To conclude the major aim of economic development is to achieve balanced regional development by improving the standard of living not only in urban areas but in rural areas as well. Reduction of regional disparities can indeed be regarded as an ideal motive behind various economic plans as this closes the gap between the rich and the poor. If the rich get richer and poor get poorer, this would not be regarded as a true economic development. Thus, balance in society is of utmost importance which is exactly where the Indian economy is striving to achieve by improving the rural sectors.

Work Cited 1. "Agricultural Policies in India." IDEAS: Economics and Finance Research. Web. 11 May 2011. 2. Bhatia, B. M. Indian Agriculture: A Policy Agriculture. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1988. 10-19. Print. 3. Giriappa, S. Plantation Economy in India. New Delhi: M D Publications, 1995. Print. 4. "India Needs More Reforms to Attain Balanced Growth." Live Trading News. 10 May 2011. Web. 11 May 2011. <>. 5. "Indian Agriculture." Telephone interview. 08 May 2011. 6. Matthews, David. Peasants, Famine and the State in Colonial Western India. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print. 7. Planning Commission, Government of India (1981): Sixth Five Year Plan 1980-85, p. 98

8. Sarkar, Prafulla C. The Planning of Agriculture in India. Vol. 6. Rotterdam UP, 1966. 10-19. Print. Economic Ser. 9. Satya Sundaram, I. Growth of Agriculture and Rural Development in India. Ed. 10. S. Subrahmanya. New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications, 1987. Print.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Indian Tractors

...27 March 2012 India Tractors The growth story continues continues…. Mayur Milak (+91 22 ) 4096 9749 mayurm@dolatcapital com 1 Executive summary Why did we do a follow-up report on tractors NOW ? The tractor industry has grown at a CAGR of ~12% during last five years. After a splendid performance, during the last two to three years, the Indian tractor industry is believed to head for a slow-down , we believe otherwise and hence our stance to b buy i into tractor at this j hi juncture. Our takeaways: There is an increasing lack of cheap farm labour due to migration to urban areas, leading to more mechanisation. Further, f F h farm i income h has grown at a CAGR of 12 8% d i f 12.8% during l last fi five years. W expect this growth to sustain going We hi h i i forward, which will continue to boost tractor sales. Contrary to popular belief, rainfall does not affect tractor sales directly. Other factors such as higher farm income, availability of water (irrigation facilities), cheaper and more easily available finance, successful implementation of government schemes (NREGA) and higher MSP are the key drivers for growth in tractor sales. We expect tractor demand to grow by 11-12%, going forward. All key drivers are in place and adequate availability of water is expected with a forecast of regular and timely rainfall. Our top-pick: M&M top pick: M&M has always been a leader in the farm equipment sector. After acquiring Punjab Tractors Limited (PTL), it...

Words: 8383 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Changing Dynamics of Agriculture in India

...SOUMI BANERJEE UG:2 ; 4th Semester; ROLL NO. : 107 PAPER :Major 5----- INDIAN POLITICS SINCE INDEPENDENCE. THE CHANGING DYNAMICS OF PEASANT MOVEMENT IN INDIA The agrarian structure and land reforms in india have undergone a significant change since Independence both as a result of land reforms during the mid-fifties and more so as a consequence of rapid-technological changes, especially since the mid-sixties. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, increase inproduction of commercial crops and introduction of canal irrigation in some parts of india acted as a catalyst in enhancing agrarian development. However, irrigation investment was confined to only limited areas and also the archaic land relations provided a strong barrier to the full exploitation of the benefits of new technology. The land relations were more or less semi-feudal in the Permanently settled ares.Even in the Mahalwari and Ryotwariares, where land transfers had been legalized,large tracts of land had passed to absentee money-lenders and sahukars, due to large-scale peasants’ indebtedness. This resulted in peasant uprising in various parts of India. Moreover because of the non-differentiation in the peasantry and the all-embracing nature of the anti-imperialist struggle, the peasant movement was able to unite all section of the peasantry. The nature of the peasant movement in the colonial period can only be understood in the context of the then existing mode and......

Words: 1834 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Women Farmers: the Invisible Face of Agriculture in India

...Women farmers: The Invisible Face of Agriculture in India Swaminathan, the famous agricultural scientist describes that it was woman who first domesticated crop plants and thereby initiated the art and science of farming. While men went out hunting in search of food, women started gathering seeds from the native flora and began cultivating those of interest from the point of view of food, feed, fodder, fiber and fuel. Women have played and continue to play a key role in the conservation of basic life support systems such as land, water, flora and fauna. They have protected the health of the soil through organic recycling and promoted crop security through the maintenance of varietal diversity and genetic resistance. Gender discrimination runs deep at many levels: Women manage every aspect of farm work, but are not considered farmers. They toil in the fields—planting, sowing, weeding, and harvesting—but are not landowners. They harvest and process the produce, but men largely control the market and income. Studies on women in agriculture conducted in India and other developing and under developed countries all point to the conclusion that women contribute far more to agricultural production than has generally been acknowledged. Recognition of their crucial role in agriculture should not obscure the fact that farm women continue to be concerned with their primary functions as wives, mothers and homemakers. Despite their importance to agricultural production, women face......

Words: 1189 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Agricultural Sector

...AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN INDIA GROUP DETAILS Aashish Kumar Arya 13DM003 Akanksha Khar 13DM017 Abhay Goyal 13DM006 Akash Jain 13DM019 Abhishek Surendra Rane 13DM008 Ankit Saraff 13DM029 INDIAN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR EXECUTIVE SUMMARY India accounts for only about 2.4 % of the world’s geographical area and 4 % of its water resources, but manages about 17 % of the world’s human population and 15 % of the livestock. Agriculture is a critical sector of the Indian economy. Though its contribution to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country has fallen from about 30 % in 1990-91 to less than 15 % in 2011-12, a trend that is expected in the development process of any economy, agriculture yet forms the backbone of development. An average Indian still spends almost half of his/her total expenditure on food, while roughly half of India’s work force is still engaged in agriculture for its livelihood. Being both a source of livelihood and food security for a vast majority of low income, poor and vulnerable sections of society, its performance assumes greater significance in view of the proposed National Food Security Bill and the ongoing Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) scheme. Accelerating the growth of agriculture production is therefore necessary not only to achieve an overall GDP target of 8 % during the 12th Plan and meet the rising demand for food, but also to increase incomes of those dependent on agriculture to ensure......

Words: 6652 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Importance Of Agriculture

...Q) WHAT IS AGRICULTURE ?  Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals, vegetation and fungi for meals, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plant life and different products used to preserve and beautify human existence.[1] Agriculture turned into the key improvement within the upward push of sedentary human civilization, wherein farming of domesticated species created meals surpluses that nurtured the improvement of civilization. The look at of agriculture is known as agricultural technology. The records of agriculture dates lower back hundreds of years, and its improvement has been pushed and defined by means of greatly distinct climates, cultures, and technology. Business agriculture based totally on big-scale monoculture farming has emerge as the dominant agricultural approach.  In India’s financial system agriculture plays a vital role. Over 58 according to cent of the rural households rely on agriculture as their foremost means of livelihood. As in step with the 2nd advised estimates by the Central Statistics Office (CSO), the percentage of agriculture and allied sectors (together with agriculture, farm animals, forestry and...

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Rural Economy in India

...Rural Economy in India Overall Rating: star ratingstar ratingstar ratingstar ratingstar rating[3/5]Total Votes [ 10 ] Rate this page: 1 2 3 4 5 The Rural Economy in India is wholly agriculture based and it is of tremendous importance because it has vital supply and demand links with the other Indian industries. Agriculture is the main stay of the Indian economy, as it constitutes the backbone of rural India which inhabitants more than 70% of total Indian population. The fertility of the soil has augmented the success of agriculture in India. Further, Rural Economy in India has been playing an important role towards the overall economic growth and social growth of India. India has been predominantly an agriculture-based country and it was the only source of livelihood in ancient time. During prehistoric time when there was no currency system the India economy system followed barter system for trading i.e. the excess of agricultural produce were exchanged against other items. The agriculture produce and system in India are varied and thus offers a wide agricultural product portfolio. Today, the rural economy in India and its subsequent productivity growth is predicated to a large extent upon the development of its 700-million strong rural population. The agricultural economy of India is drafted according to the needs of rural India since majority of the population lives in about 600,000 small villages. In India, agriculture accounts for almost 19% of......

Words: 558 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...RESEARCH PAPER Economics Volume : 4 | Issue : 2 | Feb 2014 | ISSN - 2249-555X An Economic analysis of Trends in Agriculture Growth and Production in India KEYWORDS Ramachandra Murthy K Research Scholar DOS in Economics and Cooperation, University of Mysore, Mysore Anand C Research Scholar, DOS in Economics and Cooperation, University of Mysore, Mysore Manjuprasad C Research Scholar, DOS in Economics and Cooperation, University of Mysore, Mysore ABSTRACT The present paper examines the performance of Trends of Agriculture growth and production in India. And also The paper has shown the growth and production has significantly increased from during the last three decades and also highlight the performance of the Indian agriculture growth is also increased over the period of time the present paper mainly focused on the secondary sources with help of the statistical tools such as mean, standard deviation, covariance, CGR, regression methods has been used for study purpose. Introduction India has made impressive strides on the agricultural front during the past three decades. Much of the credit for this success should go to the several million small farming families that form the backbone of Indian agriculture and Indian economy. Policy support, production strategies, public investment in infrastructure, research and extension for crop, livestock and fisheries have significantly helped in increasing the agricultural productivity, food production and its......

Words: 2768 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Agriculture Sector Development In Kenya

...INTRODUCTION Background Information The importance of agriculture in Kenya cannot be over-emphasized since it forms the backbone of the country’s economy. Agriculture contributes directly 26 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and another 25 per cent indirectly. It supplies the manufacturing sector with raw materials, generates tax revenue that helps to support the rest of the economy and accounts for 65 per cent of Kenya’s total exports. It also employs over 40 per cent of the total population, and, over 70 per cent of the rural population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. The agriculture sector plays an important role in Kenya’s economy (Government of Kenya, 2009), and has been identified as a key driver to achieve the...

Words: 1885 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Wto Negatrive Recrupssions trade organization (WTO) agreement on India farming community is well published and has become a major concern of wide spectrum of people and organizations in India. (Refer to February 2, 2001 cover story of FRONTLINE, a publication of The Hindu news paper). The drastic erosion of the price of farm produce and the dumping of cheap agriculture commodities by other countries are allegedly undermining the welfare of Indian farmers who form over seventy percent of the nation’s population. Various theoretical solutions based on political leanings and financial considerations are offered by a wide spectra of Indian media, public and national intelligentia. However, a solution based on a sound and practical scientific approach has yet to be emerge. Underlying all the problems is the inability of the country to compete with the other nations in pricing and quality of Indian farm produce and agriculture commodities. Most other nations can produce at lower cost than India, agriculture items traded in the international market. An attempt is made here to evolve a scientific dimension for solving the WTO related negative impacts on Indian agriculture in general and the economics of the farming community in particular. India has one of the lowest agriculture productivity or crop productions per acre in the world. This is responsible for most of the maladies associated with WTO considerations. Adoption of modern agriculture production practices and putting tools of......

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Amrit Botlers contractor and has successfully executed various contracts of Roads, Bridges and Township etc. in West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. The best execution of civil work was in `RAM KI PAIRI’ on the Bank of `SARYU’ River in Ayodhya which was designed on the pattern of `HAR KI PAIRI’ Haridwar. And ITI Mankapur Township was also well appreciated. He also had been the largest manufacturer of Bricks for Entire Township of `Bharat Cocking Coal Limited'. In 1982 he was given a challenging and fully diversified job of manufacturing soft drinks viz: Thumsup, Limca, Gold Spot and Bislery Club Soda etc. as a franchisee of “PARLE EXPORT PRIVATE LIMITED”. He brought the production with a short span of time and achieved the highest growth in India in 1985. The franchisee co. is named as `Amrit Bottlers Private Limited’. Subsequently `PARLE’ brand was taken over by the `COCA COLA’ and Mr. Ladhani converted the mechanized plant into fully automatic and computerized plant and now is having a largest production capacity and highest sale in Eastern U.P. for the last several years. They have a `COLD STORAGE’ named as `Laxmi Cold Storage and Allied Industries’ adjacent to the `Amrit Bottlers Private Limited’, Faizabad now the same has become of the largest capacity to preserve to potatoes and fruits in Eastern U.P. The enterprising factor which can be termed as back bone of the Mr. Ladhani’s success is the joint efforts of the management, which brought all the ventures to highest......

Words: 1463 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

World Trade Organisation

...WTO AND INDIAN ECONOMY (AGRICULTURAL IMPLICATIONS) BY: RAYNAH FERNANDES 13 SRUSHTI GANGAN 14 NEHA GAONKAR 15 INDEX 1. WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION  GATT  Principles of WTO  Objectives & Function 2. INDIA & WTO 3. INDIAN ECONOMY 4. INDIAN AGRICULTURE  Agricultural Trade  Agricultural Support Policies  Importance Of Indian Agriculture 5. AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE  The Three Boxes: Green, Amber and Blue  Trend In Pattern Of Consumption  Implication Of Agreement : Short Term and Long Term 6. WTO & INDIAN AGRICULTURE  India’s Commitment  India’s Agricultural Trade Under WTO Regime 7. A STUDY & ITS FINDINGS 8. SUGGESTIONS 9. BIBLIOGRPHY ACKNOWLEGEMENT We would like to acknowledge and express our sincerest gratitude for the efforts and timely guidance of our professor Mrs. Neelam Shetty of Managerial Economics for providing us the opportunity to study the impact of WTO agreements on the Indian economy especially focused on the agricultural sector. We would also like to thanks and express our gratitude towards professor Mr. Agnelo Menezes of economics from the Bachelors of Arts faculty and his student from XRCVC Master Prashant Lindayat. Each and every team member gave in his best to make sure that this report has all the necessary inputs and is completed on time. We definitely had a knowledgeful and enriching experience. WORLD TRADE...

Words: 12777 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Indian Agrarian Crisis

...Agrarian Crisis in India: The Root Causes The declining contribution of the agriculture sector towards India’s GDP is questioning the status of this sector as the backbone of the economy. With time agriculture is turning into an economically unviable activity with almost no profitability pushing the sector in a state of crisis. The following report analyses how the agrarian crisis can largely be attributed to the economic reforms in India since 1991. Lack of Easy Credit to Agriculture and Dependence on Money Lenders In 1969, 14 major commercial banks were nationalized with one of the objectives of developing banking sector in rural areas and providing easy institutionalized credit to the farmer. Soon these banks became the major source of affordable credit in the rural market particularly for the small and marginal farmers. However in the era of neo liberalization, since 1991, the nationalized banks started reducing their commitment below the prescribed 18 per cent, while the cooperative banks turned sick and failed to provide credit. With the implementation of the recommendations of the Narasimham Committee on Banking Reform post 1991, some of which included the decontrol of interest rates, large scale closure of rural branches for rationalized branch networks, the national effort towards developmental and social banking for farmers came to an end. This squeezed credit lines to farmers and led to a drastic fall in the credit flow to agriculture. In Andhra......

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Role of Information Technology in Agriculture and its Scope in India S.C. Mittal,1 *** Abstract Information of the required quality always has the potential of improving efficiency in all spheres of agriculture. The emerging scenario of a deregulated agriculture, thanks to WTO, has brought in a greater ‘need’ and urgency to make it an integral part of decision making by Indian agricultural community. Information Technology (IT) has a major role to play in all facets of Indian agriculture. In addition to facilitating farmers in improving the efficiency and productivity of agriculture and allied activities, the potential of IT lies in bringing about an overall qualitative improvement in life by providing timely and quality information inputs for decision making. The personnel who work for the welfare of Indian farmers, such as extension workers, do not have access to latest information which hinders their ability to serve the farming community effectively. This paper focusses on the scope for e-powering people who live in rural India as well as those who work for their welfare. The latest developments in IT that facilitate effective IT penetration to rural India, changing pattern of information requirements & role of IT, type of systems required in the post-WTO environment, the bottlenecks in e-powering rural India along with possible solutions are examined. *** Information Technology and its Components Induction of IT as a strategic tool for agricultural...

Words: 4259 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Service Sector to the Contribution of Gdp

...------------------------------------------------- Sectors[edit] Percent labor employment in India by its economic sectors (2010).[110] The GDP contribution of various sectors of Indian economy have evolved between 1951 to 2013, as its economy has diversified and developed. Historically, India has classified and tracked its economy and GDP as three sectors — agriculture, industry and services. Agriculture includes crops, horticulture, milk and animal husbandry, aquaculture, fishing, sericulture, aviculture, forestry and related activities. Industry includes various manufacturing sub-sectors. India's definition of services sector includes its construction, retail, software, IT, communications, hospitality, infrastructure operations, education, health care, banking and insurance, and many other economic activities.[111][112] Agriculture[edit] Rice fields near Puri, Odisha on East Coast Main articles: Agriculture in India, Forestry in India, Animal husbandry in India, Fishing in India and Natural resources in India India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 17% of the GDP and employed 49% of the total workforce in 2014.[113] As the Indian economy has diversified and grown, agriculture's contribution to GDP has steadily declined from 1951 to 2011, yet it is still the largest employment source and a significant piece of the overall socio-economic development of India.[114] Crop yield per......

Words: 5818 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Socialismandeconomics public. * Taxation policy. * Industrial growth on national level. * Economic development. * Socialism of state. * Miscellaneous economic Problems. I. Economy enterprises. II. Over population III. Upliftment of women for economic development. IV. Human capital. V. Hindu economy. (1) Reforms on agricultural land:- After long study on Indian agriculture Ambedkar recognised that problems of agriculture related to farmers should be solved, in one of his article i.e. "Small Holdings in Indian and their remedies"(1917) and also in "Status and minorities"(1947) he has suggested some reforms which has included in the manifesto of the "Swatantra Majdur Paksha"and the Scheduled caste Federation. Ambedkar recognized that small subdivided and fragmented holdings of land are the major problem of Indian agriculture with affects. It has resulted in various disadvantages, and there were difficulties in cultivation and utilization of resources increasing cost, low productivity, inadequate income, Low standard of living etc. According to Dr. Ambedkar reforms on agriculture is not related only with the size of holdings but also with other factors such as capital, labour and other inputs, so the concept of "Idea of Economic holdings is very much clear". If capital labour is not available in large amount so the quality of large size holdings may become unproductive, or its productivity may be low on the other hand small sized holding becomes more......

Words: 2054 - Pages: 9