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Air Compressor

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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

1.1 INTROCTION TO AIR COMPRESSOR

Compressors are power consuming thermodynamic device which convert mechanical energy into head or pressure energy.

An air compressor, as the name indicates, is a machine to compress the air and to raise its pressure. The air compressor sucks air from the atmosphere, compresses it and then deliverers the same under a high press ore to a storage vessel. From the storage vessel, it may be conveyed by the pipeline to a place where the supply of compressed air is required. Since the compression of air requires some work to be done on it, there a compressor must be driven by some prime mover.

Fig-1.1 Air Compressor

1.2 Classification of Air Compressor

The air compressor may be classified in many ways, but the following are importance from the subject point of view.

1. According to working

a. Reciprocating compressor

b. Rotary compressor

2. According to action

a. Single acting compressor

b. Double acting compressor

3. According to number of stage

c. Single stage compressor

d. Multistage compressor

4. According pressure

e. Low pressure whose final pressure does not exceed 10 bar

f. Medium pressure with range of 10 bar to 80 bar

g. High pressure with range 80 bar to 1000 bar.

5. According capacity

h. Small compressor handling up to 9m3/min

i. Medium compressor handling 9 to 3000m3/min

j. High compressor handling more than 3000m3/min

1.3 Type of air compressors

Fig. 1.2 Types of air compressors

WORK HISTORY CHAPTER 2

2.1 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

This was a long standing problem at AIR CONTROL AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CO. LTD. for last few years. This industry is a reputed manufacturer and exporter of air compressors.

It manufacturing almost all reciprocating type of compressor. But it manufacturing double cylinder reciprocating air compressor since last few year.

For double cylinder reciprocating air compressor it experienced that improper cooling of compressed air by using water as an intercoolant agent after few months of operation. But small capacity range of air compressor working properly for more years.

Due to this the industry faced huge problem in their operations. Their reputation had been at stake. So that we attempted to reduced the temperature of compressed air in double cylinder reciprocating air compressor by using different intercoolant agents and also increase overall performance of air compressor.

2.2 REASON FOR FAILURE

In current days the water is used as an intercoolant agent in intercooler for cooling of compressed air during it transfers from one cylinder to another cylinder.

During intercooling of compressed air, the temperature of compressed air is so much high. so it takes some time for cooling. for that compressor speed would be somehow reduced which is not possible in actual application because of its requirement. Because of high temperature of compressed air, water is evaporated quickly.

2.3 OBJECTIVE

The work required to compressor is reduced with the help of the intercooling. Which reduce the input power required by the compressor has been saved near about 1 -2 %. Increase volumetric efficiency about 0.5-1% by changing cooling agent. So increase the life of compressor and maintain its discharge pressure capacity for more years.

LITERATURE SURVEY CHAPTER3

THE INTERCOOLER WITH SPRAYING WATER FOR AIR COMPRESSORS

This paper is published by Prof. Kang Yang in Division of Air Conditioning, Department of Textile Engineering, North-west Institute of Textile Science and Technology, Xi'an, China.[1]

A spraying water device to cool gas can be used in the intercooler of air compressors instead of the heat exchanger. It is more effective for heat transfer because the gas is in direct contact with the cooling water sprayed on to the gas. This paper gives the cooling form, the separating water method from gas, and the calculating formula for heat transfer. Through experiments under the normal pressure, the calculated result of the formula is satisfactory and the separating process, using a' group of streamline baffles to block water, has a low pressure drop and a better separating effect, water content is 0.1 % after separation. The content does not influence the next compression.

A new intercooler of the air compressor, with spraying cooling water on to the gas to transfer heat, is put forward. In this intercooler the streamline baffles are adopted "to ·separate water from gas and have a low pressure drop and a better separating effect through experiments. This separating method can be used in the first step of separating oil from gas in the rotary compressor with oil injection. The designing method for the baffle curve and the distance between the baffles, and the calculating formula of the heat transfer in the intercooler are deduced.

OPTIMIZATION OF SHELL-AND-TUBE INTERCOOLER IN MULTISTAGE COMPRESSOR SYSTEM

This paper is published by Prof. Hamilton J.F. in Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, U.S.A[2]

Multi-staging with intercoolers is an effective method for reducing the necessary energy to drive gas compressors. Increases of efficiency can result in large energy savings for large compressor systems. Optimization of the intercooler is highly desirable as the size of compressor system increases. This paper presents an optimum design procedure for the intercooler where the objective function includes not only the reduction of compressor power but the reduction of pumping power for the intercooler water and the initial cost of the intercooler. The procedure permits relative weighting of the importance of the combined power reduction compared to the intercooler cost. The multi-stage compressor system is optimized by optimizing each stage independently assuming no coupling effect due to temperature.

Additional terms as well as the compressor adiabatic indicated power should be included in the objective function used for the intercooler optimization in a compressor system. Therefore, an objective function including the cost of the compressor adiabatic indicated power, the pumping cost of cooling water and the cost of intercooler has been presented. The objective function of the compressor system f can be obtained by dividing the compressor system into multiple units and then minimizing the partial objective functions of each unit.

ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 4

This problem can be reduced by various method by which we can supposed to increase

the overall performance of air compressor.

1. By changing the intercoolant like air, water, ethylene glycol, radiator oil, and proper mixture of them.

We are supposed to use some intercoolants by which increase overall performance of two
Stage reciprocating air compressor.

(4.1) Water at 15℃

(4.2) Air

(4.3) Water at normal temperature

(4.4) Mixture of Ethylene glycol (30%) and water (70%)

(4.5) Radiator coolant

Experimental setup description

Two stage single acting reciprocating air compressor with shell and pipe type intercooler used.
Electricity Supply: Single Phase, 220 VAC, 50 Hz, 5-15 amp socket with earth connection.
Water Supply: Continuous 2 LPM at 1 bar. Floor Area Required: 1.5 m x 0.75 m.

Fig.4.1 Testing Apparatus

Fig. 4.2 Intercooler

Fig.4.3 Double cylinder of air compressor

Fig.4.4 Compressed air storage tank

Setup specification

d = 0.0935 m

L = 0.078 m

d0= 0.011 m

dp= 0.022 m

ρm= 1000 kg/m3 ρa = 1.21 kg/m3
Cd = 0.64

E.M.C = 3200 pulses / kW-hr

Pa = 1.03327 x 1005 N/m3

R = 0.16 m

Nm= 1440 rpm

4.1 Observation table of intercooling with water at 15℃

Observation table is to calculate volumetric efficiency and isothermal efficiency by way of intercooler in which water at 15℃ is taken as coolant and the supply of water are kept at 2 lit/min. Table No.4.1.1 shows the result of intercooling by way of water at 15℃.

Sr. | | | Observation | Observation | Observation | Observation | | | Particulars | Notations | | | | | | No | | | No.1 | No.2 | No.3 | No.4 | | | | | | | | | | 1 | Intake | P | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2 | Intercooler | P | 2.528 | 2.730 | 2.919 | 3.009 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | Delivery | P | 6 | 7 | 8 | 8.5 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 3 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | Intake | T | 34.8 | 34.8 | 34.8 | 34.8 | | | | | | | | | | | temperature | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Temperature | | | | | | | 5 | before | T | 103.5 | 106.8 | 112.7 | 115.5 | | | | 2 | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Temperature | | | | | | | 6 | after | T | 74.2 | 76.43 | 77.20 | 78.53 | | | | 3 | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 7 | Delivery | T | 63.4 | 67.78 | 70.82 | 74.1 | | | | | | | | | | | temperature | 4 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Manometer | | | | | | | 8 | pressure | H | 0.1 | 0.102 | 0.103 | 0.105 | | | difference | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

9 Motor speed | N | m | 452 | 451 | 450 | 450 | | | | | | | | | |

Table No. 4.1.1 Intercooling by way of water at 15℃

Calculations

4.1.1Calculation for first observation

4.1.2 Calculation for volumetric efficiency

4.1.2.1 Manometer pressure difference

h=h1-h2100

h=24.5-14.5100

h=0.1 m

4.1.2.2 Total head

∆H=ρmρa-1×h,m of air

∆H=10001.21-1×0.10

∆H=82.54 m of air

4.1.2.3 Cross-sectional area of orifice

a0=π4d02

a0=π40.0112

a0=9.5×10-5 m2

4.1.2.4 Cross-sectional area of pipe

ap=π4dp2

ap=π40.0222

ap=3.8×10-4 m2

4.1.2.5 Actual volume of air

Qa=CDa0apap2-a022g∆H
Qa=0.64×9.5×3.8×10-92×9.81×82.543.8×10-42-9.5×10-52
Qa=2.52×10-3 ,m3sec

4.1.2.6 Swept volume of compressor

Qt=π×d2×L×N60×4
Qt=π×0.09352×0.078×45160×4
Qt=4.02×10-3 ,m3sec

4.1.2.7 Volumetric efficiency ƞv=QaQt×100 ƞv=2.52×10-34.02×10-3 ƞv=62.68% 4.1.3 Calculation for isothermal efficiency

4.1.3.1 Intake pressure

p1v1=mRT1 p1=mRT1v1 p1=ρRT1

p1=1.21×287×306.8105

p1=1.065 kgcm2

4.1.3.2 Delivery pressure

From observation table 4.1.1 the value of discharge pressure is,

p3=6 kgcm2

4.1.3.3 Intercooler or intermediate pressure

p2=p1p3

p2=1.065×6

p2=2.5283 kgcm2

4.1.3.4 Compression ratio

First stage compression ratio,

r1=p2p1

r1=2.52831.065

r1=2.3730

Second stage compression ratio,

r2=p3p2

r2=62.5283

r2=2.3731

Third stage compression ratio,

r3=p3p1

r3=61.065

r3=5.631

4.1.3.5 Index of compression

Compression follows the polytropic process

pvn=C

p1v1n=p2v2n

T2T1=p2p1n-11
376.5306.8=2.52831.0654n-11

log1.227=n-1n×log2.37

0.1392=n-1n

n=1.3

4.1.3.6 Actual work done

Work done per cycle in compressing air in Low pressure (LP) cylinder,

WLP=nn-1mRT1p2p1n-11-1

WLP=1.31.3-11×287×306.81052.37300.230-1

WLP=0.8383 joulecycle

Work done per cycle in compressing air in High pressure (HP) cylinder,

WHP=nn-1mRT2p3p1n-11-1

WHP=1.31.3-11×287×376.51055.6310.230-1

WHP=2.2825 joulecycle

Actual work done per cycle,

W=WLP+WHP

W=0.8383+2.2825

W=3.1208 joulecycle

4.1.3.7 Indicated power (IP)

IP=Actual work done in joulecycle ×N260

IP=W×N260

IP=3.1208×144060

IP=74.89 Watt

4.1.3.8 Isothermal work

Wiso=mRT1logep3p1

Wiso=0.883loge5.361

Wiso=0.6608 joulecycle

4.1.3.9 Isothermal power

Isotermal power=Isothermal work done in joulecycle ×N260

Isothermal power=Wiso×N260

Isothermal power=0.6608×144060

Isothermal power=15.86 Watts

4.1.3.10 Isothermal efficiency

ƞiso=Isothermal powerIndicated power×100

ƞiso=15.8674.89×100

ƞiso=21.17%

4.1.4 Heat rejected to intercooler,
Q2-3=ma×Cp×T2-T3
Q2-3=1×1.002×376.5-306.8
Q2-3=29.35 KJKg

Sr.No | | Delivery pressure(kgcm2) | ƞvol(%) | ƞiso(%) | Heat Rejected (KJ/Kg) | | | | | | | 1 | | 6 | 62.68 | 21.17 | 29.35 | | | | | | | 2 | | 7 | 63.11 | 20.47 | 29.85 | | | | | | | 3 | | 8 | 63.84 | 20.17 | 35.57 | | | | | | | 4 | | 8.5 | 64.46 | 19.94 | 37.04 | | | | | | | | Table No. 4.1.2 Result of intercooling by way of water at 15℃ |

4.2 Observation table of air intercooling

Observation table is to calculate volumetric efficiency and isothermal efficiency by way of intercooler in which normal air Intercooling are takes place. Generally, in air Intercooling are take place on surface of the intercooler in which the heat of compression would dissipate into the surrounding. It also takes place at the fins of the both cylinder of reciprocating compressor. Table No. 4.2.1 shows the result of air intercooling

Sr. | | | Observation | Observation | Observation | Observation | | | Particulars | Notations | | | | | | No | | | No.1 | No.2 | No.3 | No.4 | | | | | | | | | | 1 | Intake | P | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | | | | | | | | | | | Pressure | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2 | Intercooler | P | 2.53 | 2.73 | 2.91 | 3.008 | | | | | | | | | | | Pressure | 2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | Delivery | P | 6 | 71 | 8 | 8.5 | | | | | | | | | | | Pressure | 3 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | Intake | T | 35.2 | 35.2 | 35.2 | 35.2 | | | | | | | | | | | Temperature | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Temperature | | | | | | | 5 | Before | T | 97.7 | 107.9 | 112.3 | 116.1 | | | | 2 | | | | | | | Intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Temperature | | | | | | | 6 | After | T | 76.3 | 81.7 | 85.8 | 88.9 | | | | 3 | | | | | | | Intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| 7 | Delivery | | T | | 61.2 | | 68.2 | | 73.6 | 77.7 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | temperature | | 4 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Manometer | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 8 | pressure | | h | | 0.098 | | 0.1 | | 0.101 | 0.103 | | | | | difference | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 9 | Motor speed | | N | | 451 | | 449 | | 448 | 447 | | | | | | | | m | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Table No. 4.2.1 Intercooling by way of air | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | SR NO. | | | Delivery pressure(kgcm2) | | ƞvol(%) | | | ƞiso(%) | | Heat Rejected (KJ/Kg) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1 | | 6 | | | 62.21 | | | 21.48 | | 21.042 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2 | | 7 | | | 63.03 | | | 20.69 | | 26.25 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | | 8 | | | 63.63 | | | 20.41 | | 26.32 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | | 8.5 | | | 64.27 | | | 20.21 | | 27.15 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Table No. 4.2.2 Result of intercooling by way of air | | | |

4.3 Observation table of intercooling with normal water

Observation table is to calculate volumetric efficiency and isothermal efficiency by way of intercooler in which normal water at atmospheric temperature is taken as coolant and the supply of water are kept at 2 lit/min

Sr. | Particulars | Notation | Observation | Observation | Observation | Observation | | | | | | | | | | No | | | No.1 | No.2 | No.3 | No.4 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1 | Intake | P | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2 | Intercooler | P | 2.529 | 2.732 | 2.917 | 3.008 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | Delivery | P | 6 | 7 | 8 | 8.5 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 3 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | Intake | T | 35.6 | 35.6 | 35.6 | 35.6 | | | | | | | | | | | temperature | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Temperature | | | | | | | 5 | before | T | 103.7 | 111.3 | 116.2 | 122.3 | | | | 2 | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Temperature | | | | | | | 6 | after | T | 75.3 | 76.2 | 81.8 | 83.9 | | | | 3 | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| Delivery | | | | | | 7 | | T | 62.2 | 68.8 | 74.2 | 78.2 | | | 4 | | | | | | temperature | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Manometer | | | | | | 8 | pressure | H | 0.098 | 0.099 | 0.101 | 0.103 | | difference | | | | | | | | | | | | | 9 | Motor speed | N | 450 | 449 | 448 | 447 | | | m | | | | | | | | | | | |

Table No. 4.3.1 Normal water intercooling at atmospheric temperature

SR NO | Delivery pressure | ƞvol(%) | ƞiso(%) | Heat | | (kgcm2) | | | Rejected(KJ/Kg) | 1 | 6 | 62.27 | 21.45 | 28.45 | | | | | | 2 | 7 | 63.22 | 20.51 | 35.17 | | | | | | 3 | 8 | 63.78 | 20.02 | 35.12 | | | | | | 4 | 8.5 | 64.29 | 19.98 | 36.78 | | | | | |

Table No. 4.3.2 Result of Normal water intercooling at atmospheric temperature

4.4 Observation table of intercooling with mixture of ethylene glycol

(30%) with water

Observation table is to calculate volumetric efficiency and isothermal efficiency by way of intercooler in which mixture of water and ethylene glycol is circulated into the intercooler at the rate of 1 lit/min. Because the high flow rate causes the moisture in the storage tank. The mixture is made by 70 % water mixed with 30 % of ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is a clear, colorless, odorless, liquid with a sweet taste. It is hygroscopic and completely miscible with many polar solvents such as water, alcohols, glycol ethers, and acetone. Its solubility is low however, in nonpolar solvents, such as benzene, toluene, and chloroform. The widespread use of ethylene glycol as antifreeze is based on its ability to lower the freezing point when mixed water. The physical properties of ethylene glycol-water mixtures are, therefore, extremely important. Table No. 4.7 shows the result of Ethylene glycol (30%) and water (70%) mixture intercooling.

Sr. | | | Observation | Observation | Observation | Observation | | | Particulars | Notations | | | | | | No | | | No.1 | No.2 | No.3 | No.4 | | | | | | | | | | 1 | Intake | P | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2 | Intercooler | P | 2.53 | 2.73 | 2.918 | 3.008 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | Delivery | P | 6 | 7 | 8 | 8.5 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | 3 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | Intake | T | 34.8 | 34.8 | 34.8 | 34.8 | | | | | | | | | | | temperature | 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| Temperature | | | | | | | 5 | before | T | 105.3 | 110.7 | 116.1 | 117.9 | | | | 2 | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Temperature | | | | | | | 6 | after | T | 73 | 71.9 | 65.9 | 61.8 | | | | 3 | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 7 | Delivery | T | 63 | 67.8 | 74.5 | 72.1 | | | | | | | | | | | temperature | 4 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Manometer | | | | | | | 8 | pressure | H | 0.097 | 0.105 | 0.098 | 0.105 | | | difference | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 9 | Motor speed | N | 447 | 446 | 445 | 443 | | | | m | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Table No. 4.4.1 Ethylene glycol (30%) and water (70%) mixture intercooling

Sr.No | Delivery pressure | ƞvol(%) | ƞiso(%) | Heat | | | (kgcm2) | | | rejected(KJ/Kg) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1 | 6 | 62.31 | 21.32 | 32.36 | | | | | | | | 2 | 7 | 62.87 | 20.57 | 38.57 | | | | | | | | 3 | 8 | 62.99 | 20.08 | 50.30 | | | | | | | | 4 | 8.5 | 65.31 | 19.91 | 56.21 | | | | | | | |

Table No. 4.4.2 Result of Ethylene glycol (30%) and water (70%) mixture intercooling

4.5 Observation table of intercooling with mixture of ethylene glycol (20%) with water

Observation table is to calculate volumetric efficiency and isothermal efficiency by way of intercooler in which mixture of water and ethylene glycol was circulated into the intercooler at the rate of 1 lit/min. Because the high flow rate causes the moisture in the storage tank. The mixture is made by 80 % water mixed with 20 % of ethylene glycol. Some amount of moisture was controlled in this case. Table No. 4.8 shows the ethylene glycol (20%) and water (80%) mixture intercooling.

Sr. | Particulars | Notations | Observation | Observation | Observation | Observation | | No | | | No.1 | No.2 | No.3 | No.4 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1 | | P1 | 1.065 | 1065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | | | Intake | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2 | Intercooler | P2 | 2.53 | 2.73 | 2.918 | 3.006 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | Delivery | P3 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 8.5 | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | Intake | T1 | | | | | | | temperature | | 34.8 | 34.8 | 34.8 | 34.8 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5 | Temperature | T2 | | | | | | | before | | 105.8 | 110.9 | 117.3 | 122.3 | | | | | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 6 | Temperature | T3 | | | | | | | after | | 53.1 | 54.4 | 59.3 | 60.1 | | | | | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 7 | Delivery | T4 | | | | | | | temperature | | 61.6 | 66.5 | 76.3 | 81.1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

8 | Manometer | h | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | pressure | | | 0.099 | | | 0.102 | | 0.103 | | 0.104 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | difference | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 9 | Motor speed | Nm | | 450 | | | 449 | | 448 | | | 448 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Table No. 4.5.1 Ethylene glycol (20%) and water (80%) mixture intercooling | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Sr.No | | Delivery pressure | | | ηvol(%) | | ηiso (%) | | | Heat | | | | | (kgcm2) | | | | | | | | | | rejected(KJ/Kg) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1 | | 6 | | | | 62.69 | | | 21.13 | | 31.52 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2 | | 7 | | | | 63.68 | | | 20.54 | | 34.78 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | | 8 | | | | 63.83 | | | 20.02 | | 47.82 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | | 8.5 | | | | 64.41 | | | 19.98 | | 51.13 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Table No. 4.5.2 Result of ethylene glycol (20%) and water (80%) mixture intercooling

4.6 Observation table of intercooling with radiator coolant

Observation table is to calculate volumetric efficiency and isothermal efficiency by way of intercooler in which radiator coolant or oil is taken as coolant and the supply of radiator oil are kept at 1 lit/min. It gives the better cooling effect but with increase in flow rate of coolant, moisture is entrapped with air and it would collect at the bottom of the receiver tank. So the flow rate must be controlled in this case. Radiator coolant have better physical and chemical properties. It easily mixed with water, non- corrosive, better heat absorption capacity at long operation. Table No. 4.11 shows the result of Radiator coolant or oil intercooling.

Sr. | Particulars | Notations | Observation | Observation | Observation | Observation | No | | | No.1 | No.2 | No.3 | No.4 | | | | | | | | 1 | Intake | P1 | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | 1.065 | | pressure | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2 | Intercooler | P2 | 2.5314 | 2.730 | 2.9194 | 3.009 | | pressure | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | Delivery | P3 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 8.5 | | pressure | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | Intake | T1 | 34.8 | 34.8 | 34.8 | 34.8 | | temperature | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5 | Temperature | T2 | 104.5 | 113.8 | 118.9 | 125.3 | | before | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | 6 | Temperature | T3 | 77.8 | 68.3 | 68.1 | 67.8 | | after | | | | | | | intercooler | | | | | | | | | | | | | 7 | Delivery | T4 | 66.8 | 71.8 | 78.5 | 85.2 | | temperature | | | | | | | | | | | | | 8 | Manometer | H | 0.099 | 0.101 | 0.103 | 0.106 | | pressure | | | | | | | difference | | | | | | | | | | | | | 9 | Motor speed | Nm | 446 | 446 | 445 | 445 | | | | | | | |
Table No. 4.6.1 Radiator coolant or oil intercooling

Sr.No | Delivery | ηvol(%) | ηiso (%) | Heat | | pressure(Kg/cm2) | | | rejected(KJ/Kg) | | | | | | 1 | 6 | 62.80 | 21.19 | 36.75 | | | | | | 2 | 7 | 63.42 | 20.46 | 45.59 | | | | | | 3 | 8 | 64.44 | 19.98 | 45.60 | | | | | | 4 | 8.5 | 65.51 | 19.63 | 57.31 | | | | | |

Table No. 4.6.2 Result of Radiator coolant or oil intercooling

RESULT ANALYSIS CHAPTER 5

5.1 Effect of intercooling on pressure and volumetric efficiency

There is an improvement in volumetric efficiency by using different intercoolant when pressure is increased of two stage reciprocating air compressor with shell and pipe intercooler. Chart 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 shows the increase in volumetric efficiency by intercooling with respect to pressure. Maximum volumetric efficiency is obtained by radiator coolant is 65.51% where as in case of air intercooling this would remain 64.27% ,which are minimum. By using ethylene glycol mixture with water gives better intercooling effect for long time period of reciprocating compressor operation. The volumetric efficiency in this case remains closer to volumetric efficiency obtained by using intercooling with radiator coolant.

vol. Volumetric efficicncy (ɳ ) |

66

65

64

63

62

Intercooling

Air

Normal water

Radiator coolant 5 6 7 8 9

Discharge pressure (Kg/cm2)

Fig. 5.1.1 Discharge pressure versus volumetric efficiency at condition of air, normal

water and radiator coolant intercooling

vol. Volumetric efficicncy (ɳ ) |

66

65

64

63

62

Intercooling

Air

Water at 15 degree centigrade

Ethylene glycol (30%)

5 6 7 8 9

Discharge pressure (Kg/cm2)

Fig. 5.1.2 discharge pressure versus volumetric efficiency at condition of air, water

at 150C and ethylene glycol (30%) mixed with water intercooling

efficicncy (ɳvol.) |

66 | | | | | | | | Intercooling | | | | | | | | | | | | 65 | | | | | | | | Air | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 64 | | | | | | | | Radiator coolant | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Volumetric |

63

62

Ethylene glycol (30%)

5 6 7 8 9

Discharge pressure (Kg/cm2)

Fig. 5.1.3 Discharge pressure versus volumetric efficiency at condition of air,

radiator coolant and ethylene glycol (30%) mixed with water intercooling

5.2 Effect of intercooling on pressure and isothermal efficiency

When the discharge pressure increases, the isothermal efficiency decreases. In fig. 5.2.1, at maximum pressure the isothermal efficiency is obtained with the use of different intercooling processes are shown. The maximum isothermal efficiency in case of air intercooling is 20.21%, where as in case of radiator coolant intercooling the maximum efficiency is obtained 19.63%. So the difference in both intercooling is closer to 1%.

fig 5.2.2 and 5.2.3 shows the result of isothermal efficiency with the use of different intercooling medium.

iso. Isothermal efficicncy (ɳ ) |

22

21.5

21

20.5

20

19.5

Intercooling

Air

Normal water

Radiator coolant

5 6 7 8 9

Discharge pressure (Kg/cm2)

Fig. 5.2.1 Discharge pressure versus isothermal efficiency at condition of air, normal

water and radiator coolant intercooling

iso. Isothermal efficicncy (ɳ ) |

22

21.5

21

20.5

20

19.5

Intercooling

Air

Water at 15 degree centigrade

Ethylene glycol (30%)

5 6 7 8 9
Discharge pressure (Kg/cm2)

Fig. 5.2.2 Discharge pressure versus isothermal efficiency at condition of air, water

at 150C and ethylene glycol (30%) mixed with water intercooling

Isothermal efficicncy (ɳiso.) |

22

21.5

21

20.5

20

19.5

19

5

Intercooling

Air

Radiator coolant Ethylene glycol (30%)

6 7 8 9
Discharge pressure (Kg/cm2)

Fig. 5.2.3 Discharge pressure versus isothermal efficiency at condition of air,

radiator coolant and ethylene glycol (30%) mixed with water intercooling

5.3 Effect of intercooling on discharge pressure

Fig. 5.3.1 shows the result of different intercooling process with respect to discharge pressure. In intercooling process with different intercooling medium which result in increase in heat rejection at different discharge pressure.

At the end of first stage of compression temperature of air would be raised which lowers the compressor performance. With the help of intercooling process, the temperature of air before entering the second stage of compressor would be reduced .

The maximum heat rejection is 57.31KJ/Kg is obtained by radiator coolant intercooling and minimum heat rejection is 27.15KJ/Kg is obtained in air intercooling.

Heat rejection (KJ/Kg) |

60 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Air | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 50 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Intercooling | | 40 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Normal water | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 30 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Ethylene glycol | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 20 | | | | | | | | | | | (30%) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Radiator coolant | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | | | | | | | | | | | |

Discharge pressure (Kg/cm2)

Fig. 5.3.1 Discharge pressure versus heat rejection at condition of air, normal water

ethylene glycol (30%) mixed with water and radiator coolant intercooling

5.4 Effect of indicated power on isothermal efficiency

Fig. 5.8 shows the result of indicated power versus isothermal efficiency curve. With increased in indicated power, the isothermal efficiency of compressor will be reduced. This shows the work required to compress air would be reduced with use of the different intercooling medium.

(ɳiso.) | 22 | | | | | | 21.5 | | | Air | | | | | | | | | | | | | | efficicncy | 21 | | | Intercooling | | | | | | water | | | | | | | | | 20.5 | | | | | Isothermal | | | | Ethylene glycol | | | 20 | | | (30%) | | | 19.5 | | | Radiator coolant | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 70 | 80 | 90 | 100 | |

Indicated power (watt)

Fig 5.4.1 Indicated power versus isothermal efficiency at condition of air, normal

water ethylene glycol (30%) mixed with water and radiator coolant intercooling

5.5 Discussion

From the results obtained, it is observed that the work required to compressor is reduced with the help of the intercooling. which reduce input power required to compressor has been saved near about 1 -2 % . So the volumetric and isothermal both efficiency are improved with the help of the intercooling.

In radiator coolant and mixture of the ethylene glycol with water intercooling, the flow rate must be kept in control because high flow rate of coolant would lead to lower temperature. So the work required to second stage compression is increased. It also affects the storage tank cylinder.

Due to high flow rate moisture has been collected at the bottom of the storage tank, which leads to corrosion of tank.

CONCLUSION CHAPTER 6

From the different intercooling process carried out in two stage reciprocating air compressor, it can be concluded that the isothermal work required to compress the air has been reduce. So the power required to drive the reciprocating compressor has also reduced near to 1-2% with respect to normal intercooling. from all the results of intercooling processes, it can be concluded that the radiator coolant intercooling and mixture of ethylene glycol with water intercooling result in batter volumetric efficiency as compare to other type of intercooling. It is possible that when costs of different coolants are not considered in operation two stage reciprocating air compressor.

REFERENCES

PAPERS:

1. Kang Yang, Division of Air Conditioning, Department of Textile Engineering, North-west Institute of Textile Science and Technology, Xi'an, China.

2. Hamilton J.F. Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, U.S.A

3. J. A. McGovern and S. Harte, “An exergy method f or compressor performance analysis”, international journal of refrigeration, Vol. 18, No. 6, (1995), pp. 421-433.

4. P. Grolier, “A method to estimate the performance o f reciprocating compressors”, International Compressor Engineering Conference, Paper 1510, (2002), pp 1-9.

BOOKS:

5. Hienz P. Bloch and John J. Hoefner, Reciprocating compressors “Operation & Maintenance”, Gulf Publishing Company. Houston, Tex as.

6. Improving Compressed Air System Performance, “A Sourcebook For Industry” U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, pp-8-32.

7. J.P. Hadiya, “Fluid Power Engineering”, Books In dia Publication, pp392-450.

8. Paul C. Hanlon, “Compressor Handbook” The McGraw -Hill Companies, pp2.1-2.12.

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