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Air Pollution in the Manila

In: Other Topics

Submitted By TWATWA
Words 8477
Pages 34
Abstract
Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.
Introduction
It is well known that exposure to high levels of air pollution can adversely affect human health. A number of air pollution catastrophes occurred in industrial countries between 1950s and 1970s, such as the London smog of 1952 [1]. Air quality in western countries has significantly improved since the 1970s. However, adverse health effects of exposure to relatively low level of air pollution remain a public concern, motivated largely by a number of recent epidemiological studies that have shown the positive associations between air pollution and health outcomes using sophisticated time-series and other designs [2].
This review highlights the key findings from major epidemiological study designs (including time-series, case-crossover, panel, cohort, and birth outcome studies) in estimating the associations of exposure to ambient air pollution with health outcomes over the last two decades, and identifies future research opportunities. We do not intend for this to be a formal systematic literature review or meta-analysis, but to discuss issues we feel are vitally important based on the recent literature and our own experience. This paper is divided into two parts: firstly to summarize recent findings from...

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