Free Essay

Al Beruni

In: People

Submitted By Adit510
Words 375
Pages 2
Al Beruni
(973 A.D. – 1048 A.D.)
“My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts. I shall place before the reader the theories of the Hindus exactly as they are.”
Who was Al Beruni?

Abū al-Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Berūnī was born on September 4, 973 A.D., in Khwarezm, in present day Uzbekistan. Khwarezm was an important centre of learning and he received education from a prince of the Khwarezm-shah dynasty. He was a historian, astronomer, mathematician, geographer, ethnographer, and anthropologist. (History of India as told by it’s historians) Little is known about his childhood, except for the fact that he did not know his own father.

Al-beruni’s life was set in an unusually tumultuous political period. He served six different princes, all engaged in warfare. Despite living in this bellicose time, he managed to become an accomplished polymath and is heralded as a pioneer in Islamic historical writing. It is interesting to note that the political flux of this period, helped him receive patronage from multiple dynasties like the Khwarezm-shahs, the Samanids, and the Ghaznavids. This enabled him to interact with other great minds like Avicenna, an Iranian philosopher-scientist, where?

In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Rayy, where Al Biruni was residing at the time . Al-Biruni, was taken as a captive to Ghazni. Despite being an unwilling guest in Ghazni, Biruni continued penning down works of science, mathematics, astronomy and more, and was soon appointed as the court astrologer. He accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into northwest India, and after it was conquered, he ended up living there for around forty years. This brought him into dialogue with Brahmana scholars and priests. India at that time was facing the scourge of invaders, and this hindered Al-Biruni whilst interacting with native scholars. He recognized this as one of the several obstacles he faced. It was during these times of distrust and insularity on the part of the brahmanas, that he wrote the Kitab ta'rikh al-Hind, his magnum opus, on the Indian Subcontinent in the eleventh century A.D.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. G. Saliba, Al-Bīrūnī, encyclopaedia britannica, available at http://www.britannica.com/biography/al-Biruni (Last visited on July 23, 2015).

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Apush Essay

...prohibition had social and cultural impact on the American people. The mass- consumption dramatically increased the availability of consumer goods. The prohibition had a strong impact on America socially. The prohibition was supported by churches and woman, and greatly promoted in the south and west, but it was opposite in eastern cities. The Volstead act, passed by congress in 1919, implemented prohibition. The laws was unable to become enforced due to understaffed and underpaid federal and state agencies. This led to underground nightclubs, home brew, bathtub gin, and bootleggers. But economically, saving did increase and absenteeism from work decrease during the prohibition. The prohibition also spawned organized crimes and gangsters like Al Capone. These crimes and gangsters led to gang wars in the cities, and moved crime into other illicit activities, such as gambling, prostitution and narcotics. Organized crimes became one of the nations most profitable business, due to the prohibition. Cars also had a cultural and social impact on america. In 1910, there were about 69 car companies, which impacted people's lives. Henry ford was best known for, cheap, rugged and reliable cars. Production was based on standardization, interchangeable parts, and the assembly line. Dependence of the car industry on steel, made steel industry boom, and thousand of jobs support industries were created. Cars was consider a new standard of living for americans. City dwellers had a bigger......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Usama Bin Laden

...finally in May 2nd 2011, the US was able to find him. The President of the United States, Barack Obama, made a speech on the mission that was taken place. He spoke how after he took office he made a priority to capture or kill Bin Laden and how there was intelligence of a possible lead of Bin Laden in Pakistan. President Obama’s speech about what the United States has in the future about terrorism was not going to stop there, because terrorism was not going to stop at Bin Laden. There is always someone that is going to take his place and still networks of al-Qaeda all over there world that need to be dismantled. President Obama stated (2011), yet his death does not mark the end of our effort.  There’s no doubt that al Qaeda will continue to pursue attacks against us. We must –- and we will -- remain vigilant at home and abroad. The killing of Usama Bin Laden was a big step in combating terrorism, it has made a huge empty hole in al-Qaeda, because he was a symbol to terrorist groups and he was still continuing in plotting attacks all over the world. The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Leon E. Panetta also made a very similar speech like President Obama on that day that Usama Bin Laden was killed. In his speech he congratulate on all the hard work of all the people involve that lead to Bin Laden but he stated (2011),...

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Morality Issue over Cartoon Shows

...those parents. If we watch these shows carefully and look into all those dirty jokes, violence action, and inappropriate language, actually the show is full of morality and everyday knowledge. Although the jokes seem neither appropriate nor polite, they serve to give education to kids at the end. These shows allow us to look at things at different angles and different aspects, and they also allow us to think more about the differences between moral and immoral. One of my most favorite episodes of South Park is “Manbearpig”. The show is about a lonely and attention-desperate Al Gore goes to the South Park Elementary and explains to kids the earth’s biggest threat is Manbearpig, the half man, half bear, and half pig monster as Al Gore describes. Nobody cares about what he says, and nobody trusts him, he has no friend. It spoofs Al Gore and his Globe Warming speech. Although the kids know Al Gore uses manbearpig to gain attention from people, they decide to help him hunt the...

Words: 891 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Regan Revolution Through President Obama

...Regan Revolution through President Obama Kelly B. Turner Tonya Simmons Contemporary US History Strayer University 06 September 2012 During the time period under discussion from the Regan Revolution to our current President Obama, one major historical turning point was the creation of the Internet. This vast network of linked computers that allowed information to be shared easily and instantly, propelled the information technology of personal computers and cell phones forward at high speed. (Schultz, 2011) The ways that the Internet has changed life in the United States over the past two decades is vast. The economy has widely changed in this new age of technology, American companies reached overseas markets, businesses could broaden their customer base, and computers helped to streamline the manufacturing process. (Schultz, 2011) Fewer Americas read newspapers in the 21st century; instead, they are updated minute by minute on all things news, sports, even keeping up with what their friends ate for lunch via any number of social media outlets. With this burst in IT development came the race to create powerful technology so small that it will fit in a person’s pocket. Americans are not only connected to the world and each other at any given moment of the day, most now have constant access to very powerful computers the size of their hands. Another shift in the culture is the documentation of people’s lives. Every event is documented and......

Words: 1521 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

By Your Own Instincts.

...“By your own Instincts” The majority of the human race is influenced by millions of things each and every day. We may not realize it, but just seeing what a person simply wears can be very influencing as in changing our own personal outlook. The way we dress and appear in front of others, but this is just a tiny fraction of influences that all adds into a bigger picture. That bigger picture is the one thing we all simply see and not realize the magnitude of influence. That influence is the media. Now rather it is the eight o’clock news to the emergency CNN reports straight to you from the President of the United States, they are all very influencing. It is hardwired into our brain to trust. To adapt and by adapting, we must trust how or who will help us adapt. Our generation in the two thousands has led to mass information connection by the simple touch of the click of the mouse. You have Wikipedia, to Good Morning America, to our very own family hear say. The question is, why not just trust your own instincts? The words Nine-Eleven is a date that any American will remember because of the mass tragedy that burned into our media, our minds, and our history. On September eleventh of Two Thousand One, we all woke up to a very shocking interruption in America’s flow. Around nine o’clock in the morning, we the American people were informed that there had been a terrorist attack on two of our very own leading corporate buildings that regulated trade. Those......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Help

...This man should be tried by the federal court. The Supreme Court of the United States has the highest federal court in the United States. It has final jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation. The congress found a solution to which was the Authorization for Use of Military Force or AUMF. This organization allowed the president to use all necessary and appropriate forces against any nations, organizations, or persons that plans, authorizes, commits, or aided in the September 11, 2001 attack. After this al Qaeda attack the president ordered the Armed Forces to Afghanistan to straighten out al Qaeda and control the Taliban regime. On September 11, 2001 approximately three thousand people were killed in those terrorist attacks. Yaser Esam Hamdi was born an American citizen in 1980 in Louisiana. He moved with family to Saudi Arabia while he was a child. By 2001 he resided in Afghanistan. He was seized by a military group who opposed the Taliban government and then was turned over to the United States military. After which he was transferred ultimately to Charleston, South Carolina. They want to detain him in the United States jail indefinitely. They however don’t have formal charges but in hopes to make the determination that access to counsel or further process is necessary. Hamdi’s father filed an habeas petition on his behalf alleging that the government was holding his son in violation of the fifth and fourteenth Amendments. He believed that the United States was not......

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Terrorism

...Terrorism The United States has opened the eyes of the global community to terrorism after the attacks of 9/11. These attacks, by terrorist group Al Qaeda, were aimed at the United States and the allies of the country, which is a little recognized fact. On September 11, 2001, more than 80 countries lost citizens in the attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and one aircraft which thanks to its brave passengers would miss its intended target, undoubtedly saving many lives while unfortunately taking some of much value. After the world opened its eyes to this impending threat, it then responded with support for the United States in its newly forged battle. Because of this, the United States should show other nations the same support; terrorism, no matter where it takes place, is a global battle, and should be treated as such. Terrorists can attack anywhere at any time, so to sit back and not take action when another faces such ordeals as those taking place on 9/11 would be wrong, but not just that-it would also almost ensure that these acts continue on and on, never ending. It will take the combined efforts of nations to destroy terrorism. Counter terrorism is how a country responds to stop terrorism, and here too the international community is working together identifying and locating terrorists residing in varied places all around the world. The FBI, CIA, Department of Defense (all US organizations) are also aiding in the search. The United States leads the...

Words: 840 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Al Quaeda and Affiliates

...Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence, and Implications for U.S. Policy Crissy L Rogers Miller-Motte Technical College Risk Management SI200 Mr. Brian Peters 1. Rollins, J. (2011). Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence, and Implications for U.S. Policy. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center. Summary According to John Rollins, specialist in terrorism and national security, Al Qaeda today is very different than the one that was portrayed directly after the 9/11 attacks. Then, they were considered an organization of veterans of the Afghan insurgency against the Soviet Union, with their leadership made up of majority Egyptians, who not only approved attacks but were also the ones who organized them. Today, it has transformed into global network, one who has independent cells and associates in over 70 countries. Modern technologies, such as the internet, allow these cells and associates to be radicalized by those who have traveled for indoctrination and training. Their goal is to serve as a forefront for stimulating Muslims and others to join a jihadi movement, claiming that they will be helping to defend and purify Islam with violent actions. (2011) Critical Analysis Overall, Al Qaeda leaders have displayed a reasonable readiness to adapt the strategic and tactical content of their statements to changing circumstances. Although Bin Laden's self-professed goal is to stimulate, and mobilize the......

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Next Friday

...September 11, 2001. On this date one of America's greatest tragedies occurred. In this tragedy, around three thousand people were killed, with a total of six thousand injured. On this day four planes were hijacked; two of them hit the Twin towers in New York city, one hit the Pentagon in Arlington Virginia just outside Washington D.C., and a fourth one crashed in Pennsylvania, the intended destination of that plane is unknown. What happened on this day completely changed the world forever. The people who have been said to be responsible was a terrorist group called Al-Qaeda. The United States citizens have been told to believe that there were 19 hijackers from Al-Qaeda who hijacked four United States commercial jets, and purposefully crashed them into The Twin Towers, and The Pentagon. After the attack happened, the United States responded with launching “The War on Terror” and invaded Afghanistan to eliminate the Al-Qaeda. The leader in charge of the attack was Osama Bin Ladin. This war is still going on to this day, and we still have not found Osama Bin Ladin. ("Formal Analysis, September 11 2001.") The world, specifically the United states, believe that this planned attack was unknown to the United States government.. Many conspirators believe that the government knew about the plans to attack The Twin Towers and The Pentagon, and still allowed it to happen. The main proof that people point at to this theory is that there was what looked like to be insider trading.......

Words: 330 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Integrity Produces Excellence

...“This is the word of the LORD: 'Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit,' says the LORD of hosts” Integrity Produces Excellence This morning I will share how integrity produces a life of excellence. Remember to project your voice Open In Prayer Father I pray that as I share today your word will bring revelation to our lives. AMEN Opening Today we continue with the subject of Honesty and Integrity. Ps John has shared on Honesty is the only policy reasons we lie and facing the consequences. Last week he also spoke on Integrity today I will share on how integrity in our lives produces a life of excellence. 1. God loves a person that holds fast to their integrity Job 2:3 says: Then the LORD said to satan, "Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears God and shuns evil? And still he holds fast to his integrity, although you incited Me against him, to destroy him without cause." We can see in this scripture that God loves a person that holds fast to their integrity so much that He boasts to satan that Job is a man of integrity and he holds fast to it. Remember to project your voice Today I would like to ask you, are you a person that holds onto your integrity when difficult times comes? Integrity is defined in the Webster’s dictionary as: Integrity comprises the personal inner sense of "wholeness" deriving from honesty and consistent uprightness of character...

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Afganistan

...The goal of this war was to up root the Taliban from power and create a stable democracy, and to hunt Osama Bin Laden down for his crimes against the United States. In this paper I will be elaborating why this war was justified by these reasons; the fact that Al-Qaeda killed and expressly aims to kill U.S. citizens and, the Taliban in Afghanistan have partnered with al-Qaeda, harboring a known United States enemy named Osama Bin Laden, threating other democratic countries of their freedom including their own. The different historical interpretations of the event, and the positive and negative outcomes of this event will be elaborated on also. On Tuesday morning on September 11 2001, 19 terrorists from the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger planes. These terrorists intentionally crashed two of these planes in to the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York. Another plane was purposely crashed into the pentagon and one crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. Roughly 3000 people lost their lives that day. These attacks were a direct attack on the United States. Believed to be behind these attacks was a terrorist named Osama bin Laden. Osama bin Laden was the founder of the group al-Qaeda, the same group behind the attacks on 9/11. He was thought to be hiding in Syria or Afghanistan. Thus with “Operation Enduring Freedom” the United States pledged to liberate the population from the clutched of the Taliban. And with the Taliban out of......

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Pakistan Contribution to Global War on Terrorism

...nowhere near its end. This study is an exploration of the question whether war is the solution or the problem? Key Words: War on Terror, World Response, Pakistan’s Contribution, Operations, Agreements. Background P akistan has always played a constructive role in the United Nations (UN) — it is one of its largest net troop contributors and its active role in the solution of world issues is internationally recognized. It borders three major strategic regions; South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East, and its geographical proximity to Afghanistan has made it an important partner of the United States. Pakistan has played a significant role, both during the Cold War and as a non-NATO member in the US-led “War on Terror” against al Qaeda and the Taliban. After 9/11 terrorism became a serious problem in international relations. It was the first time in recent history that the US had been confronted with such a huge disaster on its own soil. Maintaining internal security and protecting its global interests became a...

Words: 8479 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

The Growing Trend of Domestic Terrorism in the 21st Century

...patriots. This country was founded on such mischievous tactics; maybe it is just karma, that terrorism is such a huge problem for us today. Throughout history, the U.S. has been under constant terrorist attack, a countless number of times, by a multitude of enemies either foreign or domestic. Since the beginning of the 21st Century, many different types of Terrorist attacks against the United States of America have significantly grown, which has caused a lot of fear and animosity among many Americans. A day that all Americans and most of the free world will never forget, September 11, 2001, the day that our country was crippled, people fell to their knees in prayer. 19 insane militants associated with the Islamic extremist group known as al-Qaeda hijacked four airliners and carried out terrifying suicide attacks against 3 targets located in the United States (history.com). The first was targeted with 2 commercial airliners (American Airlines Flight 11 & United Airlines Flight 175) focusing on directly crashing into the World Trade Center better known as the “The Twin Towers” located in New York City. These airliners managed to eventually bring down both towers, multiple of other buildings and kill thousands in the process. The second was another commercial airliner that crashed directly into the Pentagon. The fourth was also a plane heading toward another unknown target,...

Words: 1207 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

When Religion Becomes Evil

...India Stuart 12/3/12 Kimball Essay In Kimball’s book, When Religion Becomes Evil, he addresses five simple warning signs of corruption and evil in religion. The five simple warning signs he addresses are: absolute truth claims, blind obedience, establishing the “Ideal Time”, the end justifies any means, and declaring holy war. These warning signs are easy to spot in writings and actions of those who are involved in religious corruption. The book highlights and details each sign as well as giving examples to represent each. In the four pages of notes left behind from the terrorist involved in the 9/11 attacks these signs were also represented. The first of the five signs, absolute truth claims was represented in the notes multiple times. The terrorist takes different verses from the Qur’an and tries to justify the actions they are going to commit. The words of the Qur’an are interpreted in many different ways by Muslims and in this case the terrorist was only interpreting the different verses in a way that would be beneficial to him. “Sacred texts provide a rich source of wisdom and guidance in the vicissitudes of life. Like all things powerful, sacred texts can be misused through a kind of sanctification of the whole and through selective reading and interpretation. Sacred texts are the most easily abused component of religion (Kimball 2008).” The terrorist takes the words of the Qur’an and twists them in his own mind to make it seem as if the actions are acceptable.......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Political Science Essay

...Palestinian and Middle Eastern groups had easier access to other areas such as Western Europe, bottom line was geographically close to their home countries, and they were able to draw upon expatriate communities or locals who sympathized with them. Finally, based on these results from this article I see why democratic systems are considered vulnerable to outbreaks of terrorist incidents because political openness that facilitated terrorism in Western Europe and West Germany. What steps has the United States taken to protect Americans against terrorism? Today the U.S. has taken many steps to prevent terrorism, which they call counterterrorism. According to (Mueller) during the past decade, the United States have weakened al Qaeda due to the coordinated efforts or our military,...

Words: 615 - Pages: 3