Free Essay

All About Cameroon

In: People

Submitted By aishayeoh
Words 4566
Pages 19
All About Cameroon
Cameroon, a West African country whose coastline is part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean, is the world’s 53rd largest country in terms of physical size with an area of 183,569 square miles. Comparison wise, it is slightly larger than Sweden, comparable in size to Papua New Guinea, or slightly larger than the state of California. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south ( Cameroon). The word “Cameroon” originated from the Portuguese explorers who reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camaroes (or River of Prawns), which eventually evolved into the English name Cameroon (Pondi, 1997). The Cameroon flag has three equal vertical bands of green (for vegetation), red (for independence), and yellow (for sunshine), with a yellow 5-pointed star in the centered in the red band ( The Lonely Planet travel guide describes Cameroon as “Africa’s throbbing heart, a crazed, sultry mosaic of active volcanoes, white sand beaches, thick rainforest and magnificent parched landscapes broken up by the bizarre rock formations of the Sahel” (
Cameroon enjoys relatively high political and social stability. Cameroon doesn’t have the notoriety of the history of ethnic violence between the Hutu and the Tutsi such as in Rwanda, nor the fame of the beauty of the wildlife in South Africa, politically news wise it hasn’t been on the map the way Sudan (Darfur) has, or Somalia, or the use of children in armies, and in a sense that’s what makes it so interesting. It has all the beauty and diversity of Africa just like all the sub-Saharan African countries do, yet it has been relatively more insulated from the infamy of civil war and violence which has torn up so many other African countries, in spite of having more or less the same history of European colonialism as those other countries.
The earliest inhabitants of Cameroon were the Baka Pygmies who still inhabit the forests of the south and east provinces. Bantu speakers originating in the Cameroonian highlands were among the first groups to move out before other invaders. Like most African countries, Cameroon has been the site of many major population migrations. The ethnic grou which has been the greatest force in Cameroon’s history are the Fulani, a pastoral Muslim people of the western Sahel, where during the late 1770s and early 1800s, they conquered most of what is now northern Cameroon, subjugating its largely non-Muslim inhabitants and created the Muslim segment of the Cameroonian population today (DeLancey, DeLancey, and Dike, 2000).
According to, the influence of Islam in Cameroon were already present before 1000 A.D. when Persian and Arab traders engaged in trade with East Africa, followed by further migrations from Arabia after Prophet Muhammad’s death resulted in chaos in the 7th century. The intermarriage of Arabs with the Bantus resulted in the Swahili ethnic group which grew into more tribes deeper into Africa over the next seven centuries. By the time the Europeans came, starting with the Portuguese in the early 1500s, they already found a thriving advanced economy thanks to the Swahili people whose business practices can be attributed to their Arabic origins since Arabs were already advanced traders for their time. The Portuguese took over control of the economy after their arrival and began the slave trade which was taken over by the Dutch in the 1600s, but that ended when the Omani Arabs overthrew the Europeans in the late 18th century. Unfortunately for the inland African tribes, the Omani Arabs practised slavery, one of their major economic enterprises, and as a result of the Omani rule because Africans in the areas from northern Mozambique to southern Somalia were abducted into the slave trade.
Besides the Portuguese, ensuing European settlers did not conquer the interior until the late 1870s due to the uncontrolled spread of malaria. After the malaria treatment quinine became available oher Europeans began to arrive engaging mostly in coastal and slave trade, the latter especially prominent in the northern part of Cameroon and subsequently suppressed in the mid-19th century. Among the Europeans who came in the late 19th century were the Christian missionaries who continue to play a role in Cameroonian life (Fanso, 1989).
The Europeans who colonized Cameroon were the French, the English, and the Germans. Commencing in 1884, all of present-day Cameroon and parts of several of its neighbors were colonized by the Germans who named the area “Kamerun” with its capital first a Buea and later at Yaounde. The end of World War I and the 1919 League of Nations mandate led to the partitioning of Kamerun between France and Britain, with France owning a larger territory and ruling from Yaounde, and Britain owning a smaller territory - the strip bordering Nigeria from the sea to Lake Chad – yet wth an equal population, and ruling from Lagos (DeLancey, DeLancey, and Dike, 2000).
Cameroon’s struggle for independence from the French began in 1955 when the outlawed Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (UPC) began an armed struggle against the French. Anywhere from tens to hundreds of thousands died in this conflict, but it resulted in French Cameroon’s independence in 1960 when it became the Republic of Cameroon. In the following year the largely Muslim northern two-thirds of British Cameroon joined Nigeria (which is how Lagos became part of present-day Nigeria), while the largely Christian southern one-third of British Cameroon joined the Republic of Cameroon to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. In 1972 a new constitution replaced the Federation with the United Republic of Cameroon. Today French and English remain the official languages of Cameroon (Terretta, 2010).
Cameroon has been referred to as the “hinge of Africa” by both national politicians and expatriates alike perhaps because of its location on continent of Africa (http://cameroon. If Africa were a door, the position of Cameroon would be where the door’s hinge would be. Cameroon is located in a tropical region with the terrain consisting of flat plains, mountains and a coastal plain. The climate varies with the terrain, from tropical along the coast to semiarid and hot in the north. It is of the wettest places in the world with 1,028 cm rainfall per year. About 13% of Cameroon’s land is arable. The flat plains of the Lake Chad basin in the northern region, the savannas, is where cattle are raised, and corn and cotton are grown. The central part consists of humid grasslands, and the southern part, which is rich in volcanic soil, is where Cameroon’s cash crops (coffee, bananas, cocoa, and palm oil) are grown. Most of the population – over a quarter – live in the southern region, where drought and desertification are the main concerns.
Cameroon has the tallest mountain in West Africa, Mount Cameroon at over 13,435 ft, which is an active volcano. Throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanie activity. Cameroon’s soil is rich in minerals and its natural resources include oil, timber, natural gas, iron ore, uranium, cobalt, nickel, and hydroelectric power.
Cameroon is a parliamentary republic. For five decades running, Cameroon has enjoyed relative political stability - in comparison to other surrounding regional countries such as Chad and Central African Republic – under the leadership of two heads of state – Ahidjo (1960-1982) and Paul Biya (since 1982). After it became independent in 1960, Ahmadou Ahidjo, a French-educated Fulani, was chosen President of the federation in 1961. He became a dictator who outlawed all political parties bu his own (the Cameroon National Union) in 1966, and used a pervasive internal security apparatus to suppress opposition including the UPC rebellion (ironically, UPC is the very native party which fought for and won Cameroon’s independence from the French), capturing the last rebel leader in 1970. In 1972 a constitution replaced the federation with a unitary state ruled by one political party (DeLancey, DeLancey, and Dike, 2000).
Ahidjo resigned as President in 1982 and was constitutionally succeeded by his Prime Minister, Paul Biya, a career official from the Bulu-Beti ethnic group. Biya began his administration by moving toward a more democratic government, but a failed coup d'état prompted him to continue his predecessor’s one-party form of government, and so he has remained in power since 1982. He won single-candidate elections in 1984 and 1988 and flawed multiparty elections in 1992 and 1997. His Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM) party holds a sizeable majority in the legislature following 2002 elections--149 deputies out of a total of 180. Cameroon is on a long and slow path to a multi-party democracy. The CPDM was the only legal political party until December 1990. Numerous regional political groups have since formed. Current political parties include the Democratic Alliance of the People of Cameroon (RDPC); the Movement for the Defence of the Republic; the Social Democratic Front (FSD); the National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP); and the Front of Allies for Change (FAC). The English-speaking territories of Cameroon have grown increasingly alienated from the government, which has made the primary opposition party to Biya’s government the Social Democratic Front (SDF) which is based largely in the Anglophone region of the country (DeLancey, DeLancey, and Dike, 2000).
The President of Cameroon is elected, appoints government officials at all levels, and refers to the National Assembly to create legislation. The National Assembly has 180 members who are elected for five-year terms and meets three times per year. Laws as passed based on a majority vote, and rarely oppose legislation proposed by the president. In 1966 a constitution established a second house of parliament, and in 2013 a 100-seat Senate was established led by a Senate president who is the constitutional successor to the president (http://globaledge. countries/cameroon/government). Although Cameroon’s legal system is largely based on the French civil law, the government defers to the authority of traditional chiefs to resolve disputes at the local level so long as their rulings do not contradict national law. The President appoints judges at all levels. The judiciary is under the authority of the Ministry of Justice, and is divided into tribunals, the court of appeal, and the supreme court. A High Court of Justice, whose nine members are elected by the National Assembly, judges high-ranking members of government if they are charged with treason or harming national security.
Africans have, with a few notable exceptions, been ill-served by their political leaders. Like so many countries in Africa, and indeed in the struggling developing world, corruption is rife at all levels of government in Cameroon. The establishment of anti-corruption bureaus in 1997 are all but a façade as only 25% became operational. The police and military forces have been accused of mistreating criminals, ethnic minorities, political activists, and gays. Human rights organizations allege the suppression of opposition by the government by preventing demonstrations, disrupting meetings, and arresting journalists and opposition leaders.
Yet, this repressive form of governance – or “stable authoritarianism” – seems to create the climate of stability in Cameroon compared to its neighbors. Businesses will not set up shop in a country where it cannot rely on the government to ensure that there will be no political unrest, or for that matter labor unrest. A compliant populace – whether willingly or unwillingly – is one key factor considered by business investors. Unfortunately, business in Cameroon cannot be operated without some, if not large, degree of graft, corruption, and bribery. The government however works with large businesses to ensure the latter’s success, because that in turn ensures that Biya’s government coffers remain lined. The best example in the case of Cameroon is allowing foreign timber companies to put pressure on the government to continue to allow the deforestation of Cameroon’s tropical rainforests, which are driving out the rainforest peoples of Central Africa from areas where they are considered native and reside. Further, no doubt the Cameroonian people may benefit in some small measure from export revenues, however even the most repressive tactics can result in a breaking point where the façade of contentment and stability can no longer be hidden. Yet, after decades of rule, and only recent allowance by the government for new media outlets and hundreds of new political parties to form (again, it is also a façade because Biya’s political party still holds sway at elections and within the government whose members are, after all, appointed by himself), the people still choose “the devil” (as critics refer to Biya) over another party simply because they are familiar with the party and the President, and witnessing what is happening elsewhere outside Cameroon’s borders only bolster support for familiarity over uncertainty.
Cameroon has a population of 23,130,708, with slightly more females (11,129,363 women or 50.01%) than males (11,124,596 men or 49.99%). The life expectancy for females at 54.52 years is also slightly higher than the 52.89 years for males. The median age of the population is 18.3 years. According to 2014 estimates, the population growth rate is 2.6% (ranks #26 in comparison to the world), driven by a birth rate of 36.58 births per 1,000 population (ranks #19 in comparison to the world) and a death rate of 10.4 deaths per 1,000 population (ranks #41 in comparison to the world). Mortality rate is in part due to excessive deaths by AIDS, a disease epidemic still being battled in sub-Saharan African ( publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cm.html).
Cameroon’s population is almost evenly divided between urban and rural dwellers (West, 2004), with population density highest in the largest cities of Douala, Yaounde, and Garoua, western highlands, and the northeastern plains (Neba, 1999). There is a 3.6% annual rate of change of urbanization as people from the overpopulated western highlands and the underdeveloped north are moving to the coastal plantation zone and urban centres for employment ( Both monogamy and polygamy are practised in Cameroon, and the average Cameroonian family is large and extended. Like most societies, Cameroonian society is male dominated. In the rural north women work at home while men work as farmers or cattle herders, and in the rural south women grow subsistence crops, while men grow cash crops and provide meat (Mbaku, 2005).
Culturally, the country has often been referred to as “Africa in miniature” for its geological and ethnic diversity. In terms of geography, it has all the major climates and vegetation of the continent – the coast, the desert, mountains, rainforest, and savanna. The major religions practised are Christianity by 40% of the population which is in the south of Cameroon; Islam, practised by 20% of the population predominantly in the north; and traditional African cult beliefs practised by 40% of the population (
Due to its French and British colonial history, the country has both Francophone and Anglophone regions, with French, English, and Ewondo as the official languages. Ewondo is the languge of the Beti-Pahuin peoples, a Bantu ethnic group located in the rainforest regions of the Cameroon (as well as the Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe). The Beti-Pahuin are divided into individual clans but share a common origin, history, and culture. There were approximately over 8 million Beti-Pahuin in the early 21st century and are the largest ethnic group in Cameroon.
The 200 ethnic groups and anywhere from 230-282 different folk and linguistic groups of Cameroon render the country a vast ethnic and linguistic jigsaw, yet in contrast to so many of its neighbors, Cameroon enjoys relative stability. The Bantu ethnic groups are the main groups among the 200. The Dualas, Bamilekes, Tikars and Bamauns are mostly in the south; the Euondos and Fulbes in the west, and the Fulanis in the north. The Baka Pygmies live in the southeast, surviving by hunting and fishing ( Overall, Cameroon’s ethnic groups are as follows: Source:
Cameroon’s natural resources of oil, natural gas, timber, iron ore and other minerals, as well as its favorable agricultural conditions have allowed the country to be one of the better primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet unemployment was estimated at 30% more than 30% with a third of the population living below the international poverty threshold of $1.25 per day. The country’s GDP – real growth rate of 5.1% ranks #52 in the world, but #189 in the world for GDP – per capita. As out of sync the GDP – per capita is with the GDP – real growth rate, Cameroon’s GDP per capita is actually one of the 10 highest in sub-Saharan Africa, simply because it’s far far worse in the other countries. Cameroon faces the same conditions which exist unfortunately in many other underdeveloped countries: stagnant per capita income, inequitable distribution of income, and a generally unfavorable climate for business growth and development (
Since 1990, the government has been working with IMF and the World Bank to try to create business investments, improve trade, and increase agricultural efficiency. Presently Cameroon has several large infrastructure programs underway, including a deep sea port in Kirbi, the Lom Pangar Hydropower Project, and a natural gas powered electricity generating plant ("Cameroon Business Mission Fact Sheet 2010-2011"). The government has also taken measures to increase tourism in the country. We tend to think of Kenya or South Africa as being the magnet for wildlife tourism in Africa, yet it may surprise most people to learn that Cameroon has 7 national parks and Waza National Park is its most famous one with numerous elephants, lion, giraffe, antelope and birdlife and has some of the richest flora and fauna found in Africa.
Since embarking on the programs with the IMF and World Bank, Cameroon has been enjoying a steady economic growth and strong economic performance in the last decade. It has reduced its public debt and quadrupled its official reserves. Since Cameroon’s natural resources are well suited for agriculture, agricultural productivity is central to Cameroon’s export industry. About 70% of its agriculture comprise an estimate 19.8% of its GDP in 2009. On the coast, soils and climate encourage extensive commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palm, rubber, and tea. Inland, in the plateau, the cash crops grown are coffee, sugar, and tobacco. Cameroon does not have considerable oil reserves like the other sub-Saharan countries, yet it exports a major share of its petroleum production and this sector also owns a major share in the total export volume. Based on 2009 estimates, Cameroon has a total export volume in excess of US$4.8 billion, with Spain leading as its export partner (at 19.4% share), followed by Italy, US, France, and the Netherlands. Other major export items are lumber, cocoa, aluminum, cotton, and the aforementioned cash crops. Factory-based industry accounted for an estimated 29.7% of GDP in 2009. The country ranks #110 in the export of merchandising, and #126 in the export of commercial services (
Cameroon is a member of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community - Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC), along with the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. Barring a few exceptions, Cameroon’s customs tariffs are based on the CEMAC common external tariff (CET), which are ad valorem. The CEMAC CET is applied on the c.i.f. (cost, insurance, freight) value. There is also an 18.7% Value Added Tax applied on the c.i.f. An Excise Tax (indirect tax on consumption goods) of 25% on c.i.f. may also apply for specific categories of goods (
The World Trade Organization (WTO) published two Secretariat reports on Cameroon's trade policies and practices. In 1995 it reported that Cameroon's comprehensive macroeconomic and structural reform programme has gone a long way towards reversing the country's previous inward-looking anti-export policies ( In 2001 it reported that Cameroon has improved its economic performance due mainly to the implementation of structural reforms such as economic liberalization and privatization. However, it still needs to improve its infrastructure and diversify its exports – many of which are cash crops vulnerable to price changes – and also increase its participation in the multilateral trading system to provide a more secure environment to attract foreign investment ( In my search I could not find another more recent publication of the WTO for Cameroon’s trade policies and practices.
The conservative think tank Heritage Foundation defines trade freedom as “a composite measure of the absence of tariff and non-tariff barriers that affect imports and exports of goods and services”, the measure being calculated according to a mathematical formula ( trade-freedom). According to the Heritage Foundation, Cameroon’s score is 51.9, ranking it as #146 in the world, and #35 out of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa in the 2015 index, and 0.7 points worse than last year, with declines in labor freedom, business freedom, property rights, and trade freedom outweighing improvements in monetary freedom and freedom from corruption. The analysis argues that Cameroon has made little progress in capitalizing on reform momentum and the oil and commodity boom has lessened the pressured for needed fiscal changes ( cameroon).
Analysis and Conclusion
Politics and economics are remain the primary challenges facing the Cameroonian government and its people. Institutional reforms are needed to continue to tackle Cameroon’s government corruption, nepotism, cronyism, and the lack of an independent judiciary. The economy is also overly dependent on commodity exports and subject to burdensome regulation. The country’s challenge is to find ways to diversify its exports and its source of GDP revenue. One idea would be, as mentioned earlier, to promote tourism which is a very good possibility since the country has 7 national parks which is still little to lesser known to the world unlike Kenya’s and South Africa’s wildlife tourism.
Also, while Cameroon compared with so many other sub-Saharan African countries, has enjoyed relative internal peace (or lack of civil war), this has been precariously held through decades of political repression and human rights abuses in order to create a docile citizenry that has become so used to it that they fear changing their government to something else. Yet, this is changing because the Paul Biya is in his 80s and his health has been a concern. There is also a growing potential of social unrest because of rising public frustration with perceptions of weak improvement in living standards. Presently the Cameroonian security forces are also at war with the terrorist group Boko Haram which has attacked and infiltrated villages along the Cameroon-Nigerian border. Cameroon now hosts approximately 35,000 refugees from the Central African Republic which has been impacted by Boko Haram’s activities. Such political conditions no doubt will adversely impact Cameroon’s peace and stability, and ultimately its economy since no business will invest in a country at war.
It helps that Cameroon has a strong ally in, and enjoys great economic cooperation with Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia Ambassador Mohammed Bin Suliman Almusher said that his country has been contributing to the development of Cameroon by financing economic and social development projects, particularly in energy, transport, training, agriculture and infrastructure. Further, both countries have a vested interest in staying committed to fighting terrorist groups like Boko Haram in Africa and Al Qaeda and ISIS in the Arabia Peninsula and the Middle East. Saudi Arabia has also welcomed many Cameroonians to study at their universities, ostensibly these are Muslim students. While the Cameroonian students study various subjects, many also travel to Saudi Arabia to study traditional Islam, which has been branded as “Wahabbi” form of Islam. While the traditional form of Islam practised in Cameroon has been largely influenced by Sufi groups or movements, the Saudi trained Islamic students who return to Cameroon are finding themselves in conflict with a form of Islam practised that is at odds, if not in some contravention of orthodox Islamic teachings. This, according to a Cameroonian blogger, is creating tensions not only amongst Cameroonian Muslims – those who follow more traditional or Sufi teachings versus those who follow more orthodox or Wahabbi eachings – but also between Christian Cameroonians and Muslim Cameroonians who until now have been in relative peaceful co-existence.
Clearly, from many standpoints, Cameroon remains one of the most interesting African countries to observe over the next decade. Will Biya be eventually replaced by a new leader because of ill health, death, or because true democracy at the polls finally prevailed? And, if so, how will the new leader rule the country? Will he (or she) allow the tens of media outlets and hundreds of political parties in existence really play their role to promote freedom of speech, democracy at the polls, and government transparency? Or will he (or she) be the same, or worse, than Biya? Will the country eventually diversify its GDP revenue by promoting tourism as its goal ( And, how successful will it be in fighting Boko Haram and containing the extremist movement within sub-Saharan Africa? And to what extent will countries like Saudi Arabia aid in Cameroon’s efforts in this area? Last but not least, what will be the future of ethnic relations between Christians and Muslims, and amongst the diverse Muslim population within Cameroon? These are all interesting questions which can only be answered with time and observation.

"Cameroon: Government". Michigan State University: Broad College of Business. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
"Cameroon Business Mission Fact Sheet 2010-2011". Netherlands-African Business Council. 2011.
DeLancey, Mark W. and DeLancey, Mark Dike (2000). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.
Fanso, V. G. (1989). Cameroon History for Secondary Schools and Colleges, Vol. 1: From Prehistoric Times to the Nineteenth Century. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd., p. 84.
Mbaku, John Mukum (2005). Culture and Customs of Cameroon. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Neba, Aaron (1999). Modern Geography of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Bamenda: Neba Publishers.
Pondi, J. E. (1997). "Cameroon and the Commonwealth of nations". The Round Table 86(344): 563–570.
Terretta, M. (2010). "Cameroonian Nationalists Go Global: From Forest Maquis to a Pan-African Accra". The Journal of African History 51 (2).
West, Ben (2004). Cameroon: The Bradt Travel Guide. Guilford, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

All About Xp

...20 things you do not know about Windows XP [pic] Now it's time to delve a bit deeper and uncover some of Windows XP's secrets. 1. It boasts how long it can stay up. Whereas previous versions of Windows were coy about how long they went between boots, XP is positively proud of its stamina. Go to the Command Prompt in the Accessories menu from the All Programs start button option, and then type 'systeminfo'. The computer will produce a lot of useful info, including the uptime. If you want to keep these, type 'systeminfo > info.txt'. This creates a file called info.txt you can look at later with Notepad. (Professional Edition only). 2. You can delete files immediately, without having them move to the Recycle Bin first. Go to the Start menu, select Run... and type ' gpedit.msc'; then select User Configuration, Administrative Templates, Windows Components, Windows Explorer and find the Do not move deleted files to the Recycle Bin setting. Set it. Poking around in gpedit will reveal a great many interface and system options, but take care -- some may stop your computer behaving as you wish. (Professional Edition only). 3. You can lock your XP workstation with two clicks of the mouse. Create a new shortcut on your desktop using a right mouse click, and enter 'rundll32.exe user32.dll,LockWorkStation' in the location field. Give the shortcut a name you like. That's it -- just double click on it and your computer will be locked. And if that's not easy enough, Windows key + L...

Words: 1371 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

All About Cat (Philippines)

...drill commands. Finalize yourself with these commands and use them when drilling your troops. 1. PAGSASANAY NG KAWAL NA WALANG SANDATA (SCHOOL FOR SOLDIERS WITHOUT ARMS) A. Katayuan sa pagtindig (Position of Attention) 1. Humanda (Attention) 2. Humanay (Fall in line) 3. Masinsing Pagitan, Humanay (At Close Interval. Fall in line) 4. Magtipon (Assemble) 5. Manumbalik (As you Were) B. Katayuan sa Paghinga Nakahinto (Rest at Halt) 1. Tikas Pahinga (Parade Rest) 2. Tindig Paluwag (Stand at Ease) 3. Paluwag (at Ease) 4. Pahinga (Rest) 5. Tiwalag (Fall out) 6. Lumansag (Dismissed) C. Pagharap Kung Nakahinto (Facing at the Halt) 1. Harap sa Kanan, Rap (Right Face) 2. Harap sa Kaliwa, Rap (Left Face) 3. Harap sa Likdod, Rap (About Face) 4. Harap Hating-kaliwa, Rap (Left Half Face) 5. Harap Hating-Kanan, Rap (Right Half Face) D. Pagpugay (Salute) 1. Pugay Kamay, Na (Hand Salute) 2. Tingin sa Kanan, Na (Eyes Right) E. Hakbang at Lakad (Steps and Marching) 1. Bilang Hakbang, Na (Count Cadence Count) 2. Isa, Dalawa, Tatlo, Apat (One, Two, Three, Four) 3. Pasulong, Kad (Forward March) 4. Tilap/Palutong, Hinto (Squad/Platoon Halt) 5. Patakda, Kad (Mark Time March) 6. Hating Hakbang, Kad (Half Step March) 7. Takbong-Hakbang, Kad (Double Time March) 8. Sigalng-Hakbang, Kad (Quick Time March) 9. Hakbang Pakanan, Kad (Right/Left Step March) 10. Paurong, Kad (Backward March) 11. Pabalik, Kad (Roar March) 12. Paulit-Hakbang, Kad (Change Step......

Words: 1955 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

All About Eve

...Name: Joel Sanguinetti Title: All About Eve Year: 1950 Director: Joseph L. Mankiewicz Producer: Darryl F. Zanuck Three Performers: Bette Davis, Anne Baxter, George Sanders Costume/Wardrobe: Edith Head, Charles LE Maire, Sam Benson, Josephine Brown, Ann Landers, Merle Williams Hair and Make-up: Ben Nye, Bunny Gardel, Franz Prehoda, Kay Reed, Gene Roemer, Gladys Witten Set and Stage Design: Thomas Little, Walter M. Scott Musical Score Composer: Alfred Newman Cinematographer/Photographer: Milton R. Krasner Screenplay: Joseph L. Mankiewicz Original Novel, Play, or Story: Mary Orr – The Wisdom of Eve Academy Awards (Oscars) Won: 1. Best Actor in a Supporting Role – George Sanders 2. Best Costume Design, Black-and-White – Edith Head & Charles LE Maire 3. Best Director – Joseph L. Mankiewicz 4. Best Picture – 20th Century Fox 5. Best Sound, Recording – 20th Century-Fox Sound Dept. 6. Best Writing, Screenplay – Joseph L. Mankiewicz Joel Sanguinetti Mr. Skillings English 101-B4N December 19, 2011 All About Theatre Theatre has evolved in many ways throughout history. Theatre goes back to the 6th century BCE and develops its origins from Greece. Around 1750, theatre was introduced to New York, and eventually became what we now know as Broadway theatre. All About Eve, directed and written by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, is a movie based on the novel The Wisdom of Eve, written by Mary Orr. All About Eve is a movie about Broadway theatre and the......

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

All About Personal Finance

...All about Personal Finance “Money is hard to earn and easy to lose. Guard yours with care.” a quote from Brian Tracy which tells about money just passing by in our hands because of wrong management. Another quote is from Natasha Munson which tells about “Money, like emotions is something you must control to keep your life on the right track.” This means we must know ways to maintain or control our money so that our life will be financially stable. That’s why I will tell you all about Personal Finance to help you manage your money. Personal Finance is about learning to manage income and wealth to satisfy desires in life or to create more income and more wealth. It is about creating productive assets and about protecting existing and expected value in those assets. Personal Finance is very significant to our lives and some of the reasons are; first, it gives us self confidence, because we handle our financial problems under our control and we make more peaceful and better decisions. Second, saving for emergencies, you will not fear of crisis or surprise events which require a lot of money because you are already prepared financially. Third, saving for retirement, this is helpful for future purposes. Personal Finance includes about wealth, but what is wealth? Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or material possessions of economic value like money, real estate and personal property. An individual, who is considered wealthy, is someone who has accumulated substantial......

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

All About Baking

...large | eggs | | 1 | tablespoon | vanilla extract | | 2 | cups | buttermilk | or sour cream | 1 | x | powdered sugar | for dusting* | ------------------------------------------------- Directions 1. Butter and flour a 12-cup tube pan. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Sift flour, baking soda, salt, and nutmeg together. 2. Cream butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Add eggs, one at a time, beating well after each egg is added. Stir in vanilla. 3. Stir half of the sifted flour mixture into the butter-sugar mixture. Add 1 cup of the buttermilk. Add the other half of the flour mixture, then the remaining buttermilk. 4. Pour batter into prepared tube pan and bake until a wooden skewer inserted 2 inches from edge comes out clean (about 1 hour and 5 minutes). Cool cake in pan 10 to 15 minutes; invert onto a cooling rack, remove pan, and cool completely before serving. Transfer to a serving plate. Dust with confectioners' sugar. Cherry Loaf Pound Cake Total Time: 2 hrs 10 mins Prep Time: 30 mins Cook Time: 1 hrs 40 mins Ingredients: Yield: 1loaf cake Units: US | Metric 2 cups flour or 2 1/4 cups cake-and-pastry flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 cup glace cherries, quartered 1 cup butter (you could use margarine, but tastes best with butter) 1 cup sugar 4 eggs 2 teaspoons almond extract Directions: 1Combine flour and salt. 2Stir well to blend. 3Mix 1/2 cup flour mixture with cherries. 4Cream butter and sugar together until light and fluffy, I use......

Words: 4566 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

All About Southwest

...Integrating Culture and Diversity in Decision Making: The CEO and Organizational Culture Profile Jalisa Williams Dr. Erica Gamble BUS 520 Leadership and Organizational Behavior November 6, 2013 All about Southwest Southwest Airlines (SWA) was founded by Rollin King and Herb Kelleher in 1967. Southwest got its start in Texas and has since become one of America’s most admired companies. The road of establishing Southwest was not an easy one. The company who first wanted to service within the state of Texas had to fight for 3 years against 3 other airlines in the area for rights. After a judgment by the Texas Supreme Court in 1970, Southwest was cleared to take the air. Southwest lives by their mission statement of its dedication to the highest quality of customer service to be delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride and company spirit ( With the idea of good customer service will make you money, Southwest Airlines is by far the most profitable airline even in this trying time. Southwest’s Culture Happy Employees=Happy Customers At Southwest, they believe that a happy employee equal happy customers. They strive to make every customer experience a great one and by doing this they know the employees play a huge role in customer satisfaction. The core of their being consists of having a warrior spirit, leading with a servant’s heart and having a fun-luving attitude. These three components are what Southwest......

Words: 1147 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

All About

...BRIDGIT MENDLER LYRICS"Ready Or Not" -Hey H-Hey H-H-Hey (H-Hey) Oooooooooooooo I'm the kinda girl who doesn't say a word, Who sits at the curb and waits for the world But I'm about to break out, about to break out I'm like a crook tonight I caught you staring at me and I was thinking clearly Now I'm like a bee and I'm huntin' for the honey And I'm kinda shy but you're super fly yeah I could be your kryptonite Like ohh ohh ohh Light my heart up baby like a match stick Ohh ohh ohh And hit the gas quick Ready or not Here I come Where you at? The night is young In the crowd the music's loud but I will find you Ready or not Here I come I like your face Do you like my song? Just sing it la la la la la la and I'll find you Ready or not (Oh Oh Oh Oh Oh Oh) Ready or not (Oh Oh Oh Oh Oh Oh) Hello my name is... (Bridgit) Nice to meet you I think you're famous Where have I seen you? You'll be my William, I'll be your Kate Livin' like a fairytale We could have a palace right next to Oprah 37 cars and a yacht down in Boca Take me away wherever you say Yeah we could be setting sail Like ohh ohh ohh Light my heart up baby like a matchstick Ohh ohh ohh And hit the gas quick Ready or not Here I come Where you at? The night is young In the crowd the music's loud but I will find you Ready or not Here I come I like your face Do you like my song? Just sing it la la la la la la and I'll find you Ready or not (Oh Oh Oh Oh Oh Oh) Ready or not, not......

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

All About Me

...By far, my favorite application essay to write was Fuqua’s “25 Random Things About Me.” However, I was surprised to talk to other applicants and hear how difficult many found the essay to write. My advice for those of you struggling with this non-traditional essay is to just have fun! This is a great and unique opportunity to show your interests, personality, and what sets you apart as a person. I’m pretty confident that after reading my first blog (The Top 10 Reasons Why I Chose Fuqua), you thought to yourself, “Wow, this Trevor McKinnon sounds like an awesome guy. I wish I could get to know him better.” Well, it’s your lucky day! Below are some random things about me, and although this is not the same list I submitted as part of my application, it should give you the gist: 1. I was born in the US, raised in the UK, and have citizenship in both countries. 2. I played alto saxophone in a jazz nightclub in Prague. 3. My daughter’s name is Surrey. No, not because of Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes’ daughter (Suri) and not because of the iPhone app (Siri), but because Surrey is where I grew up in England. And yes, people ask me those 2 questions all the time. 4. Surrey is spoiled: she had been to Disneyland more than 10 times before the age of 18 months, even though she’s never lived in California. My wife is from Orange County, so we would visit her family frequently while living in Utah, which always included multiple trips to Disneyland to get the most out of our......

Words: 788 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

All About Psychology

...------------------------------------------------- “Hey Mom, What’s on Your Facebook? Comparing Facebook Disclosure and Privacy in Adolescents and Adults “ Abstract: People of all ages are increasingly exposed to online environments that encourage them to share and connect with others. However, there is a perception that adolescents are particularly susceptible to these cues and share more online than do other age groups. With a group of 288 adolescents and 285 adults, we explored differences and similarities in use of Facebook for information sharing and use of the controls to protect their privacy. Adolescents reported disclosing more information on Facebook and using the privacy settings less than adults. Despite these differences, the results indicated that adolescents and adults were more similar than different in the factors that predicted information disclosure and control. Adolescents spent more time on Facebook, which partially mediated the relationship between group (adolescents vs. adults) and disclosure. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between group and information control, with adults having higher self-esteem than adolescents. Readings: Keywords privacy, self-disclosure, social media, online communication The news is filled with stories about the dangers of sharing personal information online, the difficulties in protecting personal privacy, and the privacy challenges of websites such as Google and Facebook.......

Words: 11724 - Pages: 47

Free Essay

All About Eve

...Alec Tejeda Shcmidt “All Abound Eve” All about Eve is a dramatic film in the fifties, that got many academy awards nominations, and won six of the fourteen nominations. I have always enjoyed, the slow transition of changing a character during a film or TV series, I am fully aware it is no easy task, and the character with the most settle, yet enormous change during this film has definitely have to be Anne Baxter. The beginning of the movie was very dull for her character, there was nothing really outstanding about it, and made me question why this actress was nominated for an academy award. Her counterpart, Bette Davis would easily catch my attention because of her cockiness, and Anne Baxter's fascination with Bette Davis's character certainly made Bette Davis a lot more interesting. However during the course of this film, it was all about Eve. So, the film starts with a ceremony, introducing pretty much all the characters, and making sure you notice how Eve receives the award, then the film proceeds with a flash back, explaining how all these characters got together in this same room. As for now Eve is introduced as a humble and respectful character, her fascination for Margo and her plays drive her to meeting Margo one day. When she does Eve tells Margo and her friends about her sad story, but since the character is so dull, up to this point, it didn't affect me one bit, She eventually becomes her secretary/maid which proceeds doing anything she can to please her......

Words: 794 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

It's All About the Literature

...It’s all about the Literature Heather Henegar Grand Canyon University: RDG-514 July 2, 2015 It’s All About the Literature As with any area in curriculum and instruction, teachers should not be fully dependent on one source, but rather use a variety of resources to help students understand content. The same can be said with the use of textbooks. Teachers should supplement core curriculum with quality trade books (GCU, 2012). Trade books can offer a wealth of information such as a means to expand vocabulary, clarify concepts, explore real-world situations, and entertain (GCU, 2012). Furthermore, Johnson & Small, (2008) stated, “In contrast to textbooks, nonfiction trade books can support instruction in nearly every subject…which allows a teacher to front-load experiences with a concept” (p. 132). The following table lists trade books that can be used to enhance and supplement instruction in Math, Science, Social Studies, and Reading within a fourth-grade classroom. Book Title | Content Area | Summary | Appropriateness | Standards | Millions, Billions & Trillions by David A. Adler & Edward Miller (2013) | Math | In this book, Adler helps students to connect large numbers to other things they already know. There are also hands-on activities that can be done, such as using one-fourth cup of sugar to illustrate what a million might look like. This book also tells students how long it would take to count to a million, billion, and trillion (Adler &......

Words: 3506 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

All About Computer

...------------------------------------------------- Who is the father of the computer? There are hundreds of people who have major contributions to the field of computing. The following sections detail the primary founding fathers of computing, the computer, and the personal computer we all know and use today. Father of computing Charles Babbage was considered to be the father of computing after his invention and concept of the Analytical Engine in 1837. The Analytical Engine contained an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), basic flow control, and integrated memory; hailed as the first general-purpose computer concept. Unfortunately, because of funding issues this computer was never built while Charles Babbage was alive. However, in 1910 Henry Babbage, Charles Babbage's youngest son was able to complete a portion of the machine that could perform basic calculations. In 1991, the London Science Museum completed a working version of the Analytical Engine No 2. This version incorporated Babbage's refinements developed during the creation of the Analytical Engine. Although Babbage never completed his invention in his lifetime, his radical ideas and concepts of the computer are what make him the father of computing. Father of the computer There are several people who could be considered as the father of the computer including Alan Turing, John Atanasoff, and John von Neumann. However, for the purpose of this document we're going to be considering Konrad Zuse as the father of......

Words: 6884 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

All About Home Insurance

...Word count – 831 All about Home Insurance Home is where the heart stays. In the world of inflation and recession, owning a dream house becomes next to impossible, but the financial institutions lend a helping hand in providing the required loan to acquire the property. With many difficulties after relentless survey, the loan approval process, credit score clearance, the much awaited home comes to hand. Now, this home contains the hard earned money, precious possessions and immense memories. It becomes important to save the home from various calamities by insuring appropriately. An insurance cover for the home alone is not adequate; instead an accurate home insurance which covers all the possible liabilities is required. Very few Indians are aware of the home insurance policy that covers fire disasters and other hazards. Unfortunately, the majority of the home owners are ignorant of the benefits. Approximations of the National Disaster Management Authority, according to which about 60% of the Indian land mass, are prone to earthquakes, while 8% of the country is vulnerable to cyclones and especially Southeast Asia is more susceptible to disasters. Advantages: The benefits of home insurance are immense. - Can be applied and obtained online. Home insurance is easy to apply either online or at the nearest branch office. Applying online reduces the hassle of visiting the bank, thus reduces the time. - Comes at an affordable premium package......

Words: 814 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

All About Race

...t Ra All About Race – Checkpoint: Tracee Sigler According to the textbook there is not clear and scientific way to classify races because the genetic pool has been diluted from years past. IQ is the short name for the Intelligence Quotient. This is the ratio of a person’s mental age calculated by a test that is geared toward his or her age and multiplied by 100. From what the textbook states the issues of culture between Blacks and Whites in reference to IQ testing is biased and remains an unresolved concern. This test has been biased in stating that on average Whites has a higher IQ than Blacks. This is eliminated when looking and applying a curve within social and economical factors or rather characteristics. Race is a social construction that presumes benefits for the people who are oppressing minority groups or rather the privileged and those who are not privileged. It only supports the dominant race or races. Again, according to the textbook, racism is a doctrine that one race is more superior to the other. I am and have been a constant victim of racism. I moved to Oregon several years ago and had to fight for my own personal freedoms. I was constantly stopped by police and everywhere I looked there were police officers following me and my family. I organized a chapter of the NAACP in the community where I lived. The locals were highly offended by this. They were of the dominate race, White. After organizing this group and getting laws passed......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Pfizer-All About the Company

...biotherapeutics company specializing in preclinical oncology and metabolic research Table of Contents 1. Mission 2. Strategy 3. Operation 4. Marketing 5. Human Resources 6. Financials 7. Team Self Analysis 8. Group Member Evaluation Mission Pfizer is very much concern with good health for all and finding sustainable solutions to the health care challenges of our changing world cannot be overemphasized. That’s why Pfizer are committed to be a global leader in health care and to helping change millions of lives for the better through providing access to safe, effective, and affordable medicines and related health care services to the people who need them. We have a leading portfolio of medicines that prevent, treat, and cure diseases across a broad range of therapeutic areas, and an industry-leading pipeline of new products in areas such as oncology, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In our efforts to ensure that we deliver the value our patients and customers need and our shareholders deserve, we are focused on continually improving the way we do business by listening to the views of all of the people involved in health care decisions. We can best ensure that people everywhere have access to innovative medicines and quality health care through working in partnership with everyone from patients to health care providers, managed care organizations to world governments and non-governmental organizations. We......

Words: 7035 - Pages: 29