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计算机辅助制造概论
An Introduction to Computer Aided Manufacturing
郑联语 教授
机械工程及自动化学院 工业与制造系统工程系(720)
办公电话:82317725 电子邮件: lyzheng@buaa.edu.cn

内容提纲
1 制造工程的发展方向——计算机(现代)集成制造 2 制造自动化技术 刚性和柔性的制造自动化 3 制造工程中的 CAD/CAM技术 4 柔性制造系统(FMS) 5 计算机(现代)集成制造系统(CIMS)

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

制造工程的发展方向—CIM
1 制造工程的发展方向——计算机(现代)集成制造
• 20世纪80年代,工业发达国家,相继启动高技术发展计划 – 美国,战略防御计划 – 法国,尤里卡(EURECA)计划 计划内容大体相似,集中在:电子信息、新材料、新能源、生物、新型 生产体系、宇航、海洋等几大方面。 • 1986年3月,我国提出实施高技术研究与发展计划(863计划) 七个领域: 生物工程; 电子信息技术; 激光技术; 航天技术; 自动化技术(包括计算机集成制造、智能机器人两个主题) 新能源; 新材料;

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机集成制造及其技术基础
• 计算机集成制造(CIM, Computer Integrated Manufacturing) (1)目标: 将企业内从产品构思到出厂的各个生产环节的所有活动都置 于计算机的统一管理控制之下,采用各种CAX技术,由网络和数据库建立 联系和资源共享,从而提高企业整体效益,达到综合自动化。 (2)企业效果:20多年来,先后有200多家企业(国内)实施了或正在实施 CIMS取得明显的经济效益和社会效益,同时也面临很大挑战与问题。 如90年代成都飞机、北京一机床、沈阳鼓风机、杭州汽轮机、郑州 纺织、广东华宝、重庆长安等。 (3)教育态势:欧美国家的重要理工科大学大都建立了与CIM有关的研 究所或实验室,大多数大学还开设了CIM相关技术的课程。 • CIM的技术基础是CAD/CAM, 将各种CAX有机集成。 本质是制造自动化。

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

制造自动化技术
2 制造自动化技术
连续流水作业 自始至终流水作业 传感器用于监测或监控 应用综合控制与优化策略 全部实现计算机化的操作 组合机床和自动机床 自动传输装置 局部或全部自动化装配 机器人用于焊接、装配、喷漆 计算机过程监测或监控 数控机床(NC) 计算机数控(CNC) 直接数字控制(DNC) 自适应控制 机器人应用 柔性制造单元或系统(FMC/FMS) 计算机集成制造系统(CIMS) 数控机床(NC) 计算机数控(CNC)

刚性 自动化

大量生产

成批生产

柔性 自动化
单件生产

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

刚性自动化(Fixed Automation)
2.1 刚性自动化(Fixed Automation)——大批量生产自动化
简史: 19世纪70年代出现 (1873年第一台凸轮控制机床), 1940年后期进入成熟阶段 • 典型模式:美国底特律,福特(Ford)汽车生产线,节拍1辆/分(20年代) 称为福特模式。 长春一汽:奥迪52秒;捷达/宝来38秒(2003); • 生产形式: 按产品加工或装配过程依次安排设备,由物料运送装置连接起来, 按固定节拍和规定的加工顺序依次经过各个工序和工位。 • 特征: 初期投资高; 高生产率;低柔性(低适应性); • 应用场合: 单品种、大批量、工艺过程不变、 有严格的流水性和节拍 • 应用产品: 汽车、发动机、电机、轴承、 工具、标准件等 •
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

刚性自动生产线

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

自动线

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

柔性自动化(Flexible Automation)
2.2 柔性自动化(Flexible Automation)——中小批量生产自动化
背景:(1)需求多样化 ==〉多品种、中小批量==〉刚性自动化不适应 (2)微电子、计算机技术应用到制造领域==〉柔性自动化成为可能 典型模式: 单台数控加工 (Numerical Control)机床 (可编程自动化) 直接数控(Direct Numerical Control ,DNC)(群控) 柔性制造单元(Flexible Manufacturing Cell, FMC) 柔性制造系统(Flexible Manufacturing System, FMS) 计算机集成制造系统(CIMS) 特征: 高投资、中等生产率、高柔性(产品对象可变、工艺过程可变)

应用场合:多品种、中小批量; 形状复杂;精度高 应用产品: 飞机、发动机 、模具等
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CAD/CAM的概念与范畴
3 制造工程中的 CAD/CAM技术
• 制造的含义与范畴 (1)狭义:通过机器进行产品制作或生产。 如机械加工过程,焊接过程,冲压过程等。 (2)广义:(CIRP,国际生产研究组织,1990) 一个涉及制造工业中产品设计、材料选择、生产计划、生产过程、 质量保证、经营管理、市场营销与服务的一系列相关活动与工作的总称。 包括产品的整个生命周期(Product Life Cycle)的过程。 • 概括性分为两大部分:CAD与CAM CAD(Computer Aided Design):用于产品设计过程的各个环节。 包括: 概念设计、总体设计、零部件设计、绘图(形成设计文档)。 CAM:用于产品制造过程中的工艺准备、过程控制、生产计划和管理 等各个环节。

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CAD/CAM的主要内容
(1)计算机辅助概念设计(CACD, CA-Conceptual Design ) (2)计算机辅助几何造型(GM, Geometry Modelling) (3)计算机辅助工程分析(CAE, CA-Engineering) (4)计算机辅助绘图(CAD, CA-Drafting) (5)计算机辅助工艺设计(CAPP, CA-Process Planning) (6)计算机辅助数控编程(NCP, Numerical Control Programming) (7)计算机辅助夹具设计(CAFD, CA-Fixture Design) (8)制造执行系统(MES,Manufacturing Execution System) MRP/MRPII ——制造系统仿真 (9)过程控制/监控(CNC,DNC,FMC,FMS,Robot) (10)计算机辅助质量控制(CAQ, CA-Quality )

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

制造工程中的CAD/CAM技术
CACD
产品设计过程

GM

CAE

CAD

设计构思
型式、外形、内饰、色彩 总体尺寸、总体布局

结构设计
装配结构 零部件结构

工程分析
空间干涉? 强度、重量? 抗振性? 耐热性?

绘图

用户市场
产品 (飞机、汽车)

计算机监控(直接应用)

设计或定购 设备与工艺装备

CAPP

CAFD
质量控制
检测 试验 产品制造过程 机加 冲压 焊接 装配 。。。

制造

采购 原材料、零部件

工艺设计

MES
生产计划与调度
支持性应用(间接应用)

CAQ

CNC,DNC,FMC, FMS,Robot

制造系统仿真

NCP

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CAM的分类--直接与间接应用
1. 计算机监控(直接应用) 监测(monitor) 控制(control) 计算机与生产过程之间有硬件接口相连,直接参与控制生产设备。 如传感器、A/D-D/A转换器等。 特征:在线(on-line)、加工现场 2. 支持性应用(间接应用) 计算机与生产过程之间没有硬件接口相连,不直接参与控制生产 设备。 起“助手”和“参谋”作用。 特征:离线(off-line)、技术办公室

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

直接数字控制(DNC)
采用小型机,控制加工、 自动编程、安排生产计划、 管理生产状况 采用磁盘、光盘。 存储全部零件的NC程序

计算机网络

执行数控指令, 控制机床动作; 输入NC程序。

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

三台 SGI工作站 (UGII软件)

五台 微机 (AutoCAD, Cimatron软件)

磁带机

激光打印机 DNC(直接数控) Direct/Distributed Numerical Control

网络服务器 (共享EDBMS)
远程通信 调制解调器

DNC服务器
绘图仪 集线器

无盘工作站 (PC机) RS-232 异步 通信 数控设备
工作站

CNC
线切割机

CNC
坐标磨床

CNC
3轴铣床

CNC
5轴铣床

CNC
加工中心

CNC
正方铣

CNC
三坐标测 量机

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

柔性制造单元(FMC)

演示: 日本 Mazak 汽车 发动机 壳体 FMC

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

柔性制造系统(FMS)
美国沃特航宇公司:生产B-1轰炸机机身零件
自动检验站 手工检验站 装卸站 控制中心 小车管理区

自动导引小车 备用停放区 CNC加工中心 北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授 自动切屑清除系统 零件清洗站

计算机集成制造系统(860系列CIM教学系统)

托盘

(机器视觉——机械臂运动导引) (精密测量)
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助概念设计(CACD)

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助几何造型(GM) (1)
装配模型
汽 车 的 车 身 与 发 动 机

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助几何造型 (GM) (2)
零件模型

汽 车 底 盘 的 转 向 节

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助工程分析(CAE) (1)

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助工程分析(CAE) (2)
超音速飞机气动仿真分析

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助工程分析(CAE) (3)

自动武器射击时的振动分析

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助绘图(CA-Drafting)

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助工艺设计(CAPP)

汽 车 底 盘 零 件 CAPP

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CAPP—工序图生成

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CAPP—工艺卡片生成

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助数控编程(NCP)
手工编程 自动编程 交互式编程

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

数控加工仿真

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助夹具设计(CAFD)

工 装 实 例 树 综合工装配置求解 工 序 设 计 中 的 工 装 选 择
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助飞机装配工装设计

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

计算机辅助质量控制/管理( CAQ)
坐标测量机

控制图 测量数据

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

DELMIA 系统质量保证模块-坐标测量机编程

CMM 演示

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

(汽车、飞机等产品的)大尺寸测量

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

内容提纲
1 制造工程的发展方向——计算机(现代)集成制造 2 制造自动化技术 刚性和柔性的制造自动化 3 制造工程中的 CAD/CAM技术 4 柔性制造系统(FMS) 5 计算机(现代)集成制造系统(CIMS)

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

柔性制造系统(FMS)—概念
3. FMS的定义 FMS是一种以数控机床、加工中心、机器人、自动导引小 车(AGV)等自动化设备为基础,在计算机控制和管理下 的的多品种、中小批量的自动化生产系统或单元,它兼有较 高的生产率和较高的柔性,能够适应品种和生产量的变化。

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

柔性制造模块(FMM)

主轴 刀具存储架 托盘

托盘架

托盘支承
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

柔性制造单元(FMC)

装卸站

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

柔性制造系统(FMS)
自动检验站 手工检验站 装卸站 控制中心

自动导引小车 备用停放区
8

CNC加工中心 自动切屑清除系统 北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

零件清洗站

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

FMS实例

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

柔性制造系统(FMS)——组成(1)
FMS = CNC设备 + MHS + DSS MHS: Material Handling System (物料运储系统) DSS: Decision Support System (决策支持系统)

MHS

CNC DSS
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

FMS的应用举例
1. 美国通用电气公司(GE)的电动机机座FMS (教材P198) 2. 英国罗-罗航空发动机公司的盘轴零件FMS; (36台,6个月,36人/班)==〉(16台,2个月,10人/班) 3. 意大利菲亚特(FIAT)公司的汽车装配FMS; 15亿美元,109台计算机,439个机器人,570辆AGV, 49个监测系统。 同一生产线同时生产不同型号的汽车,并可以根据市场或 顾客的需要,随时更换车型和产量。 4. 日本丰田汽车公司(Toyato)的柔性车体生产线; Flexible Body Line. 车型更换时间降为原来的1/5。

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CIMS——产生背景
1、CIMS的产生背景: (1) 技术有了坚实基础 加工过程自动化:NC, CNC,DNC, FMC,FMS, Robotics. 产品/工艺设计自动化: CAD, CAE, CAPP, NCP 生产管理自动化: MRP(材料需求计划), MRPII (制造资源计划) SFC(Shop Floor Control, 车间现场控制), IM(Inventory management, 库存管理) 上述单元技术形成了很多局部的“自动化独立岛” (Automatic Island), 需要综合起来,达到全局优化和综合自动化。 (2) 市场有了迫切要求 产品生命周期越来越短,产品型号与规格日益增多, 质量、价格、交货期的竞争越来越激烈。 要求建立响应多品种、小批量的动态多变的市场要求的先进/新型制造模 式
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CIMS的两个基本观点
2. CIMS的基本观点
1973年,美国的Harrinton(哈林顿)首次提出了CIMS的概念。 两个观点: (1) 企业各生产环节是不可分割的整体,需要紧密连接,统一考虑。 (系统工程观点) (2) 整个生产过程实质上是一个信息采集、传递和加工处理的过程,最 终形成的产品可以看成是数据的物质表现。 (信息流观点) 两个结论: (1) CIMS在功能上包含了一个企业的全部生产经营活动。 (2) CIMS涉及的自动化不是计算机或各个单元子系统自动化的简单相 加,而需要有机集成。 “物质(物料、设备)集成” + “信息集成” + “人的集成”
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CIMS集成企业的全部信息处理过程
产品设计

经营管理

制造规划

制造控制
北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CIMS的定义
3. CIMS的定义(中国863计划,1998) 将信息技术、现代管理技术和制造技术相结合,并应用 于企业产品全生命周期(从市场需求分析到最终报废处理) 的各个阶段。通过信息集成、过程优化和资源优化,实现 物流、信息流、价值流(资金流)的集成与优化运行,达 到人(组织、管理)、经营和技术三要素的集成。以加强 企业新产品开发的时间(T)、质量(Q)、成本(C)、 服务(S)和环境(E),从而提高企业的市场应变能力和 竞争能力。

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CIMS的组成
MIS: Management Information System 管理信息系 统

TIS: Technical Information System 技术信息系统

CAQ: CA Quality 质量管理系统

MAS: Manufacturing Automatic System 制造自动化系统 北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720)

郑联语 教授

CIMS的主要特征

1。采用各种自动化单元技术 2。依赖于强大的数据库和网络技术 3。强调提高企业的总体效益,最求全局优化 4。强调按系统观点进行设计、规划,分步实施 (复杂、投资 达、周期长、风险大) 开放式系统结构,自上而下设计,自下而上实施。 5。十分重视人的作用。(人的智能与软、硬件结合) “人件” : People-ware , Human-ware

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

CIMS的发展概况
美国国家标准技术研究院(NIST),1986年建立了一个CIMS实验室, 称为自动化研究制造基地(AMRF,Automated Manufacturing Research Facilities) 我国科技部投资于1994年建成国内第一个CIMS工程研究中心(CIMERC, Engineering Research Center),设在清华大学精仪系。 (CIMS系统结构见教材图9-4) 20多年来,我国先后有200多家企业实施了或正在实施CIMS取得明显 的经济效益和社会效益。 如 成都飞机、北京一机床、沈阳鼓风机、杭州 汽轮机、郑州纺织、广东华宝、重庆长安等。  教育态势:欧美国家和我国的重要理工科大学大都建立了与CIM有关 的研究所或实验室,大多数大学还开设了CIM相关技术的课程。

北航 机械学院 工业与制造系统工程系 IMSE(720) 郑联语 教授

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