Premium Essay

Alpine Glacier Reconstruction

In: Science

Submitted By mjdlht
Words 789
Pages 4
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA

Last Time
Glaciers and Glacial Mechanics
• • Types of glaciers (alpine) Formation of glacial ice • Movement of ice

GY 301: Geomorphology
Lecture 22: Glacial Geomorphology 1: Alpine Glaciers http://www.roberts-1.com/t/s07 Glaciers
Glaciers are thick masses of ice that originate on land through the accumulation of snow.

Glaciers
Glaciers are thick masses of ice that originate on land through the accumulation of snow. Glaciers form through a 3 step process Snow Firn Glacial Ice

All that is required is for more snow to fall in the cold winter months than melts in the warm summer months. http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/01/25/4a/ee/in-the-mountains-above.jpg http://www.ig.utexas.edu

Alpine Glaciers
Alpine or Valley Glaciers
(Zone of Accumulation; Zone of Wasting/Ablation, Calving,)

Ice Movement
Ice moves down slope from the zone of accumulation to the zone of ablation due to a combination of plastic flow and basal slip.

http://www.scienceclarified.com/images/uesc_05_img0282.jpg

http://stloe.most.go.th/html/lo_index/LOcanada3/305/images/5_2.jpg

http://nevis.k12.mn.us/academics/science/glacier_hor_profile1.jpg

1

Ice Movement
Ice moves down slope from the zone of accumulation to the zone of ablation due to a combination of plastic flow and basal slip.
Slip

Geological Effects of Glaciers
Ice exerts tremendous erosive force on bedrock forming unique geomorphologic features and transporting great quantities of sediment …. … to be continued http://www.kschapterc.org/album-mead/23.jpg Firn 50 m

Flow

Today’s Lecture
Glacial Geomorphology (alpine variety)
• • Erosive features Depositional features

Alpine Glaciers and Erosion
When alpine glaciers form and advance, significant changes to the terrain will occur
Before Glaciation...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

A Gis‐Based Reconstruction of Little Ice Age Glacier Maximum Extensions for South Tyrol, Italy

...Research Article  A GIS‐based reconstruction of Little Ice Age glacier maximum  extensions for South Tyrol, Italy    5 Christoph Knoll    Department of Geography  University of Innsbruck          Hanns Kerschner        Department of Geography    University of Innsbruck    Armin Heller   10     Philipp Rastner  15 20 25 30 35 40 Department of Geography     Institute for Applied Remote Sensing  University of Innsbruck     EURAC Bolzano    Keywords: Little Ice Age, glacier reconstruction, glacier development, GIS    Abstract  A reconstruction method of historical glacier topographies and a possibility of the usage  of these results are demonstrated in this paper. This reconstruction was accomplished  for 310 Alpine glaciers in South Tyrol, Italy. These glaciers are featured with a wealth of  different  historical  (e.g.  paintings,  photographs  and  historical  maps)  and  recent  data  sources  (airborne  laser  scan  based  digital  terrain  model  and  digital  orthophotos)  that  allow  the  reconstruction  of  the  Little  Ice  Age  maximum  extension.  These  sources  are  among the best historical and recent documents of glaciers for the mid 19th century.  The  results  of  this  reconstruction  visualize  the  ongoing  climate  change  in  a  comprehensive way. The area changes between the time of the Little Ice Age maximum  extent  (around  the  year  1850)  and  the  recent  glaciation  in  2006  amounts  in ......

Words: 4089 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Hellocolle

...TPO TPO Applied Arts and Fine Arts..............................................................................................................2 Opportunists and Competitors......................................................................................................3 Lascaux Cave Paintings ...................................................................................................................4 Electricity from Wind......................................................................................................................5 Meteorite Impact and Dinosaur Extinction ..................................................................................6 Groundwater ...................................................................................................................................7 The Origins of Theater....................................................................................................................8 Timberline Vegetation on Mountains ...........................................................................................9 Architecture....................................................................................................................................10 The Origin of the Pacific Island People .......................................................................................17 The Geologic History of the Mediterranean......

Words: 2761 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Global Warming

...feed our children.” (Jaime Baily 14). Climate change has become a very contested and debated matter. Some scientists say that the earth is warming; skeptics contend that it is cooling. Glaciologists say that the polar ice on earth is melting, and skeptics say that Antarctic ice is growing. Skeptics-that have also concluded that the earth is warming-point out that the earth has gone through many such warming periods (interglacials or periods of desertification) in between cooling periods and that these are natural cycles. But the long-running debate over whether or not global warming is anthropogenic is arriving to its end. Not only it is caused by man, it’s real, it’s here. All across the world, in every place known to man, glaciers and ice-sheets are melting, the average temperature is increasing and dangerous weather events are occurring as an integrated response to green house gases produced by man’s activity such as motor vehicles, factories, fossil fuel plants, etc . We are already suffering the consequences of the global warming...

Words: 3299 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Germany Mba Research Paper

...Table of Contents: Item Topic ….. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Educational System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Famous Historical Germans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Landshut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 9431 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Germany

...INSTITUTE OF LANGUAGES NAME: HUSSAIN NIZZAMI SESSION: 2012-2013 SUBMITTED TO: MAM MARIA MALDONADO TOPIC: GERMANY HISTORY & CULTURE UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB Table of Contents: Item Topic Page Geography 3 History 5 Government 10 Economy 12 Industry 15 Educational System 20 Famous Historical Germans 23 Culture ...

Words: 9395 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Bhutan

...bout [pic] [pic] Welcome to Bhutan – the Land of the Thunder Dragon one of the most sought after travel destinations today. The land of the thunder dragon kingdom is a trekker’s paradise and an environmentalist’s dream. With 72 percent of the country under forest cover, Bhutan’s pristine ecology is home to rare and endangered flora and fauna. This spiritual land is the last bastion of the Vajrayana school of Mahayana Buddhism which provides the essence of a unique identity for the 750,000 people. Bhutan is a unique blend of the old and new. Here is a country that is slowly opening up to the modern world in a fine balance with its ancient traditions. Those fortunate enough to visit Bhutan describe it as a unique, deeply spiritual and mystical experience. This kingdom is an adventure like no other. Facts and Figures Land area: 38,394 square kilometres Forest area: 72.5 % Altitude: between 240metres and 7541metres above sea level Inhabitants: 634,982 Language: official language “Dzongkha”, English widely spoken Religion: Vajrayana stream of Mahayana Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism) Currency: Ngultrum (equal to Indian Rupee) Capital: Thimphu National Tree: Cypress (Cupressus torolusa) Its capacity to survive on rugged harsh terrain is compared to bravery and simplicity. National Bird: Raven: It ornaments the royal crown. Raven represents the deity Gonpo Jarodongchen (raven headed Mahakala), one of...

Words: 9230 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

Rock Climbers Perception of Responsible Tourism in Waterval Boven

...CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Tourism is, according to the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (2002a), the world’s largest economical sector. In 2002, tourism in South African had a growth rate of 11.1 % in foreign arrivals from the previous year. That accounted for 6,4 million foreign tourists (South African Tourism, 2003). In 2003 it grew with another 1.2 % to 6,5 million tourists (South African Tourism, 2004), and in 2004, the number had increased to more than 6,8 million foreign tourists that visited South Africa (Geldenhuys, 2005:10). This shows that South Africa is becoming a popular travel destination among tourists. South Africa is a diverse country with many unique cultures and historical significances. South African Tourism have established that tourists experienced the hospitality and friendliness of the South African people as the most satisfactory of their visit in South Africa (Geldenhuys, 2005:10), and in a recent international survey done by American Express (Geldenhuys, 2005:10), South Africa was rated as the second-cheapest destination. Attractions such as Table Mountain, Robben Island, the Garden Route, Namaqualand, the Cradle of Human Kind, the Kruger National Park, the Drakensberg Mountains, and Soweto are just some of the South African examples (South African Tourism, 2005a). The towns and cities of South Africa such as Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Cape Town also serve as attractions (South African Tourism,......

Words: 18829 - Pages: 76

Free Essay

English Study

...文勇的新托福精选阅读(原黄金29篇)真题[2010年4月3日 5.8版本] 俺常常收到同学们的邮件,要我推荐各种各样阅读材料,问我iBT的复习资料中 Barron, Longman, Delta等等哪个更好。我其实很无奈---因为尽管这些机构很大牌,但大牌丝毫都不意味着文章“质量高”(比如你可以想想三鹿奶粉)---说这些机构的文章质量不高,并不是说文字写得不好,而是说这些文章的句子结构, 论述方式, 出题思路与ETS的并不一致(有时候甚至大相径庭):用这样的材料训练,实在是 事倍功半。 于是,我们实在应该去找找由ETS出的iBT文章来做:(我们能够找到的|由ETS编纂的标准iBT文章有) 1. OG[1]之中的13篇文章[2];(其中3篇为第三版OG之中的文章) 2. 13次(套)TPO[3]之中的3*13=39篇文章[4]; 3. 早期[5]报名之时ETS赠送的3篇在线测试题 4. ETS官方给出的模考软件之中抽出的1篇文章; 于是这个文档在我的一时兴起之下,出现了: OG拿在手上,可以一个个字的敲成电子版;TPO的所有考试都是在自己的计算机进行,于是可以一边花钱参加考试,一边截图与录像---再利用截下来的图片,逐个的敲下来;早期的ETS赠送的3篇在线测试题,我也恰好有电子版本;官方的模考软件稍微用点功夫,就能将文章提取并复制出来。虽然工作有些繁杂,但总算完成了所有文章的敲打工作。再花了些时间,把这53篇文章都做了答案,附在文章的后面。(由于TPO之中有3篇文章与OG中完全重复,于是减去3篇,只剩下53篇。)同时我还更正了OG上几个明显的错误(详见文后附录)当然,我还做出了方便大家理解文章的参考译文,附在文章的后面。 在这53篇由ETS出的文章没有做完之前,我们实在不应该花时间在任何其他的题目之上。我有时候甚至会对着我的弟兄们高呼:“没有把这53篇做3遍,你好意思上考场么?你好意思花钱在任何一本垃圾书上面么?[6]” 另外,如果你正在准备iBT-SAT-GRE的作文部分或者写留学文书,也应该仔细的琢磨一下这些文章:经过ETS打磨的文章,无一不是精妙绝伦,极具模仿价值。常常有同学拜托我帮她(他)写PS,也说起自己的句子怎么看都像是小学生写的(尽管用上了GRE里面的单词),于是会随口问我“勇哥,您的写作能力是怎么训练出来的。”我说,“看呗,看呗:托福文章看多了,写作能力自然就提高了。” “这ETS的这些文章真的那么好?”。每当听到这个问题,我都会装做赵本山的样子来一句“谁用谁知道~~” 文勇 欢迎进行未删节的转载|且不必告诉我你转载到哪里去|都是一个战壕里面的弟兄啊… 告诉大家一个好消息,本文档中的TPO1-TPO9,以及在线测试题和官方模考题目的解析已经在市面上可以买到了!(好吧,我承认以下显然是广告部分): 这本《托福真题详解-阅读分卷-第一册》是给弟兄们现在市面上可以获得的TPO1-TPO9阅读部分的文章解析,题目解析,中文翻译和每篇文章的必备词汇:文章解析是为了让大家养成从整体抓文章结构的感觉,题目解析是为了使大家能够在做完题之后知道正确选项为什么对,错误选项为什么错——并且因此来培养良好的做题思路,中文翻译是为了帮助大家扫除那些自以为理解对但实际理解有误的句子,在每篇文章后面配上必备词汇无非是为了节省大家的一些查单词而已。 另外,这本书还包含了一张CD(我想你可能第一次听说阅读书...

Words: 138860 - Pages: 556

Premium Essay

Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality

...Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality By the same author Britain – Workshop or Service Centre to the World? The British Hotel and Catering Industry The Business of Hotels (with H. Ingram) Europeans on Holiday Higher Education and Research in Tourism in Western Europe Historical Development of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart) Holiday Surveys Examined The Management of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart eds) Managing Tourism (ed.) A Manual of Hotel Reception (with J.R.S. Beavis) Paying Guests Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry (with D.W. Airey) Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century (with A. Lockwood eds) Tourism and Productivity Tourism Council of the South Pacific Corporate Plan Tourism Employment in Wales Tourism: Past, Present and Future (with A.J. Burkart) Trends in Tourism: World Experience and England’s Prospects Trends in World Tourism Understanding Tourism Your Manpower (with J. Denton) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality S. Medlik Third edition OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803 First published 1993 Reprinted (with amendments) 1994 Second edition 1996 Third edition 2003 Copyright © 1993, 1996, 2003, S. Medlik. All rights reserved The right of S. Medlik to be identified as the author of this work has been......

Words: 133754 - Pages: 536

Premium Essay

Jared Diamond Collapse

...COLLAPSE HOW S O C I E T I E S CHOOSE TO FAIL OR S U C C E E D JARED DIAMOND VIK ING VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi—110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 13579 10 8642 Copyright © Jared Diamond, 2005 All rights reserved Maps by Jeffrey L. Ward LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Diamond, Jared M. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-670-03337-5 1. Social history—Case studies. 2. Social change—Case studies. 3. Environmental policy— Case studies. I. Title. HN13. D5 2005......

Words: 235965 - Pages: 944

Free Essay

500 Extraordinary Islands

...500 extraordinary islands G R E E N L A N D Beaufort Sea Baffin Bay vi Da i tra sS t a nm De it Stra rk Hudson Bay Gulf of Alaska Vancouver Portland C A N A D A Calgary Winnipeg Newfoundland Quebec Minneapolis UNITED STATES San Francisco Los Angeles San Diego Phoenix Dallas Ottawa Montreal ChicagoDetroitToronto Boston New York OF AMERICA Philadelphia Washington DC St. Louis Atlanta New Orleans Houston Monterrey NORTH AT L A N T I C OCEAN MEXICO Guadalajara Mexico City Gulf of Mexico Miami Havana CUBA GUATEMALA HONDURAS b e a n Sea EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA Managua BAHAMAS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC JAMAICA San Juan HAITI BELIZE C a r PUERTO RICO ib TRINIDAD & Caracas N TOBAGO A COSTA RICA IA M PANAMA VENEZUELA UYANRINA H GU C U G Medellín A PAC I F I C OCEAN Galapagos Islands COLOMBIA ECUADOR Bogotá Cali S FR EN Belém Recife Lima BR A Z I L PERU La Paz Brasélia Salvador Belo Horizonte Rio de Janeiro ~ Sao Paulo BOLIVIA PARAGUAY CHILE Cordoba Santiago Pôrto Alegre URUGUAY Montevideo Buenos Aires ARGENTINA FALKLAND/MALVINAS ISLANDS South Georgia extraordinary islands 1st Edition 500 By Julie Duchaine, Holly Hughes, Alexis Lipsitz Flippin, and Sylvie Murphy Contents Chapter 1 Beachcomber Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Aquatic Playgrounds 2 Island Hopping the Turks & Caicos: Barefoot Luxury 12 Life’s a Beach 14 Unvarnished & Unspoiled 21......

Words: 249855 - Pages: 1000

Free Essay

Asdasdasd

...[pic] FIRST ARMY EQUAL OPPORTUNITY REPRESENTATIVE COURSE STUDENT GUIDE TO CULTURAL AWARENESS INDEX LESSON TITLE PAGE 1 Philosophical Aspects of Culture SG- 3 C1 Native American Experience SG- 4 C2 White American Experience SG- 23 C3 Arab American Experience SG- 43 C4 Hispanic American Experience SG- 53 C5 Black American Experience SG- 76 C6 Asian American Experience SG-109 C7 Jewish American Experience SG-126 C8 Women in the Military SG-150 C9 Extremist Organizations/Gangs SG-167 STUDENTS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR BEING FAMILIARIZED WITH ALL CLASS MATERIAL PRIOR TO CLASS. INFORMATION PAPER ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE Developed by Edwin J. Nichols, Ph.D. |Ethnic Groups/ |Axiology |Epistemology |Logic |Process | |World Views | | | | | |European |Member-Object |Cognitive |Dichotomous |Technology | |Euro-American |The highest value lies in the object |One knows through counting......

Words: 63019 - Pages: 253

Premium Essay

Cure Your Tooth

...Mantesh TABLE OF CONTENTS Cure Tooth Decay Book Description Foreword By Timothy Gallagher D.D.S. President of the Holistic Dental Association Introduction 100% Real Dental Healing Testimonials Leroy from Utah Ms. Steuernol from Alberta , Canada Mike from Ashland , Oregon Pioneering Tooth Cavity Remineralization CHAPTER 1 DENTISTRY'S INABILITY TO CURE CAVITIES Reaffirm Your Choice to Cure Your Cavities The Real Cause of Cavities Remembering Your Connection Fear of the Dentist How Conventional Dentistry Works Micro-organisms Conventional Dentistry’s Losing Battle Against Bacteria The Failure of Conventional Dentistry Chapter 1 References CHAPTER 2 DENTIST WESTON PRICE DISCOVERS THE CURE Lack of Nutrition is the Cause of Physical Degeneration The Healthy People of the Loetschental Valley, Switzerland Modern Swiss were Losing Their Health The Healthy People of the Outer Hebrides Gaelics on Modern Foods are Losing Their Health Genetics and Tooth Decay Aborigines of Australia Nutritive Values of Diets Compared Fat-soluble Vitamins and Activators Mantesh Why Tooth Decay with Modern Civilization? Weston Price's Tooth Decay Curing Protocol Dr. Price's Protocol Summarized Chapter 2 References CHAPTER 3 MAKE YOUR TEETH STRONG WITH FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS How Teeth Remineralize 101 Hormones and Tooth Decay Cholesterol The Miracle of Vitamin D Vital Fat-Soluble Vitamin A Cod Liver Oil Heals Cavities Weston Price’s Activator X More......

Words: 66501 - Pages: 267

Free Essay

Translation

...HUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH ------***------ NGUYEN VAN TUAN TRANSLATION 5 HUE - 2006 1 INTRODUCTION TRANSLATION 5 is a basic course book written for the second-year students of the Department of English, College of Foreign Languages, Hue University. It is intended to equip the students with an overview of translating Vietnamese and English scientific texts. It also helps the students get familiar with the terms related to science and technology as well as the typical structures frequently used in scientific and technological texts. Since the course book has been written for the students to learn either by themselves or in class with a teacher, there will be a course book and assignments. The course book contains the Vietnamese and English socio-politic texts with notes and suggested translations. The assignments contain the Vietnamese and English socio-politic texts that will be translated into either English or Vietnamese by the students. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: - obtain general knowledge of the Vietnamese and English scientific and technological documents. - get familiar with and effectively use scientific and technological terms and typical structures of scientific and technological texts in their translations. - accurately translate scientific and technological texts into English and Vietnamese. On the completion of this course book, I would like to......

Words: 34454 - Pages: 138

Free Essay

State of the World

...Barbados Barbados is a North American sovereign island country located in the Caribbean. The capital of this state is Bridgetown. This state raised its head as an independent state in 1966 after being a Colony of the British Empire for almost 350 years. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 439 Square km | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 277,821 | 5.Currency | Barbadian Dollar | 3.Language | Barbadian | 6.GDP Rate | $16,653 | The main resources of Barbados are Petroleum, Fish, Natural gas, Sugarcane etc. The national symbols of Barbados are Neptune's trident, pelican, and Red Bird of Paradise flower (also known as Pride of Barbados). In Barbados Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the State and represented locally by Governor General which is at present Elliott Belgrave. These two heads are advised by the Prime Minister of Barbados who is also the Head of the Government on matters of Barbadian state. The current Prime Minister of Barbados is Freundel Stuart. ...

Words: 64439 - Pages: 258